Abstract

We determined the energies of the Mg L 2,3, Sn N 4,5, and In N 4,5 attenuation edges by measuring the transmission of high-resolution synchrotron radiation through thin filters. The Al L 2,3 and Si L 3 edges observed in the first and higher diffraction orders from the monochromator were used as energy fiducials. For each attenuation edge, the onset of attenuation with increasing energy and the inflection point of the attenuation curve were measured. The measured energy values were compared with previously determined attenuation edge energies and with electron binding energies. The measured energies of the inflection points are Mg L 2 (49.89 ± 0.02 eV), Mg L 3 (49.58 ± 0.02 eV), Sn N 4 (25.00 ± 0.02 eV), Sn N 5 (23.97 ± 0.02 eV), In N 4 (17.66 ± 0.02 eV), and In N 5 (16.70 ± 0.02 eV).

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Pied Publications, Lincoln, Neb., 1967).
  2. R. J. Schumacher, W. R. Hunter, “Thin aluminum filters for use on the Apollo Telescope Mount XUV spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 16, 904–908 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  3. K. Codling, R. P. Madden, W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, “Transmittance of tin films in the far ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 189–192 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, R. Tousey, “Thin films and their uses for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 4, 891–898 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Structure in the LII,III absorption of aluminum and its oxides,” Phys. Rev. 167, 587–591 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16286 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. M. Gullikson, Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, 2002).
  8. R. D. Deslattes, E. G. Kessler, “Experimental evaluation of inner-vacancy level energies for comparison with theory,” in Atomic Inner-Shell Physics, B. Crasemann, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).
  10. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Higher-order suppression in an on-blaze plane-grating monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 23, 293–299 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 252–255 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. F. Seely, “Extreme-ultraviolet thin-film interference in an Al-Mg-Al multiple-layer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5979–5983 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. E. Holland, F. Hanser, J. Wise, J. L. Weaver, R. Korde, R. A. Viereck, R. Grubb, D. L. Judge, “Calibration of an extreme-ultraviolet transmission grating spectrometer with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1623–1630 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. M. Th. M. Van Attekum, J. M. Trooster, “The resolution obtainable in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with unmonochromatized Mg Kα radiation,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 135–143 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. B. M. Hagström, R. Z. Bachrach, R. S. Bauer, “Oxidation of aluminum surfaces studied by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Ser. 16, 414–419 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. C. Brown, O. P. Rustgi, “Extreme ultraviolet transmission of crystalline and amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 497–500 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical constants from the far infrared to the x-ray region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Bi, C, and Al2O3,” DESY SR-74/7 (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany, 1974).
  21. W. C. Walker, O. P. Rustgi, G. L. Weissler, “Optical and photoelectric properties of thin metallic films in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 471–475 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Jezequel, J. Thomas, J. C. Lemonnier, “Optical transitions from d core states in polycrystalline indium, tin, and lead,” Solid State Commun. 23, 559–562 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., www-cxro.lbl.gov (2002).
  24. R. Nyholm, N. Martensson, “Core level binding energies for the elements Zr-Te (Z = 40-52),” J. Phys. C 13, L279–L284 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1994 (1)

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 252–255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1980 (2)

R. Nyholm, N. Martensson, “Core level binding energies for the elements Zr-Te (Z = 40-52),” J. Phys. C 13, L279–L284 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Th. M. Van Attekum, J. M. Trooster, “The resolution obtainable in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with unmonochromatized Mg Kα radiation,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 135–143 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (3)

S. B. M. Hagström, R. Z. Bachrach, R. S. Bauer, “Oxidation of aluminum surfaces studied by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Ser. 16, 414–419 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Jezequel, J. Thomas, J. C. Lemonnier, “Optical transitions from d core states in polycrystalline indium, tin, and lead,” Solid State Commun. 23, 559–562 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Schumacher, W. R. Hunter, “Thin aluminum filters for use on the Apollo Telescope Mount XUV spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 16, 904–908 (1977).
[PubMed]

1972 (1)

F. C. Brown, O. P. Rustgi, “Extreme ultraviolet transmission of crystalline and amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 497–500 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Structure in the LII,III absorption of aluminum and its oxides,” Phys. Rev. 167, 587–591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1959 (1)

Angel, D. W.

