Abstract

The design, manufacture, and test of a 1 × 4 micro-optical fiber switch for multimode fibers with 600-μm core diameters are described. Microlens array telescopes allow for variable and fast beam deflection when the positions of the cylindrical microlens arrays relative to each another are altered by specially designed piezomechanical actuators. Standard achromats are used for collimation of light emitted by the input multimode fiber and for focusing of the deflected light onto a linear array of output multimode fibers. Design and assembly of micro-optical as well as of optomechanical components are discussed. Insertion loss and cross talk are measured, and the results are compared with those of numerical optical simulations. Measurements of switching time and long-term stability, as well as of thermal behavior, are also presented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Göring, F. Wippermann, K. Kubitz, “Schnelle Schalter für die Faseroptik,” F&M 108, 47–49 (2000).
  2. P. Kopka, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “Bistable 2 × 2 and multistable 1 × 4 micromechanical fibre-optic switches on silicon,” presented at Third International Conference on Opto Electro Mechanical Systems (MOEMS 99, Mainz, Germany, 1999), Proceedings pp. 88–91.
  3. S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, M. Frank, “Micro Optical modulators and switches for multimode fiber applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Göring, T. Martin, B. Götz, D. Döring, “Miniaturized piezoelectrically driven fiber optic switches with transmittive micro-optics,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3878, 136–143 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Glöckner, R. Göring, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Piezoelectrically driven micro-optical fiber switches,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1229–1234 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, “Micro-opto-mechanical beam deflectors,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1339–1345 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Glöckner, R. Göring, “Analysis of a micro-optical light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1467–1471 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, M. Khoshnevisan, “Miniaturized micro-optical scanners,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3616–3623 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. A. Watson, “Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2665–2670 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Göring, S. Glöckner, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Miniaturized fiber optic switches for optical metrology and optical communication,” in Micro-Optical Technologies for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications, O. M. Parriaux, B. Culshaw, M. Breidne, E.-B. Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE3099, 158–165 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Göring, S. Glöckner, “The potential of transmittive microoptical systems for miniaturized scanners, modulators and switches,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).
  12. J. W. Duparré, R. Göring, “Numerical wave optical analysis of microlens array telescopes and comparison with experimental results,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3992–4001 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Goltsos, M. Holz, “Agile beam steering using binary optics microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1392–1397 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. D. Milster, “Modelling and measurement of a micro-optic beam deflector,” in Design, Modeling, and Control of Laser Beam Optics, Y. Kohanzadeh, G. N. Lawrence, J. G. McCoy, H. Weichel, eds., Proc. SPIE1625, 78–83 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. F. Mcdearmon, K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Comparison of conventional and microlens-array agile beam steerers,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 167–178 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Glöckner, R. Göring, “Investigation of statistical variations between lenslets of microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4438–4445 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Piezoelectric actuators for dynamic applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1998: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, M. E. Regelbrugge, ed., Proc. SPIE3329, 550–561 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. W. Duparré, P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of significant characteristic parameters of piezoelectric actuators,” in Smart Structures and Materials 2000: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, N. M. Wereley, ed., Proc. SPIE3985, 672–677 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Götz, T. Martin, P. Bücker, “Piezoelectrical elements for micro-optical applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics III, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3276, 230–243 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Product catalog of Piezosystem Jena GmbH, Jena, Germany; www.piezojena.com , 52–63 (2003).

2003

2000

R. Göring, F. Wippermann, K. Kubitz, “Schnelle Schalter für die Faseroptik,” F&M 108, 47–49 (2000).

1998

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Piezoelectrically driven micro-optical fiber switches,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1229–1234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, M. Khoshnevisan, “Miniaturized micro-optical scanners,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3616–3623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. A. Watson, “Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2665–2670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. Goltsos, M. Holz, “Agile beam steering using binary optics microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1392–1397 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. P.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, M. Khoshnevisan, “Miniaturized micro-optical scanners,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3616–3623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bücker, P.

