Abstract

The optical responses of two sides of float glass in the soft-x-ray region were studied at the Indus-1 synchrotron facility. To the best of our knowledge these are the first experimentally obtained optical data for both sides of float glass in the soft-x-ray region. Optical constants δ and β were determined by use of angle-dependent reflectance techniques in the wavelength range 80–200 Å. On the side of the glass that was tin indiffused, a significant difference in δ value from that of the non-tin-side surface was observed. The measured data were compared with Henke’s tabulated value of SiO2. The surface roughness of float glass was separately determined by hard-x-ray reflectivity to minimize the number of fitting variables. The effect of a contamination layer on the determination of optical constants was avoided by an appropriate sample-cleaning method.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (3)

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Sae-lao, R. Soufli, “Measurements of the refractive index of yttrium in the 50–1300-eV energy region,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7309–7316 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

2001 (3)

R. M. Richardson, R. M. Dalgliesh, T. Brennan, M. R. Lovell, A. C. Barnes, “A neutron reflection study of the effect of water on the surface of float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292, 93–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayashi, K. Matsumoto, M. Kudo, “The diffusion mechanism of tin into glass governed by redox reactions during the float process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 282, 188–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayashi, R. Akiyama, M. Kudo, “Surface characterization of float glass related to changes in the optical properties after reheating,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, R. Barchewitz, J. M. Andre, M. Idir, Ph. Stemmler, “Optical constants of amorphous SiO2 from photons in the range of 60–3000 eV,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 3355–3370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (4)

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Lodha, S. Pandita, A. Gupta, R. V. Nandedkar, K. Yamashita, “Thermal induced structural modification in Pt/C x-ray multilayer mirrors fabricated by electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 29–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Grimal, P. Chartier, P. Lehuédé, “X-ray reflectivity: a new tool for the study of glass surfaces,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 128–133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Filatova, A. I. Stepanov, V. A. Luk’yanov, “Dispersion of optical constants of amorphous SiO2 in the energy region between 50 and 900 eV,” Opt. Spectrosc. 81, 416–420 (1996).

1995 (1)

P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski, R. Bruckner, “Characterization of the tin diffusion into float glass using glancing angle x-ray characterization,” Adv. X-Ray Anal. 38, 705–709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Huppauff, B. Lengeler, “Surface analysis of float glass by means of x-ray absorption, reflection, and fluorescence analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 785–791 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Akiyama, R.

Y. Hayashi, R. Akiyama, M. Kudo, “Surface characterization of float glass related to changes in the optical properties after reheating,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andre, J. M.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, R. Barchewitz, J. M. Andre, M. Idir, Ph. Stemmler, “Optical constants of amorphous SiO2 from photons in the range of 60–3000 eV,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 3355–3370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arendt, P.

Barchewitz, R.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, R. Barchewitz, J. M. Andre, M. Idir, Ph. Stemmler, “Optical constants of amorphous SiO2 from photons in the range of 60–3000 eV,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 3355–3370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, A. C.

R. M. Richardson, R. M. Dalgliesh, T. Brennan, M. R. Lovell, A. C. Barnes, “A neutron reflection study of the effect of water on the surface of float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292, 93–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berman, L.

Z. Yin, L. Berman, S. Dierker, E. Defresne, D. P. Siddons, “A simple x-ray focusing mirror using float glass,” in Optics for High Brightness Synchrotron Radiation Beamlines II, L. E. Berman, J. Arthur, eds., Proc. SPIE2856, 307–313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

Brennan, T.

R. M. Richardson, R. M. Dalgliesh, T. Brennan, M. R. Lovell, A. C. Barnes, “A neutron reflection study of the effect of water on the surface of float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292, 93–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, R.

P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski, R. Bruckner, “Characterization of the tin diffusion into float glass using glancing angle x-ray characterization,” Adv. X-Ray Anal. 38, 705–709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Can, N.

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, L. R.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cash, W. C.

Chandler, P. J.

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, P.

J. M. Grimal, P. Chartier, P. Lehuédé, “X-ray reflectivity: a new tool for the study of glass surfaces,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 128–133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dalgliesh, R. M.

R. M. Richardson, R. M. Dalgliesh, T. Brennan, M. R. Lovell, A. C. Barnes, “A neutron reflection study of the effect of water on the surface of float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292, 93–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Defresne, E.

Z. Yin, L. Berman, S. Dierker, E. Defresne, D. P. Siddons, “A simple x-ray focusing mirror using float glass,” in Optics for High Brightness Synchrotron Radiation Beamlines II, L. E. Berman, J. Arthur, eds., Proc. SPIE2856, 307–313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, S.

Diel, I.

Dierker, S.

Z. Yin, L. Berman, S. Dierker, E. Defresne, D. P. Siddons, “A simple x-ray focusing mirror using float glass,” in Optics for High Brightness Synchrotron Radiation Beamlines II, L. E. Berman, J. Arthur, eds., Proc. SPIE2856, 307–313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Farmery, B. W.

