Abstract

A method of fabricating replica figured x-ray optics with integral multilayer coatings is presented. With the intact electroforming multilayer process (IEMP) technique, we sputter multilayers onto a reusable superpolished mandrel, electroform nickel over the multilayers, and remove the multilayer-coated nickel shell intact from the mandrel. This approach offers advantages over more traditional, original, and segmented-replica fabrication techniques, including low cost; compatibility with a wide range of mirror designs, diameters, and focal lengths; simple integration with multilayer sputtering processes; and the ability to produce complete shells of revolution. The fabrication of W/Si multilayer-coated 10-cm-diameter conical x-ray mirrors is described, as are reflectivity measurements at 10 and 30 keV. The measured reflectivity of the IEMP multilayers at the 10-keV primary Bragg peak was 17%. Measurements of multiple points on the cone showed multilayer uniformity to within a few percent around the mirror.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Li, E. Cutiongco, Y.-W. Chung, M.-S. Wong, W. D. Sproul, “Review of synthesis and characterization of amorphous carbon nitride thin films,” Diamond Films Technol. 5, 261–273 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]

2002

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. A. McLaughlin, J. M. Cordes, “The gamma-ray pulsar population,” Astrophys. J. 538, 818–830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weisskopf, B. Brinkman, C. Canizares, G. Garmire, S. Murray, L. P. van Speybroeck, “An overview of the performance and scientific results from the Chandra X-ray observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Kinzer, W. R. Purcell, J. D. Kurfess, “Gamma-ray emission from the inner galactic ridge,” Astrophys. J. 515, 215–225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Isenberg, D. Q. Lamb, J. C. L. Wang, “Effects of the geometry of the line-forming region on the properties of cyclotron resonant scattering lines,” Astrophys. J. 505, 688–714 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. The, D. D. Clayton, J. Jin, B. S. Meyer, “Nuclear reactions governing the nucleosynthesis of 44Ti,” Astrophys. J. 504, 500–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Reynolds, “Models of synchrotron X-rays from shell supernova remnants,” Astrophys. J. 493, 375–396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Windt, “IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

F. X. Timmes, S. E. Woosley, “Gamma-ray line signals from supernovae within 100 MPC,” Astrophys. J. 489, 160–169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McLaughlin, J. M. Cordes, M. P. Ulmer, “Gamma-ray pulsar luminosities,” AIP Conf. Proc. 410, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “The soft gamma repeaters as very strongly magnetized neutron stars. II. Quiescent neutrino, x-ray, and Alfven wave emission,” Astrophys. J. 473, 322–342 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zdziarski, W. N. Johnson, P. Magdziarz, “Broad-band gamma-ray and X-ray spectra of NGC 4151 and their implications for physical processes and geometry,” Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 283, 193–206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. Li, E. Cutiongco, Y.-W. Chung, M.-S. Wong, W. D. Sproul, “Review of synthesis and characterization of amorphous carbon nitride thin films,” Diamond Films Technol. 5, 261–273 (1995).

1993

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. D. Blandford, J. P. Ostriker, “Particle acceleration by astrophysical shocks,” Astrophys. J. 221, L29–L32 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bell, “The acceleration of cosmic rays in shock fronts. II,” Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 182, 443–455 (1978).

Altkorn, R.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aschenbach, B.

B. Aschenbach, “In-orbit performance of the XMM-Newton x-ray telescope: images and spectra,” in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy: Telescopes, Multilayers, Spectrometers, and Missions, P. Gorenstein, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE4496, 8–22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bell, A. R.

A. R. Bell, “The acceleration of cosmic rays in shock fronts. II,” Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 182, 443–455 (1978).

Bennett, K.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bertsch, D. L.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blandford, R. D.

R. D. Blandford, J. P. Ostriker, “Particle acceleration by astrophysical shocks,” Astrophys. J. 221, L29–L32 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bloemen, H.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, S. D.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brinkman, B.

M. C. Weisskopf, B. Brinkman, C. Canizares, G. Garmire, S. Murray, L. P. van Speybroeck, “An overview of the performance and scientific results from the Chandra X-ray observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brun, R. J.