P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Piezoelectric actuators for dynamic applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1998: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, M. E. Regelbrugge, ed., Proc. SPIE3329, 550–561 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Duparré, P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of significant characteristic parameters of piezoelectric actuators,” in Smart Structures and Materials 2000: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, N. M. Wereley, ed., Proc. SPIE3985, 672–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Götz, T. Martin, P. Bücker, “Piezoelectrical elements for micro-optical applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics III, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3276, 230–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Döring, D.

R. Göring, T. Martin, B. Götz, D. Döring, “Miniaturized piezoelectrically driven fiber optic switches with transmittive micro-optics,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3878, 136–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, J. W.

J. W. Duparré, R. Göring, “Numerical wave optical analysis of microlens array telescopes and comparison with experimental results,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3992–4001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Duparré, P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of significant characteristic parameters of piezoelectric actuators,” in Smart Structures and Materials 2000: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, N. M. Wereley, ed., Proc. SPIE3985, 672–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Finlan, J. M.

G. F. Mcdearmon, K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Comparison of conventional and microlens-array agile beam steerers,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 167–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flood, K. M.

G. F. Mcdearmon, K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Comparison of conventional and microlens-array agile beam steerers,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 167–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frank, M.

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, M. Frank, “Micro Optical modulators and switches for multimode fiber applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glöckner, S.

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Piezoelectrically driven micro-optical fiber switches,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1229–1234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, “Micro-opto-mechanical beam deflectors,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1339–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, “Analysis of a micro-optical light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1467–1471 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, “Investigation of statistical variations between lenslets of microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4438–4445 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Göring, S. Glöckner, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Miniaturized fiber optic switches for optical metrology and optical communication,” in Micro-Optical Technologies for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications, O. M. Parriaux, B. Culshaw, M. Breidne, E.-B. Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE3099, 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Göring, S. Glöckner, “The potential of transmittive microoptical systems for miniaturized scanners, modulators and switches,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, M. Frank, “Micro Optical modulators and switches for multimode fiber applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goltsos, W.

W. Goltsos, M. Holz, “Agile beam steering using binary optics microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1392–1397 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Göring, R.

J. W. Duparré, R. Göring, “Numerical wave optical analysis of microlens array telescopes and comparison with experimental results,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3992–4001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Göring, F. Wippermann, K. Kubitz, “Schnelle Schalter für die Faseroptik,” F&M 108, 47–49 (2000).

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Piezoelectrically driven micro-optical fiber switches,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1229–1234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, “Micro-opto-mechanical beam deflectors,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1339–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, “Analysis of a micro-optical light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1467–1471 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, “Investigation of statistical variations between lenslets of microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4438–4445 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Göring, S. Glöckner, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Miniaturized fiber optic switches for optical metrology and optical communication,” in Micro-Optical Technologies for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications, O. M. Parriaux, B. Culshaw, M. Breidne, E.-B. Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE3099, 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Göring, S. Glöckner, “The potential of transmittive microoptical systems for miniaturized scanners, modulators and switches,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).

R. Göring, T. Martin, B. Götz, D. Döring, “Miniaturized piezoelectrically driven fiber optic switches with transmittive micro-optics,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3878, 136–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, M. Frank, “Micro Optical modulators and switches for multimode fiber applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Götz, B.

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Piezoelectrically driven micro-optical fiber switches,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1229–1234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Göring, S. Glöckner, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Miniaturized fiber optic switches for optical metrology and optical communication,” in Micro-Optical Technologies for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications, O. M. Parriaux, B. Culshaw, M. Breidne, E.-B. Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE3099, 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Göring, T. Martin, B. Götz, D. Döring, “Miniaturized piezoelectrically driven fiber optic switches with transmittive micro-optics,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3878, 136–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Duparré, P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of significant characteristic parameters of piezoelectric actuators,” in Smart Structures and Materials 2000: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, N. M. Wereley, ed., Proc. SPIE3985, 672–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Piezoelectric actuators for dynamic applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1998: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, M. E. Regelbrugge, ed., Proc. SPIE3329, 550–561 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Götz, T. Martin, P. Bücker, “Piezoelectrical elements for micro-optical applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics III, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3276, 230–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W. J.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, M. Khoshnevisan, “Miniaturized micro-optical scanners,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3616–3623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

P. Kopka, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “Bistable 2 × 2 and multistable 1 × 4 micromechanical fibre-optic switches on silicon,” presented at Third International Conference on Opto Electro Mechanical Systems (MOEMS 99, Mainz, Germany, 1999), Proceedings pp. 88–91.

