Abstract

The temperature and pressure cycles inside a pressure modulator cell (PMC) of the type used for gas-correlation radiometry aboard the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument have been determined from dynamic measurements of the spectral line shapes of the R(0) and R(18) transitions in the fundamental vibrational-rotational band of carbon monoxide. The line strengths and linewidths were used to calculate the temperature and pressure, respectively, with a temporal resolution of approximately 200 μs, or 1/100 of a PMC cycle. The results are compared with a thermodynamic box model.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. W. Taylor, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, E. J. Williamson, “Radiometer for remote sounding of the upper atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 11, 135–141 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. D. Curtis, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from satellites. V. The pressure modulator radiometer for NIMBUS F,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 377, 135–150 (1974).
  3. C. P. Chaloner, J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, R. F. Jarnot, H. K. Roscoe, “Infra-red measurements of stratospheric composition. I. The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 145–159 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. R. Drummond, D. Turner, A. Ashton, “A pressure modulator radiometer for measuring stratospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3522–3532 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Drummond, “MOPITT: 12 years of planning and 2.5 years of operations,” in Proceedings 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 1085–1087.
  8. J. R. Drummond, A. Ashton, “Radiative measurements of pressure modulator operation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7, 187–194 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Berman, P. Duggan, M. P. Le Flohic, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Spectroscopic technique for measuring the temperature and pressure cycle of a pressure modulator radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6280–6283 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. L. Jones, “Measurement of the Atmospheric Distributions of CH4 and N2O from Satellites,” D. Phil. thesis (Jesus College, University of Oxford, UK, 1983).
  11. F. W. Taylor, “Pressure modulator radiometry,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. A. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1983), Vol. 3, pp. 137–197.
  12. H. K. Roscoe, R. J. Wells, “The variation of pressure, temperature and transmission within a pressure modulator: measurements with a high-compression modulator,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 259–285 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. G. J. Irwin, S. B. Calcutt, F. W. Taylor, “Characterization of the thermodynamic behaviour of pressure modulated cells for remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 1–20 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 181, 41–47 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening in the fundamental band of CO in CO–He and CO–Ar mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 258–264 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Predoi-Cross, C. Luo, P. M. Sinclair, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening and the temperature exponent of the fundamental band in CO–N2 mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 291–303 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation I: Theoretical Basis (Oxford U. Press, London, England, 1964).
  18. S. G. Rautian, I. I. Sobel’man, “The effect of collisions on the Doppler broadening of spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 9, 701–716 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Ciurylo, “Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1029–1039 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, J.-P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. S. Pine, “Asymmetries and correlations in speed-dependent Dicke-narrowed line shapes of argon-broadened HF,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 397–423 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Predoi-Cross, C. Luo, P. M. Sinclair, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening and the temperature exponent of the fundamental band in CO–N2 mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 291–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Pine, “Asymmetries and correlations in speed-dependent Dicke-narrowed line shapes of argon-broadened HF,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 397–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Ciurylo, “Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1029–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening in the fundamental band of CO in CO–He and CO–Ar mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 258–264 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 181, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, J.-P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. G. J. Irwin, S. B. Calcutt, F. W. Taylor, “Characterization of the thermodynamic behaviour of pressure modulated cells for remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 1–20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Berman, P. Duggan, M. P. Le Flohic, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Spectroscopic technique for measuring the temperature and pressure cycle of a pressure modulator radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6280–6283 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. R. Drummond, A. Ashton, “Radiative measurements of pressure modulator operation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7, 187–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

H. K. Roscoe, R. J. Wells, “The variation of pressure, temperature and transmission within a pressure modulator: measurements with a high-compression modulator,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 259–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Drummond, D. Turner, A. Ashton, “A pressure modulator radiometer for measuring stratospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3522–3532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

C. P. Chaloner, J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, R. F. Jarnot, H. K. Roscoe, “Infra-red measurements of stratospheric composition. I. The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 145–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. D. Curtis, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from satellites. V. The pressure modulator radiometer for NIMBUS F,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 377, 135–150 (1974).

1972 (1)

1967 (1)

S. G. Rautian, I. I. Sobel’man, “The effect of collisions on the Doppler broadening of spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 9, 701–716 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ashton, A.

J. R. Drummond, A. Ashton, “Radiative measurements of pressure modulator operation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7, 187–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Drummond, D. Turner, A. Ashton, “A pressure modulator radiometer for measuring stratospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3522–3532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, J. J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berman, R.

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening in the fundamental band of CO in CO–He and CO–Ar mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 258–264 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 181, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Berman, P. Duggan, M. P. Le Flohic, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Spectroscopic technique for measuring the temperature and pressure cycle of a pressure modulator radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6280–6283 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanquet, G.

B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, J.-P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouanich, J.-P.

B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, J.-P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calcutt, S. B.

P. G. J. Irwin, S. B. Calcutt, F. W. Taylor, “Characterization of the thermodynamic behaviour of pressure modulated cells for remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 1–20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chaloner, C. P.