S. E. Romaine, A. Ivan, R. J. Brun, F. E. Christensen, F. A. Harrison, W. W. Craig, P. Gorenstein, “Multilayer optics for hard x-ray astronomy,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 120–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, D.

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, R. A.

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Canizares, C.

M. C. Weisskopf, B. Brinkman, C. Canizares, G. Garmire, S. Murray, L. P. van Speybroeck, “An overview of the performance and scientific results from the Chandra X-ray observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, F. E.

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

S. E. Romaine, A. Ivan, R. J. Brun, F. E. Christensen, F. A. Harrison, W. W. Craig, P. Gorenstein, “Multilayer optics for hard x-ray astronomy,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 120–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.-W.

D. Li, E. Cutiongco, Y.-W. Chung, M.-S. Wong, W. D. Sproul, “Review of synthesis and characterization of amorphous carbon nitride thin films,” Diamond Films Technol. 5, 261–273 (1995).

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, D. D.

L. S. The, D. D. Clayton, J. Jin, B. S. Meyer, “Nuclear reactions governing the nucleosynthesis of 44Ti,” Astrophys. J. 504, 500–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cline, T.

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cordes, J. M.

M. A. McLaughlin, J. M. Cordes, “The gamma-ray pulsar population,” Astrophys. J. 538, 818–830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McLaughlin, J. M. Cordes, M. P. Ulmer, “Gamma-ray pulsar luminosities,” AIP Conf. Proc. 410, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Craig, W. W.

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

S. E. Romaine, A. Ivan, R. J. Brun, F. E. Christensen, F. A. Harrison, W. W. Craig, P. Gorenstein, “Multilayer optics for hard x-ray astronomy,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 120–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cutiongco, E.

D. Li, E. Cutiongco, Y.-W. Chung, M.-S. Wong, W. D. Sproul, “Review of synthesis and characterization of amorphous carbon nitride thin films,” Diamond Films Technol. 5, 261–273 (1995).

Diehl, R.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dieters, S.

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dingus, B. L.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, R. C.

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “The soft gamma repeaters as very strongly magnetized neutron stars. II. Quiescent neutrino, x-ray, and Alfven wave emission,” Astrophys. J. 473, 322–342 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, J. A.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fichtel, C. E.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finger, M. H.

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frederiks, D. D.

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, J. S.

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, G.

M. C. Weisskopf, B. Brinkman, C. Canizares, G. Garmire, S. Murray, L. P. van Speybroeck, “An overview of the performance and scientific results from the Chandra X-ray observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Golenetskii, S.

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

S. E. Romaine, A. Ivan, R. J. Brun, F. E. Christensen, F. A. Harrison, W. W. Craig, P. Gorenstein, “Multilayer optics for hard x-ray astronomy,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 120–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grabelsky, D. A.

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J. R.

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Graham, M.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hailey, C. J.

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Halverson, M.

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, F. A.

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

S. E. Romaine, A. Ivan, R. J. Brun, F. E. Christensen, F. A. Harrison, W. W. Craig, P. Gorenstein, “Multilayer optics for hard x-ray astronomy,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 120–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, R. C.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hermsen, W.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hester, J. J.

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hillis, D. A.

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, S. D.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, K.

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Husain, A. M.

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Isenberg, M.

M. Isenberg, D. Q. Lamb, J. C. L. Wang, “Effects of the geometry of the line-forming region on the properties of cyclotron resonant scattering lines,” Astrophys. J. 505, 688–714 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ivan, A.

S. E. Romaine, A. Ivan, R. J. Brun, F. E. Christensen, F. A. Harrison, W. W. Craig, P. Gorenstein, “Multilayer optics for hard x-ray astronomy,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 120–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iyudin, A. F.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiminez-Garate, M.

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

L. S. The, D. D. Clayton, J. Jin, B. S. Meyer, “Nuclear reactions governing the nucleosynthesis of 44Ti,” Astrophys. J. 504, 500–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. N.

A. A. Zdziarski, W. N. Johnson, P. Magdziarz, “Broad-band gamma-ray and X-ray spectra of NGC 4151 and their implications for physical processes and geometry,” Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 283, 193–206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. V.

