Abstract

A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been applied for detection of unburned carbon in fly ash, and an automated LIBS unit has been developed and applied in a 1000-MW pulverized-coal-fired power plant for real-time measurement, specifically of unburned carbon in fly ash. Good agreement was found between measurement results from the LIBS method and those from the conventional method (Japanese Industrial Standard 8815), with a standard deviation of 0.27%. This result confirms that the measurement of unburned carbon in fly ash by use of LIBS is sufficiently accurate for boiler control. Measurements taken by this apparatus were also integrated into a boiler-control system with the objective of achieving optimal and stable combustion. By control of the rotating speed of a mill rotary separator relative to measured unburned-carbon content, it has been demonstrated that boiler control is possible in an optimized manner by use of the value of the unburned-carbon content of fly ash.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Moriyama, T. Sonoda, M. Kurihara, K. Yamamotomo, N. Takahashi, “Development of new control technology for multi coal fired boiler,” Mitsubishi Henry Industries Tech. Rev. 35, 22–25 (1998).
  2. Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, K. Yoshikawa, H. Moritomi, K. Matsumoto, “LIBS application for thermal plants monitoring,” in Proceedings of IMEKO2000 XVI IMEKO World Congress, M. N. Durakbasa, A. Afjehi-Sadat, P. H. Osanna, eds. (Austrian Society for Measurement and Automation, Vienna, Austria, 2000), Vol. II, pp. 179–184.
  3. K. Holtzclaw, J. Moore, C. Senior, “Real-time optical measurement of alkali species in air for jet engine corrosion testing,” paper AIAA-93-0791, presented at the 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 11–14 Jan. 1993, Reno, Nev. (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1993), pp. 51–61.
  4. D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 721–729 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, J. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real-time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnsen, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).
  7. J. A. Aguilera, C. Aragon, J. Campos, “Determination of carbon content in steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 1382–1387 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. J. Wallis, B. L. Chadwick, R. J. S. Morrison, “Analysis of lignite using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1231–1235 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Body, B. L. Chadwick, “Simultaneous elemental analysis system using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1625–1629 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. J. Goddard, “Materials analysis using laser-based spectroscopic techniques,” Trans. Inst. Meas. Control 13, 128–139 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, “Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 997–1004 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Noda, Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, N. Yoshikawa, “Detection of carbon content in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 701–709 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. A. Multari, L. E. Foster, D. A. Cremes, M. J. Ferris, “Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1483–1499 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Noda, Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, N. Yoshikawa, “Detection of carbon content in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 701–709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Body, B. L. Chadwick, “Simultaneous elemental analysis system using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1625–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

I. Moriyama, T. Sonoda, M. Kurihara, K. Yamamotomo, N. Takahashi, “Development of new control technology for multi coal fired boiler,” Mitsubishi Henry Industries Tech. Rev. 35, 22–25 (1998).

1997 (2)

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, “Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 997–1004 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnsen, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, J. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real-time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Goddard, “Materials analysis using laser-based spectroscopic techniques,” Trans. Inst. Meas. Control 13, 128–139 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Aguilera, J. A.

Angelone, M.

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aragon, C.

Barbini, R.

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, L. L.

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, J. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real-time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Body, D.

D. Body, B. L. Chadwick, “Simultaneous elemental analysis system using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1625–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. F.

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, J. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real-time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

Chadwick, B. L.

D. Body, B. L. Chadwick, “Simultaneous elemental analysis system using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1625–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Wallis, B. L. Chadwick, R. J. S. Morrison, “Analysis of lignite using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1231–1235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cielo, P.

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, “Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 997–1004 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Colao, F.

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D. A.

Cremes, D. A.

Deguchi, Y.

M. Noda, Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, N. Yoshikawa, “Detection of carbon content in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 701–709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, K. Yoshikawa, H. Moritomi, K. Matsumoto, “LIBS application for thermal plants monitoring,” in Proceedings of IMEKO2000 XVI IMEKO World Congress, M. N. Durakbasa, A. Afjehi-Sadat, P. H. Osanna, eds. (Austrian Society for Measurement and Automation, Vienna, Austria, 2000), Vol. II, pp. 179–184.

Fantoni, R.

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferris, M. J.

Flower, W. L.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnsen, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

Foster, L. E.

French, N. B.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnsen, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

Goddard, B. J.

B. J. Goddard, “Materials analysis using laser-based spectroscopic techniques,” Trans. Inst. Meas. Control 13, 128–139 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hencken, K. R.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnsen, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

Holtzclaw, K.

K. Holtzclaw, J. Moore, C. Senior, “Real-time optical measurement of alkali species in air for jet engine corrosion testing,” paper AIAA-93-0791, presented at the 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 11–14 Jan. 1993, Reno, Nev. (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1993), pp. 51–61.

Iwasaki, S.

M. Noda, Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, N. Yoshikawa, “Detection of carbon content in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 701–709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, K. Yoshikawa, H. Moritomi, K. Matsumoto, “LIBS application for thermal plants monitoring,” in Proceedings of IMEKO2000 XVI IMEKO World Congress, M. N. Durakbasa, A. Afjehi-Sadat, P. H. Osanna, eds. (Austrian Society for Measurement and Automation, Vienna, Austria, 2000), Vol. II, pp. 179–184.

Johnsen, H. A.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnsen, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

Kurihara, M.