C. P. Chaloner, J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, R. F. Jarnot, H. K. Roscoe, “Infra-red measurements of stratospheric composition. I. The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 145–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ciurylo, R.

R. Ciurylo, “Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1029–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, P. D.

P. D. Curtis, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from satellites. V. The pressure modulator radiometer for NIMBUS F,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 377, 135–150 (1974).

Drummond, J. R.

A. Predoi-Cross, C. Luo, P. M. Sinclair, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening and the temperature exponent of the fundamental band in CO–N2 mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 291–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening in the fundamental band of CO in CO–He and CO–Ar mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 258–264 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 181, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Berman, P. Duggan, M. P. Le Flohic, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Spectroscopic technique for measuring the temperature and pressure cycle of a pressure modulator radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6280–6283 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Drummond, A. Ashton, “Radiative measurements of pressure modulator operation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7, 187–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Drummond, D. Turner, A. Ashton, “A pressure modulator radiometer for measuring stratospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3522–3532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Chaloner, J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, R. F. Jarnot, H. K. Roscoe, “Infra-red measurements of stratospheric composition. I. The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 145–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Drummond, “MOPITT: 12 years of planning and 2.5 years of operations,” in Proceedings 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 1085–1087.

Dudhia, A.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Duggan, P.

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening in the fundamental band of CO in CO–He and CO–Ar mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 258–264 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 181, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Berman, P. Duggan, M. P. Le Flohic, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Spectroscopic technique for measuring the temperature and pressure cycle of a pressure modulator radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6280–6283 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goody, R. M.

R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation I: Theoretical Basis (Oxford U. Press, London, England, 1964).

Henry, A.

A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, J. T.

J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Chaloner, J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, R. F. Jarnot, H. K. Roscoe, “Infra-red measurements of stratospheric composition. I. The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 145–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Curtis, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from satellites. V. The pressure modulator radiometer for NIMBUS F,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 377, 135–150 (1974).

F. W. Taylor, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, E. J. Williamson, “Radiometer for remote sounding of the upper atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 11, 135–141 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurtmans, D.

A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, P. G. J.

P. G. J. Irwin, S. B. Calcutt, F. W. Taylor, “Characterization of the thermodynamic behaviour of pressure modulated cells for remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 1–20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jarnot, R. F.

C. P. Chaloner, J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, R. F. Jarnot, H. K. Roscoe, “Infra-red measurements of stratospheric composition. I. The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 145–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. L.

R. L. Jones, “Measurement of the Atmospheric Distributions of CH4 and N2O from Satellites,” D. Phil. thesis (Jesus College, University of Oxford, UK, 1983).

Knight, R. J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lance, B.

B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, J.-P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Flohic, M. P.

Luo, C.

A. Predoi-Cross, C. Luo, P. M. Sinclair, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening and the temperature exponent of the fundamental band in CO–N2 mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 291–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margottin-Maclou, M.

A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

May, A. D.

A. Predoi-Cross, C. Luo, P. M. Sinclair, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening and the temperature exponent of the fundamental band in CO–N2 mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 291–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening in the fundamental band of CO in CO–He and CO–Ar mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 258–264 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 181, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Berman, P. Duggan, M. P. Le Flohic, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Spectroscopic technique for measuring the temperature and pressure cycle of a pressure modulator radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6280–6283 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, P.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nightingale, T.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, C. W. P.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peskett, D. G.

J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Peskett, G. D.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Curtis, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from satellites. V. The pressure modulator radiometer for NIMBUS F,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 377, 135–150 (1974).

F. W. Taylor, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, E. J. Williamson, “Radiometer for remote sounding of the upper atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 11, 135–141 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pine, A. S.

A. S. Pine, “Asymmetries and correlations in speed-dependent Dicke-narrowed line shapes of argon-broadened HF,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 397–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

A. Predoi-Cross, C. Luo, P. M. Sinclair, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening and the temperature exponent of the fundamental band in CO–N2 mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 291–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rautian, S. G.

S. G. Rautian, I. I. Sobel’man, “The effect of collisions on the Doppler broadening of spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 9, 701–716 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Curtis, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from satellites. V. The pressure modulator radiometer for NIMBUS F,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 377, 135–150 (1974).

F. W. Taylor, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, E. J. Williamson, “Radiometer for remote sounding of the upper atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 11, 135–141 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roscoe, H. K.

H. K. Roscoe, R. J. Wells, “The variation of pressure, temperature and transmission within a pressure modulator: measurements with a high-compression modulator,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 259–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Chaloner, J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, R. F. Jarnot, H. K. Roscoe, “Infra-red measurements of stratospheric composition. I. The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 145–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, P. M.

A. Predoi-Cross, C. Luo, P. M. Sinclair, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening and the temperature exponent of the fundamental band in CO–N2 mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 291–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening in the fundamental band of CO in CO–He and CO–Ar mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 258–264 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 181, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sobel’man, I. I.

S. G. Rautian, I. I. Sobel’man, “The effect of collisions on the Doppler broadening of spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 9, 701–716 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, F. W.