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kader, A.

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanbach, G.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kinzer, R. L.

R. L. Kinzer, W. R. Purcell, J. D. Kurfess, “Gamma-ray emission from the inner galactic ridge,” Astrophys. J. 515, 215–225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kniffen, D. A.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kouveliotou, C.

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krieger, A. S.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurfess, J. D.

R. L. Kinzer, W. R. Purcell, J. D. Kurfess, “Gamma-ray emission from the inner galactic ridge,” Astrophys. J. 515, 215–225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B. P.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, D. Q.

M. Isenberg, D. Q. Lamb, J. C. L. Wang, “Effects of the geometry of the line-forming region on the properties of cyclotron resonant scattering lines,” Astrophys. J. 505, 688–714 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lebrun, F.

F. Lebrun, J. Paul, “The main lessons from the SIGMA mission for the future of hard x-ray and soft gamma ray instrumentation for astronomy,” in EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy III, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE1743, 155–161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, E. Cutiongco, Y.-W. Chung, M.-S. Wong, W. D. Sproul, “Review of synthesis and characterization of amorphous carbon nitride thin films,” Diamond Films Technol. 5, 261–273 (1995).

Lichti, G. G.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madan, A.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Magdziarz, P.

A. A. Zdziarski, W. N. Johnson, P. Magdziarz, “Broad-band gamma-ray and X-ray spectra of NGC 4151 and their implications for physical processes and geometry,” Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 283, 193–206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, D. C.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mao, P.

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

MayerHasselwander, H. A.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazets, E.

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, L. M.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
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McLaughlin, M. A.

M. A. McLaughlin, J. M. Cordes, “The gamma-ray pulsar population,” Astrophys. J. 538, 818–830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McLaughlin, J. M. Cordes, M. P. Ulmer, “Gamma-ray pulsar luminosities,” AIP Conf. Proc. 410, 633–637 (1997).
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Meyer, B. S.

L. S. The, D. D. Clayton, J. Jin, B. S. Meyer, “Nuclear reactions governing the nucleosynthesis of 44Ti,” Astrophys. J. 504, 500–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michel, F. C.

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michelson, P. F.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mori, K.

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mucke, A.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, R.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
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M. C. Weisskopf, B. Brinkman, C. Canizares, G. Garmire, S. Murray, L. P. van Speybroeck, “An overview of the performance and scientific results from the Chandra X-ray observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1–24 (2000).
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Nolan, P. L.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ostriker, J. P.

R. D. Blandford, J. P. Ostriker, “Particle acceleration by astrophysical shocks,” Astrophys. J. 221, L29–L32 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J.

F. Lebrun, J. Paul, “The main lessons from the SIGMA mission for the future of hard x-ray and soft gamma ray instrumentation for astronomy,” in EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy III, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE1743, 155–161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, M.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, W. R.

R. L. Kinzer, W. R. Purcell, J. D. Kurfess, “Gamma-ray emission from the inner galactic ridge,” Astrophys. J. 515, 215–225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reimer, O.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, S. P.

S. P. Reynolds, “Models of synchrotron X-rays from shell supernova remnants,” Astrophys. J. 493, 375–396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Romaine, S. E.

S. E. Romaine, A. Ivan, R. J. Brun, F. E. Christensen, F. A. Harrison, W. W. Craig, P. Gorenstein, “Multilayer optics for hard x-ray astronomy,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 120–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schneid, E.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schonfelder, V.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scowen, P.

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sproul, W. D.

D. Li, E. Cutiongco, Y.-W. Chung, M.-S. Wong, W. D. Sproul, “Review of synthesis and characterization of amorphous carbon nitride thin films,” Diamond Films Technol. 5, 261–273 (1995).

Sreekumar, P.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strickman, M. S.

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Strohmayer, T.

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, P. Z.

P. Z. Takacs, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 North Technology St., Upton N.Y. 11973 (personal communication, 2002).

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

The, L. S.

L. S. The, D. D. Clayton, J. Jin, B. S. Meyer, “Nuclear reactions governing the nucleosynthesis of 44Ti,” Astrophys. J. 504, 500–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C.

