Abstract

We have measured the thermal expansion and the temperature dependence of z and y components of the refractive index for KTiOPO4 and KTiOAsO4, in the wavelength range 532–1585 nm and temperature range 25–200 °C, using an interferometric technique. The measurements were used to derive temperature-dependent Sellmeier equations for the two materials. These equations predict with good agreement the temperature dependence of quasi-phase-matched nonlinear frequency converters.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Fradkin, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Tunable midinfrared source by difference frequency generation in bulk periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 914–916 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Fradkin-Kashi, A. Arie, P. Urenski, G. Rosenman, “Mid-infrared difference-frequency generation in periodically poled KtiOAsO4 and application to gas sensing,” Opt. Lett. 25, 743–745 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Fenimore, K. L. Schepler, U. B. Ramabadran, S. R. McPherson, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for potassium titanyl arsenate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 794–796 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Wiechmann, S. Kubota, “Refractive-index temperature derivatives of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1208–1210 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Kato, “Temperature insensitive SHG at 0.5321 μm in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1974–1976 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kato, E. Takaoka, “Sellmeier and thermo-optic formulas for KTP,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5040–5044 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Fang, P. Juncar, “A new simple compact refractometer applied to measurements of air density fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3160–3166 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Edlen, “The dispersion of standard air,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 339–344 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Almaz Optics Inc., 12 Chadsford Court, Marlton, N.J., http://www.almazoptics.com/homepage/KTP.htm .
  11. Z. Zhong, P. K. Gallagher, D. L. Loiacono, G. M. Loiacono, “The thermal expansion and stability of KtiOAsO4 and related compounds,” Thermo. Chim. Acta 234, 255–261 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurement in flux-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2390–2394 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. U. Strossner, J. P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, P. Urenski, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Peters, “Single-frequency continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator system with an ultrawide tuning range of 550 to 2830 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1419–1424 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Findlyng, “Periodical poling of KTiOAsO4 crystals for nonlinear optical applications,” M.Sc. thesis (Faculty of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 1998).
  15. A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (2)

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Fradkin-Kashi, A. Arie, P. Urenski, G. Rosenman, “Mid-infrared difference-frequency generation in periodically poled KtiOAsO4 and application to gas sensing,” Opt. Lett. 25, 743–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. Fradkin, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Tunable midinfrared source by difference frequency generation in bulk periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 914–916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, P. Juncar, “A new simple compact refractometer applied to measurements of air density fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3160–3166 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

Z. Zhong, P. K. Gallagher, D. L. Loiacono, G. M. Loiacono, “The thermal expansion and stability of KtiOAsO4 and related compounds,” Thermo. Chim. Acta 234, 255–261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

K. Kato, “Temperature insensitive SHG at 0.5321 μm in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1974–1976 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1953 (1)

Arie, A.

U. Strossner, J. P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, P. Urenski, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Peters, “Single-frequency continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator system with an ultrawide tuning range of 550 to 2830 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1419–1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Fradkin-Kashi, A. Arie, P. Urenski, G. Rosenman, “Mid-infrared difference-frequency generation in periodically poled KtiOAsO4 and application to gas sensing,” Opt. Lett. 25, 743–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Fradkin, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Tunable midinfrared source by difference frequency generation in bulk periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 914–916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Eckardt, R. C.

Edlen, B.

Eger, D.

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Fan, Y. X.

Fang, H.

H. Fang, P. Juncar, “A new simple compact refractometer applied to measurements of air density fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3160–3166 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feigelson, R. S.

Fenimore, D. L.

Findlyng, Y.

Y. Findlyng, “Periodical poling of KTiOAsO4 crystals for nonlinear optical applications,” M.Sc. thesis (Faculty of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 1998).

Fradkin, K.

K. Fradkin, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Tunable midinfrared source by difference frequency generation in bulk periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 914–916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fradkin-Kashi, K.

Gallagher, P. K.

Z. Zhong, P. K. Gallagher, D. L. Loiacono, G. M. Loiacono, “The thermal expansion and stability of KtiOAsO4 and related compounds,” Thermo. Chim. Acta 234, 255–261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. Q.

Huang, C. E.

Juncar, P.

H. Fang, P. Juncar, “A new simple compact refractometer applied to measurements of air density fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3160–3166 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, E. Takaoka, “Sellmeier and thermo-optic formulas for KTP,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5040–5044 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kato, “Temperature insensitive SHG at 0.5321 μm in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1974–1976 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, S.