P. G. J. Irwin, S. B. Calcutt, F. W. Taylor, “Characterization of the thermodynamic behaviour of pressure modulated cells for remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 1–20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Taylor, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, E. J. Williamson, “Radiometer for remote sounding of the upper atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 11, 135–141 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Taylor, “Pressure modulator radiometry,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. A. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1983), Vol. 3, pp. 137–197.

Turner, D.

J. R. Drummond, D. Turner, A. Ashton, “A pressure modulator radiometer for measuring stratospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3522–3532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, A.

A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Venters, P.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wale, M. J.

J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Walrand, J.

B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, J.-P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, R. J.

H. K. Roscoe, R. J. Wells, “The variation of pressure, temperature and transmission within a pressure modulator: measurements with a high-compression modulator,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 259–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Werrett, S. T.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, J.

J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, J. G.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, E. J.

J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Taylor, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, E. J. Williamson, “Radiometer for remote sounding of the upper atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 11, 135–141 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

J. R. Drummond, A. Ashton, “Radiative measurements of pressure modulator operation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7, 187–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (4)

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, J. R. Drummond, “Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 181, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening in the fundamental band of CO in CO–He and CO–Ar mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 258–264 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Predoi-Cross, C. Luo, P. M. Sinclair, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, “Line broadening and the temperature exponent of the fundamental band in CO–N2 mixtures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 291–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, J.-P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (4)

A. S. Pine, “Asymmetries and correlations in speed-dependent Dicke-narrowed line shapes of argon-broadened HF,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 397–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Henry, D. Hurtmans, M. Margottin-Maclou, A. Valentin, “Confinement narrowing and absorber speed dependent broadening effects on CO lines in the fundamental band perturbed by Xe, Ar, Ne, He and N2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56, 647–671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roscoe, R. J. Wells, “The variation of pressure, temperature and transmission within a pressure modulator: measurements with a high-compression modulator,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 259–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. G. J. Irwin, S. B. Calcutt, F. W. Taylor, “Characterization of the thermodynamic behaviour of pressure modulated cells for remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 1–20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, D. G. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, M. J. Wale, J. Whitney, E. J. Williamson, “The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder on NIMBUS 7,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 296, 219–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Ciurylo, “Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1029–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (2)

P. D. Curtis, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from satellites. V. The pressure modulator radiometer for NIMBUS F,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 377, 135–150 (1974).

C. P. Chaloner, J. R. Drummond, J. T. Houghton, R. F. Jarnot, H. K. Roscoe, “Infra-red measurements of stratospheric composition. I. The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 145–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. R. Drummond, D. Turner, A. Ashton, “A pressure modulator radiometer for measuring stratospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3522–3532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

S. G. Rautian, I. I. Sobel’man, “The effect of collisions on the Doppler broadening of spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 9, 701–716 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation I: Theoretical Basis (Oxford U. Press, London, England, 1964).

J. R. Drummond, “MOPITT: 12 years of planning and 2.5 years of operations,” in Proceedings 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 1085–1087.

R. L. Jones, “Measurement of the Atmospheric Distributions of CH4 and N2O from Satellites,” D. Phil. thesis (Jesus College, University of Oxford, UK, 1983).

F. W. Taylor, “Pressure modulator radiometry,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. A. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1983), Vol. 3, pp. 137–197.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional schematic diagram of the PMC (not to scale), illustrating the general design and the four chambers defined for the thermodynamic box model simulation. The head of the real PMC is 1.85 cm in diameter and 1 cm long, and the body is 3.5 cm in diameter and 10.6 cm long.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Upper panels: experimental speed-dependent hard-collision (SDHC) pressures determined from the R(0) and R(18) spectral lines, along with the PMC transducer pressure and the piston displacement, for (a) experiment A and (b) experiment B. Lower panels: differences between R(0), R(18), and transducer pressures for (a) experiment A and (b) experiment B. Note that the transducer could not register pressures higher than 9 kPa.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental SDHC pressures and results from the 0.06-mm-gap model (model06) and the 0.12-mm-gap model (model12), along with the piston displacement, for (a) experiment A and (b) experiment B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hard-collision (HC) and SDHC temperatures, along with model results for the 0.06-mm-gap model (model06) and the 0.12-mm-gap model (model12) and the piston displacement, for (a) experiment A and (b) experiment B.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SDHC temperatures determined from probing the center of the cell head (experiment A) and a location halfway to the edge of the cell head (experiment D), along with the piston displacement.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Conditions for the CO–N2 Experiments

Tables Icon

Table 2 Static Fill Pressures and Mean Operating Pressures

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R0,j=S0Sj=ν01-exp-hν0kTνj1-exp-hν0kTj+1exp-ErotkT,
T=-Erotk lnν0νjj+1R0,j.
γ=ΓP,
γT1γT0=T1T0-n.
ΔTi+1=TiViVi+1Mi+1Miγ-1-T0exp-δt/τ.
Vtube=πΔPr48lη,
Vannulus=πΔPrd312lη.
m=V MP¯RT¯,
τ=4ρcvL2π2K,

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