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “The soft gamma repeaters as very strongly magnetized neutron stars. II. Quiescent neutrino, x-ray, and Alfven wave emission,” Astrophys. J. 473, 322–342 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. J.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Timmes, F. X.

F. X. Timmes, S. E. Woosley, “Gamma-ray line signals from supernovae within 100 MPC,” Astrophys. J. 489, 160–169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ulmer, M. P.

M. A. McLaughlin, J. M. Cordes, M. P. Ulmer, “Gamma-ray pulsar luminosities,” AIP Conf. Proc. 410, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van der Meulen, R. D.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Paradijs, J.

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Speybroeck, L. P.

M. C. Weisskopf, B. Brinkman, C. Canizares, G. Garmire, S. Murray, L. P. van Speybroeck, “An overview of the performance and scientific results from the Chandra X-ray observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Montigny, C.

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. C. L.

M. Isenberg, D. Q. Lamb, J. C. L. Wang, “Effects of the geometry of the line-forming region on the properties of cyclotron resonant scattering lines,” Astrophys. J. 505, 688–714 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weisskopf, M. C.

M. C. Weisskopf, B. Brinkman, C. Canizares, G. Garmire, S. Murray, L. P. van Speybroeck, “An overview of the performance and scientific results from the Chandra X-ray observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. S.

D. S. Windt, “IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, C.

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M.-S.

D. Li, E. Cutiongco, Y.-W. Chung, M.-S. Wong, W. D. Sproul, “Review of synthesis and characterization of amorphous carbon nitride thin films,” Diamond Films Technol. 5, 261–273 (1995).

Woods, P.

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woosley, S. E.

F. X. Timmes, S. E. Woosley, “Gamma-ray line signals from supernovae within 100 MPC,” Astrophys. J. 489, 160–169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zdziarski, A. A.

A. A. Zdziarski, W. N. Johnson, P. Magdziarz, “Broad-band gamma-ray and X-ray spectra of NGC 4151 and their implications for physical processes and geometry,” Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 283, 193–206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc.

M. A. McLaughlin, J. M. Cordes, M. P. Ulmer, “Gamma-ray pulsar luminosities,” AIP Conf. Proc. 410, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

M. A. McLaughlin, J. M. Cordes, “The gamma-ray pulsar population,” Astrophys. J. 538, 818–830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Isenberg, D. Q. Lamb, J. C. L. Wang, “Effects of the geometry of the line-forming region on the properties of cyclotron resonant scattering lines,” Astrophys. J. 505, 688–714 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Kouveliotou, T. Strohmayer, K. Hurley, J. van Paradijs, M. H. Finger, S. Dieters, P. Woods, C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “Discovery of a magnetar associated with the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900 + 14,” Astrophys. J. 510, L115–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hurley, C. Kouveliotou, P. Woods, E. Mazets, S. Golenetskii, D. D. Frederiks, T. Cline, J. van Paradijs, “Precise interplanetary network localization of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR 1627-41,” Astrophys. J. 519, L143–L145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Thompson, R. C. Duncan, “The soft gamma repeaters as very strongly magnetized neutron stars. II. Quiescent neutrino, x-ray, and Alfven wave emission,” Astrophys. J. 473, 322–342 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Reynolds, “Models of synchrotron X-rays from shell supernova remnants,” Astrophys. J. 493, 375–396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Kinzer, W. R. Purcell, J. D. Kurfess, “Gamma-ray emission from the inner galactic ridge,” Astrophys. J. 515, 215–225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hester, K. Mori, D. Burrows, J. S. Gallagher, J. R. Graham, M. Halverson, A. Kader, F. C. Michel, P. Scowen, “Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra monitoring of the Crab Synchrotron Nebula,” Astrophys. J. 577, L49–L52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Mukherjee, D. L. Bertsch, S. D. Bloom, B. L. Dingus, J. A. Esposito, C. E. Fichtel, R. C. Hartman, S. D. Hunter, G. Kanbach, D. A. Kniffen, Y. C. Lin, H. A. MayerHasselwander, L. M. McDonald, P. F. Michelson, C. von Montigny, A. Mucke, P. L. Nolan, M. Pohl, O. Reimer, E. Schneid, P. Sreekumar, D. J. Thompson, “EGRET observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from blazars: an update,” Astrophys. J. 490, 116–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. S. The, D. D. Clayton, J. Jin, B. S. Meyer, “Nuclear reactions governing the nucleosynthesis of 44Ti,” Astrophys. J. 504, 500–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Timmes, S. E. Woosley, “Gamma-ray line signals from supernovae within 100 MPC,” Astrophys. J. 489, 160–169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Blandford, J. P. Ostriker, “Particle acceleration by astrophysical shocks,” Astrophys. J. 221, L29–L32 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser.