I. Moriyama, T. Sonoda, M. Kurihara, K. Yamamotomo, N. Takahashi, “Development of new control technology for multi coal fired boiler,” Mitsubishi Henry Industries Tech. Rev. 35, 22–25 (1998).

Loree, T. R.

Matsumoto, K.

Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, K. Yoshikawa, H. Moritomi, K. Matsumoto, “LIBS application for thermal plants monitoring,” in Proceedings of IMEKO2000 XVI IMEKO World Congress, M. N. Durakbasa, A. Afjehi-Sadat, P. H. Osanna, eds. (Austrian Society for Measurement and Automation, Vienna, Austria, 2000), Vol. II, pp. 179–184.

Moore, J.

K. Holtzclaw, J. Moore, C. Senior, “Real-time optical measurement of alkali species in air for jet engine corrosion testing,” paper AIAA-93-0791, presented at the 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 11–14 Jan. 1993, Reno, Nev. (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1993), pp. 51–61.

Moritomi, H.

Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, K. Yoshikawa, H. Moritomi, K. Matsumoto, “LIBS application for thermal plants monitoring,” in Proceedings of IMEKO2000 XVI IMEKO World Congress, M. N. Durakbasa, A. Afjehi-Sadat, P. H. Osanna, eds. (Austrian Society for Measurement and Automation, Vienna, Austria, 2000), Vol. II, pp. 179–184.

Moriyama, I.

I. Moriyama, T. Sonoda, M. Kurihara, K. Yamamotomo, N. Takahashi, “Development of new control technology for multi coal fired boiler,” Mitsubishi Henry Industries Tech. Rev. 35, 22–25 (1998).

Morrison, R. J. S.

Multari, R. A.

Noda, M.

M. Noda, Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, N. Yoshikawa, “Detection of carbon content in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 701–709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ottesen, D. K.

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, J. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real-time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Palucci, A.

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. W.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnsen, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

Radziemski, L. J.

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, J. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real-time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Renzi, R. F.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnsen, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

Ribezzo, S.

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sabsabi, M.

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, “Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 997–1004 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Senior, C.

K. Holtzclaw, J. Moore, C. Senior, “Real-time optical measurement of alkali species in air for jet engine corrosion testing,” paper AIAA-93-0791, presented at the 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 11–14 Jan. 1993, Reno, Nev. (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1993), pp. 51–61.

Sonoda, T.

I. Moriyama, T. Sonoda, M. Kurihara, K. Yamamotomo, N. Takahashi, “Development of new control technology for multi coal fired boiler,” Mitsubishi Henry Industries Tech. Rev. 35, 22–25 (1998).

St-Onge, L.

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, “Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 997–1004 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, N.

I. Moriyama, T. Sonoda, M. Kurihara, K. Yamamotomo, N. Takahashi, “Development of new control technology for multi coal fired boiler,” Mitsubishi Henry Industries Tech. Rev. 35, 22–25 (1998).

van der Steen, H. J. L.

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wallis, F. J.

Yamamotomo, K.

I. Moriyama, T. Sonoda, M. Kurihara, K. Yamamotomo, N. Takahashi, “Development of new control technology for multi coal fired boiler,” Mitsubishi Henry Industries Tech. Rev. 35, 22–25 (1998).

Yoshikawa, K.

Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, K. Yoshikawa, H. Moritomi, K. Matsumoto, “LIBS application for thermal plants monitoring,” in Proceedings of IMEKO2000 XVI IMEKO World Congress, M. N. Durakbasa, A. Afjehi-Sadat, P. H. Osanna, eds. (Austrian Society for Measurement and Automation, Vienna, Austria, 2000), Vol. II, pp. 179–184.

Yoshikawa, N.

M. Noda, Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, N. Yoshikawa, “Detection of carbon content in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 701–709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, H. J. L. van der Steen, M. Angelone, “Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 101–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Energy Fuels (1)

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, J. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real-time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. (1)

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, “Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 997–1004 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitsubishi Henry Industries Tech. Rev. (1)

I. Moriyama, T. Sonoda, M. Kurihara, K. Yamamotomo, N. Takahashi, “Development of new control technology for multi coal fired boiler,” Mitsubishi Henry Industries Tech. Rev. 35, 22–25 (1998).

Process Control Qual. (1)

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnsen, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. Body, B. L. Chadwick, “Simultaneous elemental analysis system using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1625–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (1)

M. Noda, Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, N. Yoshikawa, “Detection of carbon content in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 701–709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Inst. Meas. Control (1)

B. J. Goddard, “Materials analysis using laser-based spectroscopic techniques,” Trans. Inst. Meas. Control 13, 128–139 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. Deguchi, S. Iwasaki, K. Yoshikawa, H. Moritomi, K. Matsumoto, “LIBS application for thermal plants monitoring,” in Proceedings of IMEKO2000 XVI IMEKO World Congress, M. N. Durakbasa, A. Afjehi-Sadat, P. H. Osanna, eds. (Austrian Society for Measurement and Automation, Vienna, Austria, 2000), Vol. II, pp. 179–184.

K. Holtzclaw, J. Moore, C. Senior, “Real-time optical measurement of alkali species in air for jet engine corrosion testing,” paper AIAA-93-0791, presented at the 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 11–14 Jan. 1993, Reno, Nev. (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1993), pp. 51–61.

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