Bachrach, R. Z.

S. B. M. Hagström, R. Z. Bachrach, R. S. Bauer, “Oxidation of aluminum surfaces studied by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Ser. 16, 414–419 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Bauer, R. S.

S. B. M. Hagström, R. Z. Bachrach, R. S. Bauer, “Oxidation of aluminum surfaces studied by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Ser. 16, 414–419 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bergmark, T.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Brown, C. M.

Brown, F. C.

F. C. Brown, O. P. Rustgi, “Extreme ultraviolet transmission of crystalline and amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 497–500 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cao, R.

J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Structure in the LII,III absorption of aluminum and its oxides,” Phys. Rev. 167, 587–591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, “Transmittance of tin films in the far ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 189–192 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Denham, P.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deslattes, R. D.

R. D. Deslattes, E. G. Kessler, “Experimental evaluation of inner-vacancy level energies for comparison with theory,” in Atomic Inner-Shell Physics, B. Crasemann, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985).
[CrossRef]

Fahlman, A.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Grubb, R.

Gudat, W.

H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical constants from the far infrared to the x-ray region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Bi, C, and Al2O3,” DESY SR-74/7 (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany, 1974).

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, 2002).

Hagemann, H.-J.

H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical constants from the far infrared to the x-ray region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Bi, C, and Al2O3,” DESY SR-74/7 (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany, 1974).

Hagström, S. B. M.

S. B. M. Hagström, R. Z. Bachrach, R. S. Bauer, “Oxidation of aluminum surfaces studied by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Ser. 16, 414–419 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hamrin, K.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Hanser, F.

Hedman, J.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Holland, G. E.

Hunter, W. R.

Jezequel, G.

G. Jezequel, J. Thomas, J. C. Lemonnier, “Optical transitions from d core states in polycrystalline indium, tin, and lead,” Solid State Commun. 23, 559–562 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, G.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Judge, D. L.

Karlsson, S.-E.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Kendelewicz, T.

J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, E. G.

R. D. Deslattes, E. G. Kessler, “Experimental evaluation of inner-vacancy level energies for comparison with theory,” in Atomic Inner-Shell Physics, B. Crasemann, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985).
[CrossRef]

Korde, R.

Kunz, C.

H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical constants from the far infrared to the x-ray region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Bi, C, and Al2O3,” DESY SR-74/7 (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany, 1974).

Lemonnier, J. C.

G. Jezequel, J. Thomas, J. C. Lemonnier, “Optical transitions from d core states in polycrystalline indium, tin, and lead,” Solid State Commun. 23, 559–562 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lindau, I.

J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, B.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Lindgren, I.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Madden, R. P.

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Structure in the LII,III absorption of aluminum and its oxides,” Phys. Rev. 167, 587–591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, “Transmittance of tin films in the far ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 189–192 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Martensson, N.

R. Nyholm, N. Martensson, “Core level binding energies for the elements Zr-Te (Z = 40-52),” J. Phys. C 13, L279–L284 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Miyano, K.

J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nordberg, R.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Nordling, C.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Nyholm, R.

R. Nyholm, N. Martensson, “Core level binding energies for the elements Zr-Te (Z = 40-52),” J. Phys. C 13, L279–L284 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pianetta, P.

J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 252–255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Higher-order suppression in an on-blaze plane-grating monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 23, 293–299 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rustgi, O. P.

F. C. Brown, O. P. Rustgi, “Extreme ultraviolet transmission of crystalline and amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 497–500 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Walker, O. P. Rustgi, G. L. Weissler, “Optical and photoelectric properties of thin metallic films in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 471–475 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Sadeghi, H. R.