W. N. Johnson, R. L. Kinzer, J. D. Kurfess, M. S. Strickman, W. R. Purcell, D. A. Grabelsky, M. P. Ulmer, D. A. Hillis, G. V. Jung, R. A. Cameron, “The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment. Instrument description,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 86, 693–712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys.

D. S. Windt, “IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Films Technol.

D. Li, E. Cutiongco, Y.-W. Chung, M.-S. Wong, W. D. Sproul, “Review of synthesis and characterization of amorphous carbon nitride thin films,” Diamond Films Technol. 5, 261–273 (1995).

Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc.

A. A. Zdziarski, W. N. Johnson, P. Magdziarz, “Broad-band gamma-ray and X-ray spectra of NGC 4151 and their implications for physical processes and geometry,” Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 283, 193–206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bell, “The acceleration of cosmic rays in shock fronts. II,” Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 182, 443–455 (1978).

Nature (London)

A. F. Iyudin, V. Schonfelder, K. Bennett, H. Bloemen, R. Diehl, W. Hermsen, G. G. Lichti, R. D. van der Meulen, J. Ryan, C. Winkler, “Emission from 44Ti associated with a previously unknown galactic supernova,” Nature (London) 396, 142–144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp.

W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. Jiminez-Garate, D. L. Windt, F. A. Harrison, P. Mao, F. E. Christensen, A. M. Husain, “Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Exp. 7, 178–185 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

M. C. Weisskopf, B. Brinkman, C. Canizares, G. Garmire, S. Murray, L. P. van Speybroeck, “An overview of the performance and scientific results from the Chandra X-ray observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. E. Romaine, A. Ivan, R. J. Brun, F. E. Christensen, F. A. Harrison, W. W. Craig, P. Gorenstein, “Multilayer optics for hard x-ray astronomy,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 120–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. S. Krieger, C. Liu, B. P. Lai, D. C. Mancini, P. Z. Takacs,“Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” in X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Lebrun, J. Paul, “The main lessons from the SIGMA mission for the future of hard x-ray and soft gamma ray instrumentation for astronomy,” in EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy III, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE1743, 155–161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Aschenbach, “In-orbit performance of the XMM-Newton x-ray telescope: images and spectra,” in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy: Telescopes, Multilayers, Spectrometers, and Missions, P. Gorenstein, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE4496, 8–22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 North Technology St., Upton N.Y. 11973 (personal communication, 2002).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the mandrel and the principal coatings. The electroless-nickel-coated aluminum mandrel was supplied by Hyperfine Inc. All other coatings were deposited at Northwestern University.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of a multilayer-coated IEMP mirror following removal from the mandrel and trimming.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectivity at 30 keV. The solid curve shows the experimental results. The dashed–dotted curve shows theoretical reflectivity for the model multilayer (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectivity at 10 keV (two rotated mirror positions). The solid curves show the experimental results. The dashed–dotted curves show the theoretical reflectivity for the model multilayer (see text).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffuse scattering intensity image obtained with a CCD. The vertical columns of the CCD pixels correspond to different scattering angles as indicated by the top horizontal axis. Also superposed is a plot of the integrated intensity profile. The inset shows the schematic representation of the diffused scattering from the curved surface. The incident angle θ is defined from the average surface, indicated by the dashed line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical profiler scan of a segment cut from mirror 1 (see text) along the optical axis averaged over 55 μm in the direction perpendicular to the optical axis.

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