Abstract

An optical method for generating a reference signal for an incremental displacement measurement system is proposed. We achieved this zero reference signal by comparing two speckle patterns arriving from two symmetric diffusers, which are used as natural random codes that are identical only when the reading head is located equidistantly between the diffusers. The comparison of the speckles is obtained either by interference, as in a Michelson interferometer, or by intensity correlations.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Arai, T. Kurata, “A high-resolution encoder by multiplication of moire fringes,” Eng. Technol. 9, 1–7 (1987).
  2. K. Engelhardt, P. Seitz, “High resolution optical position encoder with large mounting tolerances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2912–2916 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Wei-Hung, W. Bletscher, M. Mansuripur, “High resolution optical shaft encoder for motor speed control based on an optical disk pick-up,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3068–3071 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Crespo, J. Alonso, T. Morlanes, E. Bernabeu, “Optical encoder based on the Lau effect,” Opt. Eng. 39, 817–824 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Jourlin, J. Jay, O. Parriaux, “Compact diffractive interferometric displacement sensor in reflection,” Precis. Eng. 26, 1–6 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Yang, C. Yin, “A new method for the design of zero reference marks for grating measurement systems,” J. Phys. E. 19, 34–37 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Yajun, “Design of zero reference marks for grating measurement systems: a new method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 848–851 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Goodman. “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984). pp. 9–75
  9. R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z.-H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric-air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Yamaguchi, “Linear and rotary encoders using electronic speckle correlation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1862–1868 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Jourlin, J. Jay, O. Parriaux, “Compact diffractive interferometric displacement sensor in reflection,” Precis. Eng. 26, 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Crespo, J. Alonso, T. Morlanes, E. Bernabeu, “Optical encoder based on the Lau effect,” Opt. Eng. 39, 817–824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Wei-Hung, W. Bletscher, M. Mansuripur, “High resolution optical shaft encoder for motor speed control based on an optical disk pick-up,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3068–3071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z.-H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric-air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

I. Yamaguchi, “Linear and rotary encoders using electronic speckle correlation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1862–1868 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. Yajun, “Design of zero reference marks for grating measurement systems: a new method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 848–851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Y. Arai, T. Kurata, “A high-resolution encoder by multiplication of moire fringes,” Eng. Technol. 9, 1–7 (1987).

1986 (1)

X. Yang, C. Yin, “A new method for the design of zero reference marks for grating measurement systems,” J. Phys. E. 19, 34–37 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, J.

D. Crespo, J. Alonso, T. Morlanes, E. Bernabeu, “Optical encoder based on the Lau effect,” Opt. Eng. 39, 817–824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arai, Y.

Y. Arai, T. Kurata, “A high-resolution encoder by multiplication of moire fringes,” Eng. Technol. 9, 1–7 (1987).

Bernabeu, E.

D. Crespo, J. Alonso, T. Morlanes, E. Bernabeu, “Optical encoder based on the Lau effect,” Opt. Eng. 39, 817–824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bletscher, W.

Y. Wei-Hung, W. Bletscher, M. Mansuripur, “High resolution optical shaft encoder for motor speed control based on an optical disk pick-up,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3068–3071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crespo, D.

D. Crespo, J. Alonso, T. Morlanes, E. Bernabeu, “Optical encoder based on the Lau effect,” Opt. Eng. 39, 817–824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Engelhardt, K.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman. “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984). pp. 9–75

Gu, Z.-H.

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z.-H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric-air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jay, J.

Y. Jourlin, J. Jay, O. Parriaux, “Compact diffractive interferometric displacement sensor in reflection,” Precis. Eng. 26, 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jourlin, Y.

Y. Jourlin, J. Jay, O. Parriaux, “Compact diffractive interferometric displacement sensor in reflection,” Precis. Eng. 26, 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurata, T.

Y. Arai, T. Kurata, “A high-resolution encoder by multiplication of moire fringes,” Eng. Technol. 9, 1–7 (1987).

Lu, J. Q.

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z.-H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric-air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luna, R. E.

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z.-H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric-air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Y. Wei-Hung, W. Bletscher, M. Mansuripur, “High resolution optical shaft encoder for motor speed control based on an optical disk pick-up,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3068–3071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, E. R.

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z.-H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric-air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morlanes, T.

D. Crespo, J. Alonso, T. Morlanes, E. Bernabeu, “Optical encoder based on the Lau effect,” Opt. Eng. 39, 817–824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

Y. Jourlin, J. Jay, O. Parriaux, “Compact diffractive interferometric displacement sensor in reflection,” Precis. Eng. 26, 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, P.

Wei-Hung, Y.

Y. Wei-Hung, W. Bletscher, M. Mansuripur, “High resolution optical shaft encoder for motor speed control based on an optical disk pick-up,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3068–3071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yajun, L.

L. Yajun, “Design of zero reference marks for grating measurement systems: a new method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 848–851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

I. Yamaguchi, “Linear and rotary encoders using electronic speckle correlation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1862–1868 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, C. Yin, “A new method for the design of zero reference marks for grating measurement systems,” J. Phys. E. 19, 34–37 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yin, C.

X. Yang, C. Yin, “A new method for the design of zero reference marks for grating measurement systems,” J. Phys. E. 19, 34–37 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eng. Technol. (1)

Y. Arai, T. Kurata, “A high-resolution encoder by multiplication of moire fringes,” Eng. Technol. 9, 1–7 (1987).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z.-H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric-air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E. (1)

X. Yang, C. Yin, “A new method for the design of zero reference marks for grating measurement systems,” J. Phys. E. 19, 34–37 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

L. Yajun, “Design of zero reference marks for grating measurement systems: a new method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 848–851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. Crespo, J. Alonso, T. Morlanes, E. Bernabeu, “Optical encoder based on the Lau effect,” Opt. Eng. 39, 817–824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, “Linear and rotary encoders using electronic speckle correlation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1862–1868 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (1)

Y. Jourlin, J. Jay, O. Parriaux, “Compact diffractive interferometric displacement sensor in reflection,” Precis. Eng. 26, 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Y. Wei-Hung, W. Bletscher, M. Mansuripur, “High resolution optical shaft encoder for motor speed control based on an optical disk pick-up,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3068–3071 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman. “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984). pp. 9–75

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Speckle pattern produced by a one-dimensional random surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top view of the experimental setup. (b) Practical implementation with enhanced-backscattering diffusers and a diode laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Total intensity on the CCD as a function of diffuser position for the interference measurement method. The two curves correspond to two speckle sizes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity pattern on the CCD with the setup chosen to calculate intensity correlations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity correlations as a function of the symmetric diffusers’ positions. Speckle size: (a) 45 μm, (b) 137 μm, (c) 116 μm, (d) ∼1 mm. The amplification factor between diffuser displacement and speckle displacement is ∼2 in (a), (c), and (d) and ∼3.7 in (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of intensity binarization on the correlation signal presented in Fig. 5(c). Three different thresholds were chosen. (a) Mean intensity, (b) mean intensity plus half of the variance of the intensity, (c) mean intensity plus variance of the intensity. Pulses obtained with expression (4) are shown with solid curves; with expression (5), with dashed curves.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of the number of effective detectors in the array (binning): (a) no binning, 512 pixels; (b) 2 × 2 binning, 256 detectors; (c) 4 × 4 binning, 128 detectors; (d) 8 × 8 binning, 64 detectors.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε=λl/a
d=δ L2 cos2 θ1L1 cos2 θ2+cosθ2,
I=I1+I2+I1I2 cosϕ12,
i=1NJ1i & J2i|J1i & J2i,
i=1NJ1i & J2i,

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