Holz, M.

W. Goltsos, M. Holz, “Agile beam steering using binary optics microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1392–1397 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khoshnevisan, M.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, M. Khoshnevisan, “Miniaturized micro-optical scanners,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3616–3623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kopka, P.

P. Kopka, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “Bistable 2 × 2 and multistable 1 × 4 micromechanical fibre-optic switches on silicon,” presented at Third International Conference on Opto Electro Mechanical Systems (MOEMS 99, Mainz, Germany, 1999), Proceedings pp. 88–91.

Kubitz, K.

R. Göring, F. Wippermann, K. Kubitz, “Schnelle Schalter für die Faseroptik,” F&M 108, 47–49 (2000).

Martin, T.

R. Göring, T. Martin, B. Götz, D. Döring, “Miniaturized piezoelectrically driven fiber optic switches with transmittive micro-optics,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3878, 136–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Götz, T. Martin, P. Bücker, “Piezoelectrical elements for micro-optical applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics III, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3276, 230–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Piezoelectric actuators for dynamic applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1998: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, M. E. Regelbrugge, ed., Proc. SPIE3329, 550–561 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Duparré, P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of significant characteristic parameters of piezoelectric actuators,” in Smart Structures and Materials 2000: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, N. M. Wereley, ed., Proc. SPIE3985, 672–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mcdearmon, G. F.

G. F. Mcdearmon, K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Comparison of conventional and microlens-array agile beam steerers,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 167–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Milster, T. D.

T. D. Milster, “Modelling and measurement of a micro-optic beam deflector,” in Design, Modeling, and Control of Laser Beam Optics, Y. Kohanzadeh, G. N. Lawrence, J. G. McCoy, H. Weichel, eds., Proc. SPIE1625, 78–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M. E.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, M. Khoshnevisan, “Miniaturized micro-optical scanners,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3616–3623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Possner, T.

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, “Micro-opto-mechanical beam deflectors,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1339–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, M. Frank, “Micro Optical modulators and switches for multimode fiber applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Piezoelectrically driven micro-optical fiber switches,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1229–1234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Göring, S. Glöckner, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Miniaturized fiber optic switches for optical metrology and optical communication,” in Micro-Optical Technologies for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications, O. M. Parriaux, B. Culshaw, M. Breidne, E.-B. Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE3099, 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E.

P. Kopka, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “Bistable 2 × 2 and multistable 1 × 4 micromechanical fibre-optic switches on silicon,” presented at Third International Conference on Opto Electro Mechanical Systems (MOEMS 99, Mainz, Germany, 1999), Proceedings pp. 88–91.

Watson, E. A.

E. A. Watson, “Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2665–2670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wippermann, F.

R. Göring, F. Wippermann, K. Kubitz, “Schnelle Schalter für die Faseroptik,” F&M 108, 47–49 (2000).

Appl. Opt.

