Abstract

We use the point spread function and the modulation transfer function (MTF) as two figures-of-merit to evaluate the performance of the multiaperture interferometric configurations for the detection of a faint planet in the vicinity of its bright star. We design nonredundant interferometric layouts that provide satisfactory coverage of the spatial frequencies of interest. We propose a design incorporating a rotating, rotationally shearing interferometer in a gravity-free environment and compare its performance with the Earth-based, fixed, linear configurations. The side peak of its MTF may be centered on the coordinate associated with a likely planet spatial frequency, resulting in planet signal enhancement and isolation.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003

J. L. Flores, G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Optimal aperture configuration for a segmented and partially diluted large telescope,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 729–742 (2003).

2002

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, D. Rouan, “Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronographs,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

O. Guyon, F. Roddier, “Aperture rotation synthesis: optimization of the (u, v)-plane coverage for a rotating phased array of telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 113, 98–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Aime, R. Soummer, B. Lopez, “Stellar coronography with a redundant array of telescopes in space: the multiple mask coronograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 680–688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, “Detection of Earth-like planets using apodized telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 548, L201–L205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, H. Matsuhara, “Sensitivity of an imaging space infrared interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 40, 514–526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Zou, “Generalized figure-control algorithm for large segmented telescope mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 638–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Convergent, recursive phase reconstruction from noisy, modulated intensity patterns using synthetic interferograms,” Opt. Lett. 23, 406–408 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1994

V. L. Gamiz, D. M. Payne, “Optical array interferometry: imaging through the atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2200, 516–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1989

1988

1971

Aime, C.

C. Aime, R. Soummer, B. Lopez, “Stellar coronography with a redundant array of telescopes in space: the multiple mask coronograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 680–688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Becklund, O. A.

C. S. Williams, O. A. Becklund, Optical Transfer Function (Wiley, New York, 1989) pp. 384–386.

Boccaletti, A.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, D. Rouan, “Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronographs,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calus, J. R.

R. D. Fiete, J. A. Mooney, T. A. Tantalo, J. R. Calus, “Image quality assessment of sparse-aperture designs with decreasing fill factors,” in Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras, S. R. Cyzok, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fiete, P. S. Idell, eds., Proc. SPIE4091, 64–73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaffee, F. H.

I. S. McLean, F. H. Chaffee, “Instrumentation for the Keck Observatory,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, pp. 2–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheselka, M.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Derie, F.

F. Derie, “VLTI delay lines: design, development, and performance requirements,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Droz, S.

L. Zago, S. Droz, “A small parallel manipulator for the active alignment and focusing of the secondary mirror of the VLTI ATS,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 450–455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eiroa, C. L.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J. M. Marriotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Epps, H. W.

Fienup, J. R.

J. R. Fienup, “MTF and integration time versus fill factor for sparse-aperture imaging systems,” in Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras, S. R. Gyzak, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fieto, P. S. Idell, eds., Proc. SPIE4091, 43–47 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiete, R. D.

R. D. Fiete, J. A. Mooney, T. A. Tantalo, J. R. Calus, “Image quality assessment of sparse-aperture designs with decreasing fill factors,” in Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras, S. R. Cyzok, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fiete, P. S. Idell, eds., Proc. SPIE4091, 64–73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, E.

C. Haupt, K. Kudielka, E. Fischer, U. Johann, “High precision optical metrology for the SMART-2 mission as precursor for the DARWIN satellite constellation,” in Interferometry XI: Techniques and Analysis, K. Creath, J. Schmit, eds., Proc. SPIE4777, 143–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flebus, C.

B. Koehler, C. Flebus, “VLTI auxiliary telescopes,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 13–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flores, J. L.

J. L. Flores, G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Optimal aperture configuration for a segmented and partially diluted large telescope,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 729–742 (2003).

J. L. Flores, G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Design of a diluted-aperture by use of the practical cutoff frequency,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6010–6018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fridlund, M.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J. M. Marriotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamiz, V. L.

V. L. Gamiz, D. M. Payne, “Optical array interferometry: imaging through the atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2200, 516–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gaskill, J.

J. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Applications in Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978) pp. 301–306.

Gewrmain, M. E.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Golay, M. J. E.

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, F. Roddier, “Aperture rotation synthesis: optimization of the (u, v)-plane coverage for a rotating phased array of telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 113, 98–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harris, F. H.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haupt, C.

C. Haupt, K. Kudielka, E. Fischer, U. Johann, “High precision optical metrology for the SMART-2 mission as precursor for the DARWIN satellite constellation,” in Interferometry XI: Techniques and Analysis, K. Creath, J. Schmit, eds., Proc. SPIE4777, 143–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, M.

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, P. M.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, J. F.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hora, J. L.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horner, N. S. D.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johann, U.

