Abstract

Thermal behaviors of complex refractive index of merocyanine (MC) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films have been investigated with absorption spectrum measurements, which are obtained from the Kramers-Kronig (K-K) analysis. The complex-refractive-index spectra with an anomalous dispersion around a J-aggregate absorption band of MC molecules are changed by annealing temperatures. This thermal characteristic is attributed to the annealing-changeable MC J-aggregates. The MC J-aggregates in the LB films collapse in the annealing and become a monomer state. The refractive-index dispersion decreased with the collapse of MC J-aggregates. These behaviors are confirmed from the reflection spectrum measurements under the different conditions of incident light to the MC film samples.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2001

1998

Y. Hirano, J. Kawata, Y. F. Miura, M. Sugi, T. Ishii, “Control of aggregate formation in merocyanine Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 327/329, 345–347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Akella, S. L. Sochava, L. Hesselink, “Synthesis and characterization of photochromic organic films for holographic recording,” Opt. Lett. 22, 919–921 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, H. Yokoyama, “Surface plasmon-enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 155–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, K. Nagai, “Single-layer white-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly (N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Miyata, D. Heard, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “Three types of aggregates of spiropyran with long and short hydrophobic alkyl chains,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 175–177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Hickel, G. Appel, D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, “Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers from polymers for low loss planer waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. Miyata, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “H-aggregate of a long-chain crystal violet dye in Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 64, 2786–2791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

1978

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, A. Brillante, M. R. Philpott, “Optical properties of organic dye monolayers by surface plasmon spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4001–4011 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1970

V. Czikkely, H. D. Föresterling, H. Kuhn, “Light absorption and structure of aggregates of dye molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 6, 11–14 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Akella, A.

Appel, G.

W. Hickel, G. Appel, D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, “Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers from polymers for low loss planer waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Berleb, S.

Brillante, A.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, A. Brillante, M. R. Philpott, “Optical properties of organic dye monolayers by surface plasmon spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4001–4011 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Brtting, W.

Czikkely, V.

V. Czikkely, H. D. Föresterling, H. Kuhn, “Light absorption and structure of aggregates of dye molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 6, 11–14 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

Föresterling, H. D.

V. Czikkely, H. D. Föresterling, H. Kuhn, “Light absorption and structure of aggregates of dye molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 6, 11–14 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuhn, H. D. Föresterling, Principles of Physical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 2000).

Gombert, A.

Heard, D.

A. Miyata, D. Heard, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “Three types of aggregates of spiropyran with long and short hydrophobic alkyl chains,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 175–177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

Hickel, W.

W. Hickel, G. Appel, D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, “Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers from polymers for low loss planer waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Higashigaki, Y.

A. Miyata, D. Heard, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “Three types of aggregates of spiropyran with long and short hydrophobic alkyl chains,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 175–177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Miyata, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “H-aggregate of a long-chain crystal violet dye in Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 64, 2786–2791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, Y.

Y. Hirano, J. Kawata, Y. F. Miura, M. Sugi, T. Ishii, “Control of aggregate formation in merocyanine Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 327/329, 345–347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, T.

Y. Hirano, J. Kawata, Y. F. Miura, M. Sugi, T. Ishii, “Control of aggregate formation in merocyanine Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 327/329, 345–347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, J.

Y. Hirano, J. Kawata, Y. F. Miura, M. Sugi, T. Ishii, “Control of aggregate formation in merocyanine Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 327/329, 345–347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, K. Nagai, “Single-layer white-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly (N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, H.

V. Czikkely, H. D. Föresterling, H. Kuhn, “Light absorption and structure of aggregates of dye molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 6, 11–14 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuhn, H. D. Föresterling, Principles of Physical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 2000).

Lemmer, U.

Lupo, D.

W. Hickel, G. Appel, D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, “Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers from polymers for low loss planer waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mckl, A. G.

Miura, Y. F.

Y. Hirano, J. Kawata, Y. F. Miura, M. Sugi, T. Ishii, “Control of aggregate formation in merocyanine Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 327/329, 345–347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, A.