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Pied Publications, Lincoln, Neb., 1967).

Schumacher, R. J.

Seely, J. F.

Siegbahn, K.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Spicer, W. E.

J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

G. Jezequel, J. Thomas, J. C. Lemonnier, “Optical transitions from d core states in polycrystalline indium, tin, and lead,” Solid State Commun. 23, 559–562 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tousey, R.

Trooster, J. M.

P. M. Th. M. Van Attekum, J. M. Trooster, “The resolution obtainable in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with unmonochromatized Mg Kα radiation,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 135–143 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Van Attekum, P. M. Th. M.

P. M. Th. M. Van Attekum, J. M. Trooster, “The resolution obtainable in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with unmonochromatized Mg Kα radiation,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 135–143 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Viereck, R. A.

Walker, W. C.

Weaver, J. L.

Weissler, G. L.

Williams, R. T.

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 252–255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wise, J.

Woicik, J. C.

J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

P. M. Th. M. Van Attekum, J. M. Trooster, “The resolution obtainable in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with unmonochromatized Mg Kα radiation,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 135–143 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. C (1)

R. Nyholm, N. Martensson, “Core level binding energies for the elements Zr-Te (Z = 40-52),” J. Phys. C 13, L279–L284 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 252–255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Structure in the LII,III absorption of aluminum and its oxides,” Phys. Rev. 167, 587–591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. C. Brown, O. P. Rustgi, “Extreme ultraviolet transmission of crystalline and amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 497–500 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. C. Woicik, T. Kendelewicz, K. Miyano, R. Cao, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, W. E. Spicer, “Semiconductor surface core level shifts by use of selected overlayers,” Phys. Scr. 41, 1034–1036 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Ser. (1)

S. B. M. Hagström, R. Z. Bachrach, R. S. Bauer, “Oxidation of aluminum surfaces studied by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Ser. 16, 414–419 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

G. Jezequel, J. Thomas, J. C. Lemonnier, “Optical transitions from d core states in polycrystalline indium, tin, and lead,” Solid State Commun. 23, 559–562 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., www-cxro.lbl.gov (2002).

H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical constants from the far infrared to the x-ray region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Bi, C, and Al2O3,” DESY SR-74/7 (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany, 1974).

E. M. Gullikson, Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, 2002).

R. D. Deslattes, E. G. Kessler, “Experimental evaluation of inner-vacancy level energies for comparison with theory,” in Atomic Inner-Shell Physics, B. Crasemann, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg, ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Pied Publications, Lincoln, Neb., 1967).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Monochromator motions in (a) the on-blaze condition where the mirror and the grating are both translated and rotated to make equal grazing angles on the mirror and on the grating groove facets and (b) the off-blaze condition where only the grating is rotated after the desired on-blaze angle is set. (c) Shown is the grating geometry in an on-blaze condition (ϕ = ϕ b ). N g and N f are the normals to the grating and to the groove facets, respectively. N g ′ is the normal to the grating when the grating is rotated off blaze to a diffracted angle β that is equal to an incident angle α and of opposite sign (zero-order diffraction condition). The monochromator exit slit fixes the output direction, and only wavelengths that satisfy the grating equation can pass through it.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Observed magnesium filter attenuation curve, (b) the first derivative of the magnesium filter attenuation curve, (c) the second derivative of the magnesium filter attenuation curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correction to the grating rotation angle that is based on the reference energies of the aluminum and silicon attenuation edges.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differences between the presently determined and the previously determined (a) magnesium, aluminum, and silicon attenuation edge energies observed in the first and second orders and (b) magnesium and aluminum attenuation edge energies observed up to the fourth order.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mg, Al, and Si Attenuation Edge Energies

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mg, Al, Sn, and In Attenuation Edge Energies

Tables Icon

Table 3 Electron Binding Energies and Presently Measured Inflection Points of the Filter Attenuation Curves

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

mλ=dsin α+sin β,
mλ=2d sin ϕ sin θ,

Metrics