Abstract

Optical nonreciprocal devices with a silicon guiding layer fabricated by wafer bonding are proposed. The optical nonreciprocal devices are composed of a magneto-optic waveguide with a magnetic garnet/Si/SiO2 structure. Nonreciprocal characteristics are obtained by an evanescent field penetrating into the upper magnetic garnet cladding layer. Several kinds of the optical nonreciprocal device are investigated with the magneto-optic waveguide and designed at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. As a preliminary experiment, wafer bonding between Gd3Ga5O12 and Si was studied. Wafer bonding was successfully achieved with heat treatment at 220 °C in H2 ambient.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Mizumoto, Y. Shingai, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Naito, “Crystal growth of InP on a Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by organometallic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 53–57 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y.-Q. Li, M. Cherif, J. Huang, W. Liu, Q. Chen, “Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of magneto-optic Ce:YIG thin films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 517, 449–461 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. A. Desmond-Colinge, U. Gösele, “Wafer-bonding and thinning technologies,” MRS Bull. 23, 30–34 (1998).
  6. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Direct bonding between InP and rare earth iron garnet grown on Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by liquid phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1612–1613 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6158–6164 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Sakurai, T. Sakai, T. Ohtsuka, Y. Nakano, “Optical isolator with AlInAs-oxide cladding layer employing nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” in Technical Digest of Eighth Microoptics Conference, K. Kuroda, ed. (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2001), pp. 170–172.
  9. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, H. Iwasaki, “Nonreciprocal TE–TM mode converter with semiconductor guiding layer,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1670–1672 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Ando, T. Okoshi, N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 4–6 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. N. Kurdi, D. G. Hall, “Optical waveguides in oxygen-implanted buried-oxide silicon-on-insulator structures,” Opt. Lett. 13, 175–177 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Izumi, M. Doken, H. Ariyoshi, “C.M.O.S. devices fabricated on buried SiO2 layers formed by oxygen implantation into silicon,” Electron. Lett. 14, 593–594 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. B. Lasky, “Wafer bonding for silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 78–80 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Yonehara, K. Sakaguchi, N. Sato, “Epitaxial layer transfer by bond and etch back of porous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2108–2110 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Bruel, “Silicon on insulator material technology,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1201–1202 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Low loss singlemode optical waveguides with large cross-section in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1486–1488 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, “Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate,” Opt. Commun. 146, 31–33 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Gomi, S. Satoh, M. Abe, “Giant Faraday rotation of Ce-substituted YIG films epitaxially grown by RF sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, L1536–L1538 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Shintaku, T. Uno, M. Kobayashi, “Magneto-optic channel waveguide in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4877–4881 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, N. Kaida, Y. Nakano, “Feasibility of integrated optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer fabricated by wafer direct bonding,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 105–110 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26, 199–200 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Ando, T. Sawada, Y. Inoue, “Thin, flexible waveplate of fluorinated polyimide,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2143–2145 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, “Passive polarization converter in SiON technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 876–883 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Mertens, B. Scholl, H. J. Schmitt, “New highly efficient polarization converters based on hybrid supermodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2087–2092 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Bäcklund, K. Hermansson, L. Smith, “Bond-strength measurements related to silicon surface hydrophilicity,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2299–2301 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, M. Shimizu, T. Waniishi, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Analysis of GaInAsP surfaces by contact-angle measurement for wafer direct bonding with garnet crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4780–4783 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Improved heat treatment for wafer direct bonding between semiconductors and magnetic garnets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2784–2787 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, “Magnetooptic waveguide with SiO2 cladding layer integrated on InP substrate by wafer direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 7230–7232 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, H. Iwasaki, “Nonreciprocal TE–TM mode converter with semiconductor guiding layer,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1670–1672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6158–6164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, M. Shimizu, T. Waniishi, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Analysis of GaInAsP surfaces by contact-angle measurement for wafer direct bonding with garnet crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4780–4783 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, N. Kaida, Y. Nakano, “Feasibility of integrated optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer fabricated by wafer direct bonding,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 105–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Desmond-Colinge, U. Gösele, “Wafer-bonding and thinning technologies,” MRS Bull. 23, 30–34 (1998).

