Abstract

The sensing characteristics of a Bragg grating imprinted in a specially developed highly birefringent side-hole fiber were investigated in detail. We showed that such a grating has almost identical sensitivities to temperature for both linearly polarized modes LP01 x and LP01 y (approximately 5.9 pm/K) and significantly different sensitivities to hydrostatic pressure (-1.93 pm/MPa for LP01 x and +5.37 pm/MPa for LP01 y mode). The sensitivity differences versus mode polarization are so high that this effect can be employed for simultaneous sensing of temperature and pressure by interrogation of the wavelength shifts at LP01 x and LP01 y modes. Applying interferometric methods, we also measured the sensitivity of the host side-hole fiber to temperature and hydrostatic pressure for each polarization mode. Our results show that there is good agreement between the normalized sensitivities of the host side-hole fiber and those of the grating for the same polarization modes.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y.-J. Rao, “In-fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355–357 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensing,” Electron. Lett. 29, 398–399 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, “Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 564–566 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Frank, K. Haroud, E. Rochat, K. Bohnert, H. Brändle, “High resolution fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 359–362.
  5. H. M. Xie, Ph. Dabkiewicz, R. Ulrich, K. Okamoto, “Side-hole fiber for fiber-optic pressure sensing,” Opt. Lett. 11, 333–335 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Turpin, M. Brevignon, J. P. Le. Pesant, O. Gaouditz, “Interfero-polarimetric fiber optic sensor for both pressure and temperature measurement,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 362–365.
  7. W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, W. Urbańczyk, “Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085–1088 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Bock, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, “Characterization of elliptical-core side-hole fibers for interferometric pressure sensing,” in Interferometry ’94: Interferometric Fiber Sensing, E. Udd, R. P. Tatam, eds., Proc. SPIE2341, 152–159 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Urbańczyk, M. S. Nawrocka, W. J. Bock, “Digital demodulation system for low-coherence interferometric sensors based on highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6618–6625 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High sensitivity pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 72–74.
  11. R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, E. Udd, “High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Y. Kim, K. Hotate, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 72–74 (1999).
  12. T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, E. Udd, “Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 628–631 (2000).
  13. S. Kreger, S. Calvert, E. Udd, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 355–358.
  14. M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.
  15. W. Urbańczyk, E. Chmielewska, W. J. Bock, “Measurement of temperature and strain sensitivities of a two-mode Bragg grating in a bow-tie fiber,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 800–804 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using interferometrically interrogated fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2226–2234 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho, S. Gupta, “Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 230–235 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Urbańczyk, T. Martynkien, W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1911–1920 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001

2000

W. Urbańczyk, E. Chmielewska, W. J. Bock, “Measurement of temperature and strain sensitivities of a two-mode Bragg grating in a bow-tie fiber,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 800–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using interferometrically interrogated fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2226–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho, S. Gupta, “Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 230–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, “Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 564–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y.-J. Rao, “In-fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensing,” Electron. Lett. 29, 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

Araújo, F. M.

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using interferometrically interrogated fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2226–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

W. Urbańczyk, T. Martynkien, W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1911–1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, W. Urbańczyk, “Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085–1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbańczyk, M. S. Nawrocka, W. J. Bock, “Digital demodulation system for low-coherence interferometric sensors based on highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6618–6625 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbańczyk, E. Chmielewska, W. J. Bock, “Measurement of temperature and strain sensitivities of a two-mode Bragg grating in a bow-tie fiber,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 800–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, “Characterization of elliptical-core side-hole fibers for interferometric pressure sensing,” in Interferometry ’94: Interferometric Fiber Sensing, E. Udd, R. P. Tatam, eds., Proc. SPIE2341, 152–159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bohnert, K.

A. Frank, K. Haroud, E. Rochat, K. Bohnert, H. Brändle, “High resolution fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 359–362.

Brändle, H.

A. Frank, K. Haroud, E. Rochat, K. Bohnert, H. Brändle, “High resolution fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 359–362.

Brevignon, M.

M. Turpin, M. Brevignon, J. P. Le. Pesant, O. Gaouditz, “Interfero-polarimetric fiber optic sensor for both pressure and temperature measurement,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 362–365.

Calvert, S.

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, E. Udd, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 355–358.

Chiang, K. S.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, “Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 564–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chmielewska, E.

W. Urbańczyk, E. Chmielewska, W. J. Bock, “Measurement of temperature and strain sensitivities of a two-mode Bragg grating in a bow-tie fiber,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 800–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chow, Y. T.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensing,” Electron. Lett. 29, 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Croucher, J. A.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High sensitivity pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 72–74.

Dabkiewicz, Ph.

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensing,” Electron. Lett. 29, 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Djambova, T. V.

Dong, X.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, “Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 564–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using interferometrically interrogated fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2226–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using interferometrically interrogated fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2226–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frank, A.

A. Frank, K. Haroud, E. Rochat, K. Bohnert, H. Brändle, “High resolution fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 359–362.

Gaouditz, O.

M. Turpin, M. Brevignon, J. P. Le. Pesant, O. Gaouditz, “Interfero-polarimetric fiber optic sensor for both pressure and temperature measurement,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 362–365.

Gomez-Rojas, L.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High sensitivity pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 72–74.

Guo, Z.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, “Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 564–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

Handerek, V. A.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High sensitivity pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 72–74.

Haroud, K.

A. Frank, K. Haroud, E. Rochat, K. Bohnert, H. Brändle, “High resolution fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 359–362.

Himeno, K.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Kanellopoulos, S.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High sensitivity pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 72–74.

Kreger, S.

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, E. Udd, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 355–358.

Le. Pesant, J. P.