A. Miyata, D. Heard, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “Three types of aggregates of spiropyran with long and short hydrophobic alkyl chains,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 175–177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Miyata, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “H-aggregate of a long-chain crystal violet dye in Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 64, 2786–2791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, K. Nagai, “Single-layer white-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly (N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Penner, T. L.

Philpott, M. R.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, A. Brillante, M. R. Philpott, “Optical properties of organic dye monolayers by surface plasmon spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4001–4011 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, A. Brillante, M. R. Philpott, “Optical properties of organic dye monolayers by surface plasmon spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4001–4011 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Prass, W.

W. Hickel, G. Appel, D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, “Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers from polymers for low loss planer waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

Saito, K.

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, H. Yokoyama, “Surface plasmon-enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 155–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, H. Yokoyama, “Surface plasmon-enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 155–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santo, R.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, A. Brillante, M. R. Philpott, “Optical properties of organic dye monolayers by surface plasmon spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4001–4011 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Scheunemann, U.

W. Hickel, G. Appel, D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, “Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers from polymers for low loss planer waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schildkraut, J. S.

Shionoya, H.

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, K. Nagai, “Single-layer white-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly (N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sochava, S. L.

Sugi, M.

Y. Hirano, J. Kawata, Y. F. Miura, M. Sugi, T. Ishii, “Control of aggregate formation in merocyanine Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 327/329, 345–347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, A. Brillante, M. R. Philpott, “Optical properties of organic dye monolayers by surface plasmon spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4001–4011 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ulman, A.

Unuma, Y.

A. Miyata, D. Heard, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “Three types of aggregates of spiropyran with long and short hydrophobic alkyl chains,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 175–177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Miyata, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “H-aggregate of a long-chain crystal violet dye in Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 64, 2786–2791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wakamatsu, T.

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, H. Yokoyama, “Surface plasmon-enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 155–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willand, C. S.

Wittwer, V.

Yokoyama, H.

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, H. Yokoyama, “Surface plasmon-enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 155–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, K. Nagai, “Single-layer white-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly (N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn.

A. Miyata, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “H-aggregate of a long-chain crystal violet dye in Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 64, 2786–2791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

V. Czikkely, H. D. Föresterling, H. Kuhn, “Light absorption and structure of aggregates of dye molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 6, 11–14 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, A. Brillante, M. R. Philpott, “Optical properties of organic dye monolayers by surface plasmon spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4001–4011 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, H. Yokoyama, “Surface plasmon-enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 155–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Thin Solid Films

A. Miyata, D. Heard, Y. Unuma, Y. Higashigaki, “Three types of aggregates of spiropyran with long and short hydrophobic alkyl chains,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 175–177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hirano, J. Kawata, Y. F. Miura, M. Sugi, T. Ishii, “Control of aggregate formation in merocyanine Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 327/329, 345–347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Hickel, G. Appel, D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, “Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers from polymers for low loss planer waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Kuhn, H. D. Föresterling, Principles of Physical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure of the MC dye used in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of MC-aggregate films changed by heat treatment at various annealing temperature; 40°, 60°, 80°, and 100 °C. The solid curve is one with no annealing (as deposited in the figure). As dep., as deposited.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarized absorption spectra of MC-aggregate films changed by annealing. Solid and dashed curves represent polarized components parallel and perpendicular to the LB dipping direction, respectively. As dep., as deposited.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of collapse model of MC J-aggregates by annealing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Complex refractive index, ñ = n + ik, of the MC LB films as a function of the wavelength, depending on the annealing temperature. The refractive index n(λ) is obtained from the K-K analysis for the absorption spectra data in Fig. 2. The solid curves depict spectra with no annealing. As dep., as deposited.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflection spectra of MC-aggregate films measured at light irradiation from different sides: (a) LB film side and (b) glass substrate side. As dep., as deposited.

Equations (2)

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kλ=-λ log T4πL,
nλ=nb+2λ2π P λminλmaxkλλλ2-λ2 dλ,

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