Abstract

We have theoretically and experimentally investigated an optical fiber with circular polarization modes on one end and linear polarization modes on the other end. We call this fiber a polarization-transforming fiber because the local modes, or polarization states they represent, are converted from linear to circular, and visa versa, in the fiber. We have developed and implemented a postdraw process for making polarization-transforming fiber samples 30 mm long with losses less than 1 dB and a polarization-mode conversion from circular to linear greater than 20 dB. Also, we have modeled and measured the dependence on wavelength and temperature of polarization-transforming fiber samples. The measured normalized wavelength dependence of a sample fiber 30 mm long was approximately 1.4 × 10-4 nm-1, and the measured normalized temperature dependence was approximately 6 × 10-4 °C-1. These values are better in some cases than values for conventional high-birefringent fiber quarter-wave plates.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, D. N. Payne, “Birefringence and polarization mode-dispersion in spun single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2962–2968 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H.-C. Huang, Microwave Approach to Highly Irregular Fiber Optics (Wiley, New York, 1998), Chap. 7 and Appendixes A, B, and C, pp. 198–295.
  3. H.-C. Huang, “Fiber-optic analogs of bulk-optic wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4241–4258 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. H. Rose, “Devitrification effects in annealed optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 808–814 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Jones, “A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems. VII. Properties of the N-matrices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 671–685 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Birkhof, G.-C. Rota, Ordinary Differential Equations, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989).
  7. M. C. Pease, Methods of Matrix Algebra (Academic, New York, 1965).
  8. K. Okamoto, T. Kdahiro, N. Shibata, “Polarization properties of single-polarization fibers,” Opt. Lett. 7, 569–571 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Ourmazd, M. P. Varnham, R. D. Birch, D. N. Payne, “Thermal properties of highly birefringent optical fibers and preforms,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2374–2379 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. X. Short, A. A. Tselikov, J. U. de Arruda, J. N. Blake, “Imperfect quarter-wave plate compensation in Sagnac interferometer-type current sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1212–1219 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, H. Brandle, “Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 336–339 (2000).
  12. K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, P. A. Williams, C. M. Wang, I. G. Clarke, P. D. Hale, G. W. Day, “Design and performance of a stable linear retarder,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6458–6465 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, J. Nehrigh, H. Brandle, “Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 267–276 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

2002

1998

1997

1983

1982

1981

1948

Barlow, A. J.

Birch, R. D.

Birkhof, G.

G. Birkhof, G.-C. Rota, Ordinary Differential Equations, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Blake, J. N.

Bohnert, K.

K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, J. Nehrigh, H. Brandle, “Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 267–276 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, H. Brandle, “Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 336–339 (2000).

Brandle, H.

K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, J. Nehrigh, H. Brandle, “Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 267–276 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, H. Brandle, “Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 336–339 (2000).

Clarke, I. G.

Day, G. W.

de Arruda, J. U.

Gabus, P.

K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, J. Nehrigh, H. Brandle, “Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 267–276 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, H. Brandle, “Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 336–339 (2000).

Hale, P. D.

Huang, H.-C.

H.-C. Huang, “Fiber-optic analogs of bulk-optic wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4241–4258 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Huang, Microwave Approach to Highly Irregular Fiber Optics (Wiley, New York, 1998), Chap. 7 and Appendixes A, B, and C, pp. 198–295.

Jones, R. C.

Kdahiro, T.

Nehrigh, J.

Okamoto, K.

Ourmazd, A.

Payne, D. N.

Pease, M. C.

M. C. Pease, Methods of Matrix Algebra (Academic, New York, 1965).

Ramskov-Hansen, J. J.

Rochford, K. B.

Rose, A. H.

Rota, G.-C.

G. Birkhof, G.-C. Rota, Ordinary Differential Equations, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Shibata, N.

Short, S. X.

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

Tselikov, A. A.

Varnham, M. P.

Wang, C. M.

Williams, P. A.

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Lett.

Other

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

G. Birkhof, G.-C. Rota, Ordinary Differential Equations, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989).

M. C. Pease, Methods of Matrix Algebra (Academic, New York, 1965).

K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, H. Brandle, “Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 336–339 (2000).

H.-C. Huang, Microwave Approach to Highly Irregular Fiber Optics (Wiley, New York, 1998), Chap. 7 and Appendixes A, B, and C, pp. 198–295.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a PT fiber showing the fiber’s end view if cut at various points along the length. Also shown is the twist rate along the length of the fiber. At the slow-twist end the local modes are linear. At the fast-twist end the local modes are circular.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the apparatus used to heat and twist the PM fiber into PT fiber samples. The PM fiber is held on the heating fixture by a vacuum V-groove. The tungsten heating element is cooled by an argon flow, and the heating fixture is cooled by water. The heating element, linear stage, and rotating motor are under computer control.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of a twisted and heated fiber showing the corkscrew shape and microbending.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of a PT fiber sample with a minimum of microbending or corkscrew shape. The fiber has a dark surface because of a glass-air-tungsten reaction. Also, crystal growth is evident by the grainy surface of the fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical (solid curve) and measured (filled circles) extinction ratio for a PT fiber made with a linear twist-rate profile with τ(0) = 1 twist/mm L R = 10 mm, and length is (L R - z). The twist rate for this fiber is shown as a dashed curve.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical (solid curve) and measured (filled circles) extinction ratio for a PT fiber made with a cosine twist-rate profile with τ(0) = 2 twists/mm, L R = 20 mm, and length is (L R - z). The twist rate for this fiber is shown as a dashed curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Theoretical (solid curve) and measured (filled and open circles) extinction ratio for a PT fiber made with a cosine twist-rate profile with τ(0) = 1.5 twists/mm and L R = 30 mm. Theory was biased by -3.3 dB to match the 1.55-μm data. Two PT fiber samples (solid and filled circles) made under the same conditions were used. The estimated retardance error is shown in the right vertical axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Theoretical (solid curve) and measured (filled circles) extinction ratio of two PT fibers (filled circles and filled squares) and versus temperature at 1.3 μm. A bias of -3.3 dB was added to the theoretical values. Also, the estimated retardance error is shown on the right vertical axis.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Normalized Dependencies of Retardance for Temperature and Wavelength Changes for PT and Conventional Quarter-Wave Plate Fibers

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dAzdz=KzAz, Kz=j Δβ2τz-τz-j Δβ2,
Oz=cos ϕzi sin ϕzi sin ϕzcos ϕz,
ERz=-10 log10|Axz|2|Ayz|2,
τLiz=2πτ0LRLR-z,
τexpz=2πτ0exp-azLR,
τcosz=πτ01+cosπzLR.
Lbλ, T=λΔnλ, T,
1LbdLbdλ=1λ-1ΔndΔndλ,
1LbdLbdT=-1ΔndΔndT.
AxAy121±1±11×expiδ/200exp-iδ/222-i1-εC,
I±141+1-εC2±21-εCcos ε.
ER=I-I+1-εCε22,
ε2ER1-εC1/2.

Metrics