M. Turpin, M. Brevignon, J. P. Le. Pesant, O. Gaouditz, “Interfero-polarimetric fiber optic sensor for both pressure and temperature measurement,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 362–365.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, “Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 564–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

Mizunami, T.

Nakai, M.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Nawrocka, M. S.

W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, W. Urbańczyk, “Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085–1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbańczyk, M. S. Nawrocka, W. J. Bock, “Digital demodulation system for low-coherence interferometric sensors based on highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6618–6625 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niiho, T.

Okamoto, K.

Ramos, R. T.

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, E. Udd, “Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 628–631 (2000).

Rao, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Rao, “In-fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensing,” Electron. Lett. 29, 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rochat, E.

A. Frank, K. Haroud, E. Rochat, K. Bohnert, H. Brändle, “High resolution fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 359–362.

Santos, J. L.

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using interferometrically interrogated fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2226–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, R. J.

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, E. Udd, “Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 628–631 (2000).

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, E. Udd, “High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Y. Kim, K. Hotate, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 72–74 (1999).

Sudo, M.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Suzaki, S.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Turpin, M.

M. Turpin, M. Brevignon, J. P. Le. Pesant, O. Gaouditz, “Interfero-polarimetric fiber optic sensor for both pressure and temperature measurement,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 362–365.

Udd, E.

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, E. Udd, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 355–358.

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, E. Udd, “Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 628–631 (2000).

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, E. Udd, “High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Y. Kim, K. Hotate, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 72–74 (1999).

Ulrich, R.

Urbanczyk, W.

W. Urbańczyk, M. S. Nawrocka, W. J. Bock, “Digital demodulation system for low-coherence interferometric sensors based on highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6618–6625 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, W. Urbańczyk, “Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085–1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbańczyk, T. Martynkien, W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1911–1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbańczyk, E. Chmielewska, W. J. Bock, “Measurement of temperature and strain sensitivities of a two-mode Bragg grating in a bow-tie fiber,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 800–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, “Characterization of elliptical-core side-hole fibers for interferometric pressure sensing,” in Interferometry ’94: Interferometric Fiber Sensing, E. Udd, R. P. Tatam, eds., Proc. SPIE2341, 152–159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wada, A.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Wójcik, J.

W. J. Bock, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, “Characterization of elliptical-core side-hole fibers for interferometric pressure sensing,” in Interferometry ’94: Interferometric Fiber Sensing, E. Udd, R. P. Tatam, eds., Proc. SPIE2341, 152–159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H. M.

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensing,” Electron. Lett. 29, 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamate, T.

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, E. Udd, “High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Y. Kim, K. Hotate, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 72–74 (1999).

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, E. Udd, “Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 628–631 (2000).

Yamauchi, R.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, “Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 564–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensing,” Electron. Lett. 29, 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, “Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 564–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, W. Urbańczyk, “Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085–1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

Y.-J. Rao, “In-fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbańczyk, E. Chmielewska, W. J. Bock, “Measurement of temperature and strain sensitivities of a two-mode Bragg grating in a bow-tie fiber,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 800–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using interferometrically interrogated fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2226–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Turpin, M. Brevignon, J. P. Le. Pesant, O. Gaouditz, “Interfero-polarimetric fiber optic sensor for both pressure and temperature measurement,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 362–365.

A. Frank, K. Haroud, E. Rochat, K. Bohnert, H. Brändle, “High resolution fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 359–362.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High sensitivity pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 72–74.

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, E. Udd, “High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Y. Kim, K. Hotate, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 72–74 (1999).

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, E. Udd, “Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 628–631 (2000).

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, E. Udd, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 355–358.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

W. J. Bock, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, “Characterization of elliptical-core side-hole fibers for interferometric pressure sensing,” in Interferometry ’94: Interferometric Fiber Sensing, E. Udd, R. P. Tatam, eds., Proc. SPIE2341, 152–159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of the side-hole fiber and (b) the enlarged view of the core region with the indicated coordinate system. The photograph was taken with the scanning electron microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schema of the system for measuring sensitivities of the Bragg grating for LP01 x and LP01 y polarization modes. SLD, superluminescent diode; PM, polarization-maintaining; and OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pressure-induced shifts of the transmission spectrum for (a) LP01 x and (b) LP01 y polarization modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature-induced shifts of the transmission spectrum for (a) LP01 x and (b) LP01 y polarization modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shifts of transmission spectra for orthogonally polarized modes (a) LP01 x and (b) LP01 y versus applied (a) temperature and (b) hydrostatic pressure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schema of the system for measuring sensitivities of the host side-hole fiber to temperature and hydrostatic pressure for LP01 x and LP01 y polarization modes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Spectrogram registered during calibration procedure (d q = 59.2 mm) and (b) the relation between the spectral separation of interference fringes and their position expressed in pixels.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Changes in retardation for the LP01 x and LP01 y polarization modes induced by (a) temperature (L t - L r = 0.995 m) and (b) hydrostatic pressure (L t - L r = 1.040 m).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Normalized Sensitivity of the Bragg Grating (1/λB )(dλ B /dX) and the Host Side-Hole Fiber (Φ/L) -1 (1/L)(dΦ/dX) to Hydrostatic Pressure and Temperature for Both Polarization Modes

Equations (9)

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ΔλxΔλy=λxTλxpλyTλypΔTΔp.
1λBidλBidX=1nidnidX+1ΛdΛdX for i=x, y,
KT=2πλ0dnx-nydT.
1LdΦidXΦiL=1nidnidX+1LdLdX for i=x, y,
ΔRi=λ02Δλi  for i=x, y,
1LdΦidXπλ0Lt-LrdΔRiXdX  for i=x, y,
dΔRiXdX=2Lt-LrNi1NidNidX+1Lt-LrdLt-LrdX  for i=x, y.
1λBdλBdX
ΦL-11LdΦdX

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