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Filatova, E.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, R. Barchewitz, J. M. Andre, M. Idir, Ph. Stemmler, “Optical constants of amorphous SiO2 from photons in the range of 60–3000 eV,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 3355–3370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Filatova, E. O.

E. O. Filatova, A. I. Stepanov, V. A. Luk’yanov, “Dispersion of optical constants of amorphous SiO2 in the energy region between 50 and 900 eV,” Opt. Spectrosc. 81, 416–420 (1996).

Fisher, R. F.

Friedrich, J.

Grimal, J. M.

J. M. Grimal, P. Chartier, P. Lehuédé, “X-ray reflectivity: a new tool for the study of glass surfaces,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 128–133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. H.

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, A.

G. S. Lodha, S. Pandita, A. Gupta, R. V. Nandedkar, K. Yamashita, “Thermal induced structural modification in Pt/C x-ray multilayer mirrors fabricated by electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 29–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, Y.

Y. Hayashi, R. Akiyama, M. Kudo, “Surface characterization of float glass related to changes in the optical properties after reheating,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayashi, K. Matsumoto, M. Kudo, “The diffusion mechanism of tin into glass governed by redox reactions during the float process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 282, 188–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huppauff, M.

M. Huppauff, B. Lengeler, “Surface analysis of float glass by means of x-ray absorption, reflection, and fluorescence analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 785–791 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Idir, M.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, R. Barchewitz, J. M. Andre, M. Idir, Ph. Stemmler, “Optical constants of amorphous SiO2 from photons in the range of 60–3000 eV,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 3355–3370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

Korde, R.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, M.

Y. Hayashi, R. Akiyama, M. Kudo, “Surface characterization of float glass related to changes in the optical properties after reheating,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayashi, K. Matsumoto, M. Kudo, “The diffusion mechanism of tin into glass governed by redox reactions during the float process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 282, 188–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, C.

LaPuma, P. J.

P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski, R. Bruckner, “Characterization of the tin diffusion into float glass using glancing angle x-ray characterization,” Adv. X-Ray Anal. 38, 705–709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lehuédé, P.

J. M. Grimal, P. Chartier, P. Lehuédé, “X-ray reflectivity: a new tool for the study of glass surfaces,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 128–133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

M. Huppauff, B. Lengeler, “Surface analysis of float glass by means of x-ray absorption, reflection, and fluorescence analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 785–791 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lodha, G. S.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

G. S. Lodha, S. Pandita, A. Gupta, R. V. Nandedkar, K. Yamashita, “Thermal induced structural modification in Pt/C x-ray multilayer mirrors fabricated by electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 29–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Heredero, R.

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lovell, M. R.

R. M. Richardson, R. M. Dalgliesh, T. Brennan, M. R. Lovell, A. C. Barnes, “A neutron reflection study of the effect of water on the surface of float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292, 93–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luk’yanov, V. A.

E. O. Filatova, A. I. Stepanov, V. A. Luk’yanov, “Dispersion of optical constants of amorphous SiO2 in the energy region between 50 and 900 eV,” Opt. Spectrosc. 81, 416–420 (1996).

Lukyanov, V.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, R. Barchewitz, J. M. Andre, M. Idir, Ph. Stemmler, “Optical constants of amorphous SiO2 from photons in the range of 60–3000 eV,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 3355–3370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, K.

Y. Hayashi, K. Matsumoto, M. Kudo, “The diffusion mechanism of tin into glass governed by redox reactions during the float process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 282, 188–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Modi, M. H.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Müller, B. R.

Nandedkar, R. V.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Lodha, S. Pandita, A. Gupta, R. V. Nandedkar, K. Yamashita, “Thermal induced structural modification in Pt/C x-ray multilayer mirrors fabricated by electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 29–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, M.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Newnam, B.

Pandita, S.

G. S. Lodha, S. Pandita, A. Gupta, R. V. Nandedkar, K. Yamashita, “Thermal induced structural modification in Pt/C x-ray multilayer mirrors fabricated by electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 29–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peto, A.

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phillipp, H. R.

H. R. Phillipp, “Silicon dioxide (SiO2) (glass),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1998), pp. 749–763.

Pinneo, J. M.

Raghuvanshi, V. K.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Richardson, R. M.

R. M. Richardson, R. M. Dalgliesh, T. Brennan, M. R. Lovell, A. C. Barnes, “A neutron reflection study of the effect of water on the surface of float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292, 93–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sae-lao, B.

Salvin, L.

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scott, M.

Siddons, D. P.

Z. Yin, L. Berman, S. Dierker, E. Defresne, D. P. Siddons, “A simple x-ray focusing mirror using float glass,” in Optics for High Brightness Synchrotron Radiation Beamlines II, L. E. Berman, J. Arthur, eds., Proc. SPIE2856, 307–313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, A. K.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Snyder, R. L.

