Abstract

A new concatenated configuration of optical fibers is proposed to improve misalignment tolerance and working distance in a free-space optical interconnection. The structure is composed of three segments: a thermally expanded core fiber, a coreless silica fiber, and a claddingless graded-index fiber. A numerical analysis for the design of each fiber segment is performed completely, and the device characteristics are experimentally evaluated in terms of the tolerances for a 1-dB coupling-loss increment against longitudinal, transverse, and angular misalignments.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Ogura, S. Kuchiki, K. Shiraishi, K. Ohta, I. Oishi, “Efficient coupling between laser diodes with a highly elliptic field and single-mode fibers by means of GIO fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1191–1193 (2001).
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2001 (1)

A. Ogura, S. Kuchiki, K. Shiraishi, K. Ohta, I. Oishi, “Efficient coupling between laser diodes with a highly elliptic field and single-mode fibers by means of GIO fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1191–1193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

K. Kato, I. Nishi, K. Yohino, H. Hanafusa, “Optical coupling characteristics of laser diodes to thermally diffused expanded core fiber coupling using an aspheric lens,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 469–470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

W. L. Emkey, C. A. Jack, “Analysis and evaluation of graded-index fiber lenses,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1156–1164 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1982 (3)

J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, “Electrowetting optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 4–6 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Iga, “Evaluation and reduction of aberrations in distributed-index lens: review,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1024–1029 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kishimoto, M. Koyama, “Coupling characteristics between single-mode fiber and square-law medium,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 882–893 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, “Micro-optic devices for fiber-optic communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 2, 1–7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1965 (1)

Beni, G.

J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, “Electrowetting optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 4–6 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chanclou, P.

Emkey, W. L.

W. L. Emkey, C. A. Jack, “Analysis and evaluation of graded-index fiber lenses,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1156–1164 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gadonna, M.

Hackwood, S.

J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, “Electrowetting optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 4–6 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hanafusa, H.

K. Kato, I. Nishi, K. Yohino, H. Hanafusa, “Optical coupling characteristics of laser diodes to thermally diffused expanded core fiber coupling using an aspheric lens,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 469–470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hiraguri, N.

K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

Ishikawa, R.

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, “Micro-optic devices for fiber-optic communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 2, 1–7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jack, C. A.

W. L. Emkey, C. A. Jack, “Analysis and evaluation of graded-index fiber lenses,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1156–1164 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, “Electrowetting optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 4–6 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, R.

Kataoka, H.

Kato, K.

K. Kato, I. Nishi, K. Yohino, H. Hanafusa, “Optical coupling characteristics of laser diodes to thermally diffused expanded core fiber coupling using an aspheric lens,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 469–470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

Kazami, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, R.

R. Kishimoto, M. Koyama, “Coupling characteristics between single-mode fiber and square-law medium,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 882–893 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kitano, I.

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, “Micro-optic devices for fiber-optic communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 2, 1–7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H. W.

Koyama, M.

R. Kishimoto, M. Koyama, “Coupling characteristics between single-mode fiber and square-law medium,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 882–893 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kuchiki, S.

A. Ogura, S. Kuchiki, K. Shiraishi, K. Ohta, I. Oishi, “Efficient coupling between laser diodes with a highly elliptic field and single-mode fibers by means of GIO fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1191–1193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lostec, J.

Matsumura, K.

K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minemura, K.

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, “Micro-optic devices for fiber-optic communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 2, 1–7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Minowa, J.

Morichi, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, I.

K. Kato, I. Nishi, K. Yohino, H. Hanafusa, “Optical coupling characteristics of laser diodes to thermally diffused expanded core fiber coupling using an aspheric lens,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 469–470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, A.

A. Ogura, S. Kuchiki, K. Shiraishi, K. Ohta, I. Oishi, “Efficient coupling between laser diodes with a highly elliptic field and single-mode fibers by means of GIO fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1191–1193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, I.

K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohnuki, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

A. Ogura, S. Kuchiki, K. Shiraishi, K. Ohta, I. Oishi, “Efficient coupling between laser diodes with a highly elliptic field and single-mode fibers by means of GIO fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1191–1193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, I.

A. Ogura, S. Kuchiki, K. Shiraishi, K. Ohta, I. Oishi, “Efficient coupling between laser diodes with a highly elliptic field and single-mode fibers by means of GIO fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1191–1193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pavy, D.

Poudoulec, A.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 85.

Sato, T.

Shiraishi, K.

A. Ogura, S. Kuchiki, K. Shiraishi, K. Ohta, I. Oishi, “Efficient coupling between laser diodes with a highly elliptic field and single-mode fibers by means of GIO fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1191–1193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, S.

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, “Micro-optic devices for fiber-optic communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 2, 1–7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 85.

Thual, M.

Toyama, M.

Ueno, H.

Wang, Y.

Yohino, K.

K. Kato, I. Nishi, K. Yohino, H. Hanafusa, “Optical coupling characteristics of laser diodes to thermally diffused expanded core fiber coupling using an aspheric lens,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 469–470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, “Electrowetting optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 4–6 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, “Micro-optic devices for fiber-optic communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 2, 1–7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Ogura, S. Kuchiki, K. Shiraishi, K. Ohta, I. Oishi, “Efficient coupling between laser diodes with a highly elliptic field and single-mode fibers by means of GIO fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1191–1193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, I. Nishi, K. Yohino, H. Hanafusa, “Optical coupling characteristics of laser diodes to thermally diffused expanded core fiber coupling using an aspheric lens,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 469–470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

R. Kishimoto, M. Koyama, “Coupling characteristics between single-mode fiber and square-law medium,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 882–893 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

W. L. Emkey, C. A. Jack, “Analysis and evaluation of graded-index fiber lenses,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1156–1164 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, M. Gadonna, A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics of fiber ribbon for optical interconnection devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Ohnuki, N. Hiraguri, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, H. Morichi, H. Kazami, “A lensed-fiber coupling scheme utilizing a graded-index fiber and hemispherically ended coreless fiber tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 356–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 85.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Various schemes for beam expansion when GRIN MMF is used: (a) beam propagation in a GRIN fiber, (b) the beam collimation method, (c) the in-line focusing method, and (d) the expanding and in-line focusing method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the newly proposed fiber interconnector. When the core of the TEC fiber is expanded, coupling efficiency can be improved, and an increase in the aperture of the GRIN fiber makes it possible to expand the spot size more. The ray transformation matrix M ij is given for propagation between planes i and j, where n s , n g , and n o are the refractive indices of the CSF, the GRIN-MMF axis, and air, respectively; l s and l g are the lengths of the CSF and GRIN MMF, respectively; z is the distance from the endface of the fiber terminal; and g is a quadratic gradient constant of the GRIN MMF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour plot of the calculated working distance as a function of the length of the GRIN fiber and CSF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour plot of the calculated spot size at the beam waist as a function of the length of the GRIN fiber and CSF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated maximum spot size in the proposed devices as a function of the length of the CSF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive-index distribution and fitted square-law profiles of the GRIN fiber used in the experiments: circles, refractive-index distribution; solid curve, fitted square-law profiles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured and calculated coupling losses as a function of (a) longitudinal, (b) transverse, and (c) angular displacements: solid circles, coupling loss of the normal SMF; open circles, proposed fiber interconnector; dotted curve, calculation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Optical Characteristics of Various GRIN Fibers as a Lens with 99% Transmission

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ABCD=M56M45M34M23M12,
wf=winsnoA2+a2B2AD-BC1/2, a=λπwi2ns,
AC+a2BD=0.
Power transmission=1-exp-2 R2w2,

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