F&M

R. Göring, F. Wippermann, K. Kubitz, “Schnelle Schalter für die Faseroptik,” F&M 108, 47–49 (2000).

Opt. Eng.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, M. Khoshnevisan, “Miniaturized micro-optical scanners,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3616–3623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Watson, “Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2665–2670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Goltsos, M. Holz, “Agile beam steering using binary optics microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1392–1397 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Piezoelectrically driven micro-optical fiber switches,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1229–1234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, “Micro-opto-mechanical beam deflectors,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1339–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. D. Milster, “Modelling and measurement of a micro-optic beam deflector,” in Design, Modeling, and Control of Laser Beam Optics, Y. Kohanzadeh, G. N. Lawrence, J. G. McCoy, H. Weichel, eds., Proc. SPIE1625, 78–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Mcdearmon, K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Comparison of conventional and microlens-array agile beam steerers,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 167–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Piezoelectric actuators for dynamic applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1998: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, M. E. Regelbrugge, ed., Proc. SPIE3329, 550–561 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Duparré, P. Bücker, B. Götz, T. Martin, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of significant characteristic parameters of piezoelectric actuators,” in Smart Structures and Materials 2000: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, N. M. Wereley, ed., Proc. SPIE3985, 672–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Götz, T. Martin, P. Bücker, “Piezoelectrical elements for micro-optical applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics III, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3276, 230–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Product catalog of Piezosystem Jena GmbH, Jena, Germany; www.piezojena.com , 52–63 (2003).

R. Göring, S. Glöckner, B. Götz, A. Rose, “Miniaturized fiber optic switches for optical metrology and optical communication,” in Micro-Optical Technologies for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications, O. M. Parriaux, B. Culshaw, M. Breidne, E.-B. Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE3099, 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Göring, S. Glöckner, “The potential of transmittive microoptical systems for miniaturized scanners, modulators and switches,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).

P. Kopka, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “Bistable 2 × 2 and multistable 1 × 4 micromechanical fibre-optic switches on silicon,” presented at Third International Conference on Opto Electro Mechanical Systems (MOEMS 99, Mainz, Germany, 1999), Proceedings pp. 88–91.

S. Glöckner, R. Göring, T. Possner, M. Frank, “Micro Optical modulators and switches for multimode fiber applications,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 211–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Göring, T. Martin, B. Götz, D. Döring, “Miniaturized piezoelectrically driven fiber optic switches with transmittive micro-optics,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi, R. Göring, eds., Proc. SPIE3878, 136–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a two-dimensional micro-optical scanner based on MLA telescopes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

One-dimensional micro-optical fiber switch that uses a MLA telescope for beam deflection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic drawing showing the spatial separation between the deflected beam and spurious light (NA 2 is defined as p 2/2f 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the corona caused by MLA imperfections and grating effect on cross talk among channels with a cylindrical MLA telescope used for beam deflection.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Influence of the corona caused by MLA imperfections and grating effects on cross talk among channels with two crossed cylindrical MLA telescopes used for beam deflection and orientation of the output fiber array at 45° with respect to the direction of transformation of the MLA telescopes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mechanical setup for highly parallel decentration of cylindrical MLA telescopes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two-dimensional beam deflection system that uses two perpendicularly oriented devices from Fig. 6 with holders for collimating and focusing optics.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

MLAs in frames need to be actively aligned in the piezomechanical stage.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Gripping tool for mounting the frames that hold the MLAs into the actuators.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Holder for multimode fibers in a linear array of four, with separation of the bare fibers and a strain-relief clamp for the buffers. The lateral distance between fiber end faces is 1 mm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Overall view of the prototype (without the driving electronics for the actuators).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Activation and deactivation behavior of the four channels (approximate switching times are given here in parentheses): (a) Activation of channel 4 when one is switching from channel 1 (7 ms). (b) Deactivation of channel 1 when one is switching to channel 4 (3 ms). (c) Activation of channel 2 when one is switching from channel 3 (9 ms). (d) Deactivation of channel 2 when one is switching to channel 3 (9 ms).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Repeatability and long-term stability for the example of channel 4. The change of insertion loss is so small that the curves are of the magnitude of the resolution of the insertion-loss measurement system, 0.001 dB. The drift of the intensity of the LED light source was also monitored (maximum 0.004 dB) and subtracted to achieve the curve shown.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of Cylindrical Microlens Arrays

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Values of Insertion Loss and Cross Talk (dB) of Prototype 1 × 4 Fiber Switch for Multimode Fibers with 600-μm Core Diametersa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Numerical Wave Optical Simulated Values (dB) of Insertion Loss and Cross Talk of Prototype for 1 × 4 Fiber Switch for Multimode Fibers with 600-μm Core Diametersa

Metrics