Loiacono, D. L.

Z. Zhong, P. K. Gallagher, D. L. Loiacono, G. M. Loiacono, “The thermal expansion and stability of KtiOAsO4 and related compounds,” Thermo. Chim. Acta 234, 255–261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loiacono, G. M.

Z. Zhong, P. K. Gallagher, D. L. Loiacono, G. M. Loiacono, “The thermal expansion and stability of KtiOAsO4 and related compounds,” Thermo. Chim. Acta 234, 255–261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mahal, V.

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, S. R.

Meyn, J. P.

Mlynek, J.

U. Strossner, J. P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, P. Urenski, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Peters, “Single-frequency continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator system with an ultrawide tuning range of 550 to 2830 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1419–1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oron, M.

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peters, A.

U. Strossner, J. P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, P. Urenski, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Peters, “Single-frequency continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator system with an ultrawide tuning range of 550 to 2830 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1419–1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramabadran, U. B.

Rosenman, G.

U. Strossner, J. P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, P. Urenski, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Peters, “Single-frequency continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator system with an ultrawide tuning range of 550 to 2830 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1419–1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Fradkin-Kashi, A. Arie, P. Urenski, G. Rosenman, “Mid-infrared difference-frequency generation in periodically poled KtiOAsO4 and application to gas sensing,” Opt. Lett. 25, 743–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Fradkin, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Tunable midinfrared source by difference frequency generation in bulk periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 914–916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schepler, K. L.

Schiller, S.

U. Strossner, J. P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, P. Urenski, A. Arie, G. Rosenman, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Peters, “Single-frequency continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator system with an ultrawide tuning range of 550 to 2830 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1419–1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skliar, A.

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Fradkin, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Tunable midinfrared source by difference frequency generation in bulk periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 914–916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stroessner, U.

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strossner, U.

Takaoka, E.

Urenski, P.

Wallenstein, R.

Wiechmann, W.

Wiese, D. R.

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.

Z. Zhong, P. K. Gallagher, D. L. Loiacono, G. M. Loiacono, “The thermal expansion and stability of KtiOAsO4 and related compounds,” Thermo. Chim. Acta 234, 255–261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Fradkin, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Tunable midinfrared source by difference frequency generation in bulk periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 914–916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Kato, “Temperature insensitive SHG at 0.5321 μm in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1974–1976 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. R. Wiese, U. Stroessner, A. Peters, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Continuous-wave 532-nm-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 184, 329–333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. Fang, P. Juncar, “A new simple compact refractometer applied to measurements of air density fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3160–3166 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thermo. Chim. Acta (1)

Z. Zhong, P. K. Gallagher, D. L. Loiacono, G. M. Loiacono, “The thermal expansion and stability of KtiOAsO4 and related compounds,” Thermo. Chim. Acta 234, 255–261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. Findlyng, “Periodical poling of KTiOAsO4 crystals for nonlinear optical applications,” M.Sc. thesis (Faculty of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 1998).

Almaz Optics Inc., 12 Chadsford Court, Marlton, N.J., http://www.almazoptics.com/homepage/KTP.htm .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring the thermal-induced optical-path change in the crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring the crystal thermal expansion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First temperature derivative of the refractive index of KTP, n 1, as a function of wavelength. ▲, z-axis measurements; ●, y-axis measurements; solid curves, theoretical fit from Eq. (3); long dashed curves, calculation from Ref. 5; short dashed curves, calculation using Ref. 12.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

First temperature derivative of the refractive index of KTA, n 1, as a function of wavelength. ▲, z-axis measurements; ●, y-axis measurements; solid curves, theoretical fit from Eq. (3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Idler temperature tuning slopes of PPKTP optical parametric oscillator. ●, experimental results from Ref. 4; ■, experimental results from Ref. 13; solid curves, calculation from Eq. (3); short dashed curves, calculation from Ref. 12.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thermal Expansion Coefficients of KTP and KTA

Tables Icon

Table 2 Temperature Dependence Fit Coefficients for KTP and KTA

Equations (4)

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L=L01+α T-25 °C+β T-25 °C2.
Δnλ, T=n1λT-25 °C+n2λT-25 °C2.
n1,2λ=m=03amλm.
n1,2λ=m=03amλm+ Bλ-λ01+exp-γλ-λ0,

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