P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski, R. Bruckner, “Characterization of the tin diffusion into float glass using glancing angle x-ray characterization,” Adv. X-Ray Anal. 38, 705–709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994).
[CrossRef]

Stemmler, Ph.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, R. Barchewitz, J. M. Andre, M. Idir, Ph. Stemmler, “Optical constants of amorphous SiO2 from photons in the range of 60–3000 eV,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 3355–3370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. I.

E. O. Filatova, A. I. Stepanov, V. A. Luk’yanov, “Dispersion of optical constants of amorphous SiO2 in the energy region between 50 and 900 eV,” Opt. Spectrosc. 81, 416–420 (1996).

Swatzlander, A. B.

Takacs, P. Z.

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, P.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Underdown, D.

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verma, A.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Vest, R. E.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

Yamashita, K.

G. S. Lodha, S. Pandita, A. Gupta, R. V. Nandedkar, K. Yamashita, “Thermal induced structural modification in Pt/C x-ray multilayer mirrors fabricated by electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 29–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z.

Z. Yin, L. Berman, S. Dierker, E. Defresne, D. P. Siddons, “A simple x-ray focusing mirror using float glass,” in Optics for High Brightness Synchrotron Radiation Beamlines II, L. E. Berman, J. Arthur, eds., Proc. SPIE2856, 307–313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zdzieszynski, S.

P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski, R. Bruckner, “Characterization of the tin diffusion into float glass using glancing angle x-ray characterization,” Adv. X-Ray Anal. 38, 705–709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. X-Ray Anal. (1)

P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski, R. Bruckner, “Characterization of the tin diffusion into float glass using glancing angle x-ray characterization,” Adv. X-Ray Anal. 38, 705–709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

G. S. Lodha, S. Pandita, A. Gupta, R. V. Nandedkar, K. Yamashita, “Thermal induced structural modification in Pt/C x-ray multilayer mirrors fabricated by electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 29–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Sci. (1)

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Huppauff, B. Lengeler, “Surface analysis of float glass by means of x-ray absorption, reflection, and fluorescence analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 785–791 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

R. M. Richardson, R. M. Dalgliesh, T. Brennan, M. R. Lovell, A. C. Barnes, “A neutron reflection study of the effect of water on the surface of float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292, 93–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayashi, K. Matsumoto, M. Kudo, “The diffusion mechanism of tin into glass governed by redox reactions during the float process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 282, 188–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, N. Can, P. J. Chandler, B. W. Farmery, R. Lopez-Heredero, A. Peto, L. Salvin, D. Underdown, B. Yang, “Comparison of tin depth profile analyses in float glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 223, 73–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Grimal, P. Chartier, P. Lehuédé, “X-ray reflectivity: a new tool for the study of glass surfaces,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 128–133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, R. Barchewitz, J. M. Andre, M. Idir, Ph. Stemmler, “Optical constants of amorphous SiO2 from photons in the range of 60–3000 eV,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 3355–3370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

E. O. Filatova, A. I. Stepanov, V. A. Luk’yanov, “Dispersion of optical constants of amorphous SiO2 in the energy region between 50 and 900 eV,” Opt. Spectrosc. 81, 416–420 (1996).

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

Y. Hayashi, R. Akiyama, M. Kudo, “Surface characterization of float glass related to changes in the optical properties after reheating,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. R. Phillipp, “Silicon dioxide (SiO2) (glass),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1998), pp. 749–763.

Z. Yin, L. Berman, S. Dierker, E. Defresne, D. P. Siddons, “A simple x-ray focusing mirror using float glass,” in Optics for High Brightness Synchrotron Radiation Beamlines II, L. E. Berman, J. Arthur, eds., Proc. SPIE2856, 307–313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectivity profiles of the two sides of float glass measured at λ = 190 Å. The tin-side surface exhibits a larger critical angle because of its larger surface density contributed by diffused tin. Measured data, open circles; best fit to the measured data, solid curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical constants δ and β measured for the non-tin-side surface, shown with corresponding error bars. Optical constants δ and β measured by Diel et al.12 are also shown. The tabulated data for SiO2 given in Ref. 20 are shown by the continuous curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectivity profile at λ = 120 Å, along with the best-fit curve. We obtained the fitted curve by refining the δ and β values of a single surface; the effect of a contamination layer was prevented by use of an appropriate cleaning method as discussed in Subsection 2.B. The plot labeled “residue” shows the quality of fit over the full angular range.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Penetration depth of soft x radiation in SiO2 calculated at λ = 80 Å.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical constants δ and β measured for the tin-side surface shown with corresponding error bars. The tabulated data for SiO2 obtained from Ref. 20 are shown by the continuous curve.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Constants of Non-Tin-Side Surfaces of Float Glass Obtained from Angle-Dependent Reflectivity Measurements

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Constants of Tin-Side Surfaces of Float Glass Obtained from Angle-Dependent Reflectivity Measurements

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rs=|sin θ-n¯2-cos2 θ1/2|2|sin θ+n¯2-cos2 θ1/2|2,
χ2=jRoθj-Rmθj2wj2,

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