Y.-Q. Li, M. Cherif, J. Huang, W. Liu, Q. Chen, “Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of magneto-optic Ce:YIG thin films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 517, 449–461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, “Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate,” Opt. Commun. 146, 31–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Improved heat treatment for wafer direct bonding between semiconductors and magnetic garnets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2784–2787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, “Magnetooptic waveguide with SiO2 cladding layer integrated on InP substrate by wafer direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 7230–7232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

K. Mertens, B. Scholl, H. J. Schmitt, “New highly efficient polarization converters based on hybrid supermodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2087–2092 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Bruel, “Silicon on insulator material technology,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1201–1202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Direct bonding between InP and rare earth iron garnet grown on Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by liquid phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1612–1613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Yonehara, K. Sakaguchi, N. Sato, “Epitaxial layer transfer by bond and etch back of porous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2108–2110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Shintaku, T. Uno, M. Kobayashi, “Magneto-optic channel waveguide in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4877–4881 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Ando, T. Sawada, Y. Inoue, “Thin, flexible waveplate of fluorinated polyimide,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2143–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. Bäcklund, K. Hermansson, L. Smith, “Bond-strength measurements related to silicon surface hydrophilicity,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2299–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Low loss singlemode optical waveguides with large cross-section in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1486–1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

T. Mizumoto, Y. Shingai, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Naito, “Crystal growth of InP on a Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by organometallic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 53–57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26, 199–200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

B. N. Kurdi, D. G. Hall, “Optical waveguides in oxygen-implanted buried-oxide silicon-on-insulator structures,” Opt. Lett. 13, 175–177 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gomi, S. Satoh, M. Abe, “Giant Faraday rotation of Ce-substituted YIG films epitaxially grown by RF sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, L1536–L1538 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

M. Razeghi, P.-L. Meunier, P. Maurel, “Growth of GaInAs-InP multiquantum wells on garnet (GGG = Gd3Ga5O12) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2261–2263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Lasky, “Wafer bonding for silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 78–80 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. Izumi, M. Doken, H. Ariyoshi, “C.M.O.S. devices fabricated on buried SiO2 layers formed by oxygen implantation into silicon,” Electron. Lett. 14, 593–594 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. P. Castéra, G. Hepner, “Isolator in integrated optics using the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-13, 1583–1585 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

M. Gomi, S. Satoh, M. Abe, “Giant Faraday rotation of Ce-substituted YIG films epitaxially grown by RF sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, L1536–L1538 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, P.

M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ando, K.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ando, S.

S. Ando, T. Sawada, Y. Inoue, “Thin, flexible waveplate of fluorinated polyimide,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2143–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ariyoshi, H.

K. Izumi, M. Doken, H. Ariyoshi, “C.M.O.S. devices fabricated on buried SiO2 layers formed by oxygen implantation into silicon,” Electron. Lett. 14, 593–594 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bäcklund, Y.

Y. Bäcklund, K. Hermansson, L. Smith, “Bond-strength measurements related to silicon surface hydrophilicity,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2299–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bruel, M.

M. Bruel, “Silicon on insulator material technology,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1201–1202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Castéra, J. P.

J. P. Castéra, G. Hepner, “Isolator in integrated optics using the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-13, 1583–1585 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Y.-Q. Li, M. Cherif, J. Huang, W. Liu, Q. Chen, “Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of magneto-optic Ce:YIG thin films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 517, 449–461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cherif, M.

Y.-Q. Li, M. Cherif, J. Huang, W. Liu, Q. Chen, “Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of magneto-optic Ce:YIG thin films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 517, 449–461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chihara, H.

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26, 199–200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Desmond-Colinge, C. A.

C. A. Desmond-Colinge, U. Gösele, “Wafer-bonding and thinning technologies,” MRS Bull. 23, 30–34 (1998).

Doken, M.

K. Izumi, M. Doken, H. Ariyoshi, “C.M.O.S. devices fabricated on buried SiO2 layers formed by oxygen implantation into silicon,” Electron. Lett. 14, 593–594 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Döldissen, W.

M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dutartre, D.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franke, D.

M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Futakuchi, N.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6158–6164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, N. Kaida, Y. Nakano, “Feasibility of integrated optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer fabricated by wafer direct bonding,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 105–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, M. Shimizu, T. Waniishi, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Analysis of GaInAsP surfaces by contact-angle measurement for wafer direct bonding with garnet crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4780–4783 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gomi, M.

M. Gomi, S. Satoh, M. Abe, “Giant Faraday rotation of Ce-substituted YIG films epitaxially grown by RF sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, L1536–L1538 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gösele, U.

C. A. Desmond-Colinge, U. Gösele, “Wafer-bonding and thinning technologies,” MRS Bull. 23, 30–34 (1998).

Hall, D. G.

