Abstract

A number of energetic materials and explosives have been studied by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). They include black powder, neat explosives such as TNT, PETN, HMX, and RDX (in various forms), propellants such as M43 and JA2, and military explosives such as C4 and LX-14. Each of these materials gives a unique spectrum, and generally the spectra are reproducible shot to shot. We observed that the laser-produced microplasma did not initiate any of the energetic materials studied. Extensive studies of black powder and its ingredients by use of a reference spectral library have demonstrated excellent accuracy for unknown identification. Finally, we observed that these nitrogen- and oxygen-rich materials yield LIBS spectra in air that have correspondingly different O:N peak ratios compared with air. This difference can help in the detection and identification of such energetic materials.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. L. McNesby, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, “Applications of vibrational spectroscopy in the study of explosives,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, England, 2002).
  2. J. O. Cáceres, J. Tornero López, H. H. Telle, A. González Urena, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 831–838 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, “Quantitative analysis of aluminum alloys by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and plasma characterization,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 499–507 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409–421 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, P. D. French, “Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 777–793 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. M. Moskal, D. W. Hahn, “On-line sorting of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 1337–1344 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, P. D. French, “Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 777–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Cáceres, J. Tornero López, H. H. Telle, A. González Urena, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 831–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Anzano, J. M.

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cáceres, J. O.

J. O. Cáceres, J. Tornero López, H. H. Telle, A. González Urena, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 831–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carranza, J. E.

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castle, B. C.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M. D.

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cielo, P.

Fisher, B. T.

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

French, P. D.

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, P. D. French, “Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 777–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

González Urena, A.

J. O. Cáceres, J. Tornero López, H. H. Telle, A. González Urena, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 831–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gornushkin, I. B.

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, D. W.

T. M. Moskal, D. W. Hahn, “On-line sorting of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 1337–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, R. S.

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, P. D. French, “Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 777–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. Z.

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. C.

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McNesby, K. L.

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, P. D. French, “Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 777–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. McNesby, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, “Applications of vibrational spectroscopy in the study of explosives,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, England, 2002).

Miziolek, A. W.

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, P. D. French, “Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 777–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moskal, T. M.

Pesce-Rodriguez, R. A.

K. L. McNesby, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, “Applications of vibrational spectroscopy in the study of explosives,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, England, 2002).

Rusak, D. A.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sabsabi, M.

Smith, B. W.

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. H.

J. O. Cáceres, J. Tornero López, H. H. Telle, A. González Urena, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 831–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tornero López, J.

J. O. Cáceres, J. Tornero López, H. H. Telle, A. González Urena, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 831–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wainner, R. T.

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, P. D. French, “Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 777–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, G. D.

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Eng. Sci. (1)

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (3)

J. O. Cáceres, J. Tornero López, H. H. Telle, A. González Urena, “Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 831–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, P. D. French, “Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 777–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. L. McNesby, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, “Applications of vibrational spectroscopy in the study of explosives,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, England, 2002).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup used to collect LIBS spectra of explosives.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative single-shot LIBS spectra of a black powder pellet and the pure explosive, RDX. A LIBS spectrum of air is also displayed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of four single-shot LIBS spectra of a black powder pellet.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIBS spectra of four types of RDX.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LIBS spectra of pure energetic compounds: RDX, PETN, NC, HMX, and TNT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LIBS spectra of several operational explosives and propellants.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

LIBS spectra of black powder and its typical components.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

LIBS spectra of RDX in Ar and air.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Explosives and Energetic Materials

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Table 2 Results of LIBS Spectra Library Comparison

Equations (1)

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Iij=CgiAij/λijexp-Ei/kT,

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