Harbison, J. P.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hatakeyama, H.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hepner, G.

J. P. Castéra, G. Hepner, “Isolator in integrated optics using the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-13, 1583–1585 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hermansson, K.

Y. Bäcklund, K. Hermansson, L. Smith, “Bond-strength measurements related to silicon surface hydrophilicity,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2299–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Y.-Q. Li, M. Cherif, J. Huang, W. Liu, Q. Chen, “Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of magneto-optic Ce:YIG thin films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 517, 449–461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Ando, T. Sawada, Y. Inoue, “Thin, flexible waveplate of fluorinated polyimide,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2143–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, H.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, H. Iwasaki, “Nonreciprocal TE–TM mode converter with semiconductor guiding layer,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1670–1672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Izumi, K.

K. Izumi, M. Doken, H. Ariyoshi, “C.M.O.S. devices fabricated on buried SiO2 layers formed by oxygen implantation into silicon,” Electron. Lett. 14, 593–594 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jurczak, M.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaida, N.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, N. Kaida, Y. Nakano, “Feasibility of integrated optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer fabricated by wafer direct bonding,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 105–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katoh, Y.

N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, M.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, N.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, S.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

T. Shintaku, T. Uno, M. Kobayashi, “Magneto-optic channel waveguide in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4877–4881 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koshizuka, N.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koster, A.

A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, “Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate,” Opt. Commun. 146, 31–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koster, T.

Kurdi, B. N.

Lambeck, P. V.

Lasky, J. B.

J. B. Lasky, “Wafer bonding for silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 78–80 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Layadi, A.

A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, “Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate,” Opt. Commun. 146, 31–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, D.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Li, M. Cherif, J. Huang, W. Liu, Q. Chen, “Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of magneto-optic Ce:YIG thin films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 517, 449–461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Y.-Q. Li, M. Cherif, J. Huang, W. Liu, Q. Chen, “Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of magneto-optic Ce:YIG thin films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 517, 449–461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martins, J.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maru, K.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Improved heat treatment for wafer direct bonding between semiconductors and magnetic garnets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2784–2787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Direct bonding between InP and rare earth iron garnet grown on Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by liquid phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1612–1613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maurel, P.

M. Razeghi, P.-L. Meunier, P. Maurel, “Growth of GaInAs-InP multiquantum wells on garnet (GGG = Gd3Ga5O12) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2261–2263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mertens, K.

K. Mertens, B. Scholl, H. J. Schmitt, “New highly efficient polarization converters based on hybrid supermodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2087–2092 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, P.-L.

M. Razeghi, P.-L. Meunier, P. Maurel, “Growth of GaInAs-InP multiquantum wells on garnet (GGG = Gd3Ga5O12) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2261–2263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

T. Mizumoto, Y. Shingai, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Naito, “Crystal growth of InP on a Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by organometallic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 53–57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mizumoto, T.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, H. Iwasaki, “Nonreciprocal TE–TM mode converter with semiconductor guiding layer,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1670–1672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6158–6164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, N. Kaida, Y. Nakano, “Feasibility of integrated optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer fabricated by wafer direct bonding,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 105–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, M. Shimizu, T. Waniishi, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Analysis of GaInAsP surfaces by contact-angle measurement for wafer direct bonding with garnet crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4780–4783 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, “Magnetooptic waveguide with SiO2 cladding layer integrated on InP substrate by wafer direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 7230–7232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Improved heat treatment for wafer direct bonding between semiconductors and magnetic garnets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2784–2787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Direct bonding between InP and rare earth iron garnet grown on Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by liquid phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1612–1613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizumoto, Y. Shingai, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Naito, “Crystal growth of InP on a Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by organometallic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 53–57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26, 199–200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Sakurai, T. Sakai, T. Ohtsuka, Y. Nakano, “Optical isolator with AlInAs-oxide cladding layer employing nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” in Technical Digest of Eighth Microoptics Conference, K. Kuroda, ed. (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2001), pp. 170–172.

Monfray, S.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naito, Y.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Improved heat treatment for wafer direct bonding between semiconductors and magnetic garnets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2784–2787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Direct bonding between InP and rare earth iron garnet grown on Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by liquid phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1612–1613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizumoto, Y. Shingai, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Naito, “Crystal growth of InP on a Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by organometallic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 53–57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26, 199–200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6158–6164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, N. Kaida, Y. Nakano, “Feasibility of integrated optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer fabricated by wafer direct bonding,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 105–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, M. Shimizu, T. Waniishi, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Analysis of GaInAsP surfaces by contact-angle measurement for wafer direct bonding with garnet crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4780–4783 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Sakurai, T. Sakai, T. Ohtsuka, Y. Nakano, “Optical isolator with AlInAs-oxide cladding layer employing nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” in Technical Digest of Eighth Microoptics Conference, K. Kuroda, ed. (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2001), pp. 170–172.

Niggebrügge, U.

M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nolting, H. P.

M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, T.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Sakurai, T. Sakai, T. Ohtsuka, Y. Nakano, “Optical isolator with AlInAs-oxide cladding layer employing nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” in Technical Digest of Eighth Microoptics Conference, K. Kuroda, ed. (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2001), pp. 170–172.

Okoshi, T.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Orobtchouk, R.

A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, “Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate,” Opt. Commun. 146, 31–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pantel, R.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paoli, M.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, D.

A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, “Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate,” Opt. Commun. 146, 31–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Low loss singlemode optical waveguides with large cross-section in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1486–1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

M. Razeghi, P.-L. Meunier, P. Maurel, “Growth of GaInAs-InP multiquantum wells on garnet (GGG = Gd3Ga5O12) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2261–2263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Regolini, J. L.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ribot, P.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, K.

T. Yonehara, K. Sakaguchi, N. Sato, “Epitaxial layer transfer by bond and etch back of porous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2108–2110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Sakurai, T. Sakai, T. Ohtsuka, Y. Nakano, “Optical isolator with AlInAs-oxide cladding layer employing nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” in Technical Digest of Eighth Microoptics Conference, K. Kuroda, ed. (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2001), pp. 170–172.

Sakurai, K.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Sakurai, T. Sakai, T. Ohtsuka, Y. Nakano, “Optical isolator with AlInAs-oxide cladding layer employing nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” in Technical Digest of Eighth Microoptics Conference, K. Kuroda, ed. (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2001), pp. 170–172.

Sasaki, J.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sato, N.

T. Yonehara, K. Sakaguchi, N. Sato, “Epitaxial layer transfer by bond and etch back of porous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2108–2110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Satoh, S.

M. Gomi, S. Satoh, M. Abe, “Giant Faraday rotation of Ce-substituted YIG films epitaxially grown by RF sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, L1536–L1538 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, T.

S. Ando, T. Sawada, Y. Inoue, “Thin, flexible waveplate of fluorinated polyimide,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2143–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schlak, M.

M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtchen, J.

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Low loss singlemode optical waveguides with large cross-section in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1486–1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, F.

M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, H. J.

K. Mertens, B. Scholl, H. J. Schmitt, “New highly efficient polarization converters based on hybrid supermodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2087–2092 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, B.

K. Mertens, B. Scholl, H. J. Schmitt, “New highly efficient polarization converters based on hybrid supermodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2087–2092 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schüppert, B.

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Low loss singlemode optical waveguides with large cross-section in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1486–1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shibukawa, A.

N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, M. Shimizu, T. Waniishi, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Analysis of GaInAsP surfaces by contact-angle measurement for wafer direct bonding with garnet crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4780–4783 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, T.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shingai, Y.

T. Mizumoto, Y. Shingai, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Naito, “Crystal growth of InP on a Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by organometallic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 53–57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shinjo, N.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6158–6164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, N. Kaida, Y. Nakano, “Feasibility of integrated optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer fabricated by wafer direct bonding,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 105–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shintaku, T.

T. Shintaku, T. Uno, M. Kobayashi, “Magneto-optic channel waveguide in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4877–4881 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skotnicki, T.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L.

Y. Bäcklund, K. Hermansson, L. Smith, “Bond-strength measurements related to silicon surface hydrophilicity,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2299–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Splett, A.

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Low loss singlemode optical waveguides with large cross-section in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1486–1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamanuki, T.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tate, A.

N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tokui, N.

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26, 199–200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tormen, B.

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uno, T.

T. Shintaku, T. Uno, M. Kobayashi, “Magneto-optic channel waveguide in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4877–4881 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vonsovici, A.

A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, “Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate,” Opt. Commun. 146, 31–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waniishi, T.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, M. Shimizu, T. Waniishi, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Analysis of GaInAsP surfaces by contact-angle measurement for wafer direct bonding with garnet crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4780–4783 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

N. Sugimoto, H. Terui, A. Tate, Y. Katoh, Y. Yamada, A. Sugita, A. Shibukawa, Y. Inoue, “A hybrid integrated waveguide isolator on a silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2537–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, H.

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, H. Iwasaki, “Nonreciprocal TE–TM mode converter with semiconductor guiding layer,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1670–1672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6158–6164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, N. Kaida, Y. Nakano, “Feasibility of integrated optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer fabricated by wafer direct bonding,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 105–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, M. Shimizu, T. Waniishi, N. Futakuchi, Y. Nakano, “Analysis of GaInAsP surfaces by contact-angle measurement for wafer direct bonding with garnet crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4780–4783 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, “Magnetooptic waveguide with SiO2 cladding layer integrated on InP substrate by wafer direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 7230–7232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Improved heat treatment for wafer direct bonding between semiconductors and magnetic garnets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2784–2787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Direct bonding between InP and rare earth iron garnet grown on Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by liquid phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1612–1613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Sakurai, T. Sakai, T. Ohtsuka, Y. Nakano, “Optical isolator with AlInAs-oxide cladding layer employing nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” in Technical Digest of Eighth Microoptics Conference, K. Kuroda, ed. (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2001), pp. 170–172.

Yonehara, T.

T. Yonehara, K. Sakaguchi, N. Sato, “Epitaxial layer transfer by bond and etch back of porous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2108–2110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Lasky, “Wafer bonding for silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 78–80 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Yonehara, K. Sakaguchi, N. Sato, “Epitaxial layer transfer by bond and etch back of porous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2108–2110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (9)

M. Bruel, “Silicon on insulator material technology,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1201–1202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Low loss singlemode optical waveguides with large cross-section in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1486–1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, K. Maru, Y. Naito, “Direct bonding between InP and rare earth iron garnet grown on Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by liquid phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1612–1613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Izumi, M. Doken, H. Ariyoshi, “C.M.O.S. devices fabricated on buried SiO2 layers formed by oxygen implantation into silicon,” Electron. Lett. 14, 593–594 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, H. Iwasaki, “Nonreciprocal TE–TM mode converter with semiconductor guiding layer,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1670–1672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizumoto, H. Chihara, N. Tokui, Y. Naito, “Verification of waveguide-type optical circulator operation,” Electron. Lett. 26, 199–200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Ando, T. Sawada, Y. Inoue, “Thin, flexible waveplate of fluorinated polyimide,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2143–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Schlak, H. P. Nolting, P. Albrecht, W. Döldissen, D. Franke, U. Niggebrügge, F. Schmitt, “Integrated-optic polarization converter on (001)-InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Sasaki, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, S. Kitamura, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, T. Kato, M. Itoh, “Hybrid integrated 4 × 4 optical matrix switch using self-aligned semiconductor optical amplifier gate arrays and silica planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett. 34, 986–987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, N. Kaida, Y. Nakano, “Feasibility of integrated optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer fabricated by wafer direct bonding,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 105–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

M. Jurczak, T. Skotnicki, M. Paoli, B. Tormen, J. Martins, J. L. Regolini, D. Dutartre, P. Ribot, D. Lenoble, R. Pantel, S. Monfray, “Silicon-on-nothing (SON)—an innovative process for advanced CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2179–2187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical isolator employing a nonreciprocal phase shift. A reciprocal phase shifter and a nonreciprocal phase shifter are included in an optical interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated nonreciprocal phase shift of a Ce:YIG/Si/SiO2 waveguide depending on the Si thickness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of a three-guide tapered coupler. The waveguide parameters are in micrometers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated coupling characteristics of a three-guide tapered coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical circulator employing a nonreciprocal phase shift. A reciprocal phase shifter and a nonreciprocal phase shifter are included in an optical interferometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical isolator employing a nonreciprocal guided-radiation mode conversion.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cross section of a magneto-optic waveguide in an optical isolator employing a nonreciprocal guided-radiation mode conversion.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship of waveguide parameters for isolator operation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical nonreciprocal TE–TM mode converter.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cross section of a magneto-optic waveguide in an optical isolator employing a TE–TM mode conversion.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relationship of strip height and strip width for phase matching. Effective refractive indices are also shown.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Optical confinement factor in a Ce:YIG cladding layer. The propagation distance required for a π/4-rad mode conversion is also shown. Filled circles, confinement factor; open circles, propagation distance.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Calculated nonreciprocal phase shift of a Ce:YIG/Si/air waveguide depending on the Si thickness.

Equations (1)

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β11by<βcx<β11fy,

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