C. Haupt, K. Kudielka, E. Fischer, U. Johann, “High precision optical metrology for the SMART-2 mission as precursor for the DARWIN satellite constellation,” in Interferometry XI: Techniques and Analysis, K. Creath, J. Schmit, eds., Proc. SPIE4777, 143–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. S.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. J.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaweda, M.

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, B.

B. Koehler, C. Flebus, “VLTI auxiliary telescopes,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 13–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kudielka, K.

C. Haupt, K. Kudielka, E. Fischer, U. Johann, “High precision optical metrology for the SMART-2 mission as precursor for the DARWIN satellite constellation,” in Interferometry XI: Techniques and Analysis, K. Creath, J. Schmit, eds., Proc. SPIE4777, 143–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, S. R.

Leger, A.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J. M. Marriotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, B.

C. Aime, R. Soummer, B. Lopez, “Stellar coronography with a redundant array of telescopes in space: the multiple mask coronograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 680–688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marriotti, J. M.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J. M. Marriotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhara, H.

T. Nakajima, H. Matsuhara, “Sensitivity of an imaging space infrared interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 40, 514–526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, D. W.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, P. C.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McLean, I. S.

I. S. McLean, F. H. Chaffee, “Instrumentation for the Keck Observatory,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, pp. 2–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, F.

Mills, J. P.

Monet, D. G.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, J. A.

R. D. Fiete, J. A. Mooney, T. A. Tantalo, J. R. Calus, “Image quality assessment of sparse-aperture designs with decreasing fill factors,” in Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras, S. R. Cyzok, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fiete, P. S. Idell, eds., Proc. SPIE4091, 64–73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, H.

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murison, M. A.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, N.

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

Nisenson, P.

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, “Detection of Earth-like planets using apodized telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 548, L201–L205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, H.

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, T.

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paez, G.

J. L. Flores, G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Optimal aperture configuration for a segmented and partially diluted large telescope,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 729–742 (2003).

M. S. Scholl, G. Paez, “Cancellation of the star light generated by a nearby star-planet system upon detection with a rotationally shearing interferometer,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 357–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Flores, G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Design of a diluted-aperture by use of the practical cutoff frequency,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6010–6018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Scholl, G. Paez, “Simulated interferometric patterns generated by a nearby star-planet system and detected by a rotationally shearing interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2019–2024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Convergent, recursive phase reconstruction from noisy, modulated intensity patterns using synthetic interferograms,” Opt. Lett. 23, 406–408 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Fringe analysis and phase reconstruction from modulated intensity patterns,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1669–1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Telescopes,” in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D. Malacara, B. Thompson, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001), pp. 207–261.

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Radiometry,” in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D. Malacara, B. Thompson, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001), pp. 649–699.

Papaliolios, C.

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, “Detection of Earth-like planets using apodized telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 548, L201–L205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. M.

V. L. Gamiz, D. M. Payne, “Optical array interferometry: imaging through the atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2200, 516–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Penny, A. J.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J. M. Marriotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philips, J. D.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, S.

Reasenberg, R. D.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riaud, P.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, D. Rouan, “Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronographs,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robin, J.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J. M. Marriotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

O. Guyon, F. Roddier, “Aperture rotation synthesis: optimization of the (u, v)-plane coverage for a rotating phased array of telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 113, 98–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, S. K.

Rouan, D.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, D. Rouan, “Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronographs,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schalinski, C.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J. M. Marriotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, M. S.

Seidelmann, P. K.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shibai, H.

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

C. Aime, R. Soummer, B. Lopez, “Stellar coronography with a redundant array of telescopes in space: the multiple mask coronograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 680–688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strojnik, M.

J. L. Flores, G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Optimal aperture configuration for a segmented and partially diluted large telescope,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 729–742 (2003).

J. L. Flores, G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Design of a diluted-aperture by use of the practical cutoff frequency,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6010–6018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Convergent, recursive phase reconstruction from noisy, modulated intensity patterns using synthetic interferograms,” Opt. Lett. 23, 406–408 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Fringe analysis and phase reconstruction from modulated intensity patterns,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1669–1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Telescopes,” in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D. Malacara, B. Thompson, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001), pp. 207–261.

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Radiometry,” in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D. Malacara, B. Thompson, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001), pp. 649–699.

Tantalo, T. A.

R. D. Fiete, J. A. Mooney, T. A. Tantalo, J. R. Calus, “Image quality assessment of sparse-aperture designs with decreasing fill factors,” in Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras, S. R. Cyzok, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fiete, P. S. Idell, eds., Proc. SPIE4091, 64–73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, M.

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Urban, S. E.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vassar, R. D.

N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S. S.

Watson, S. M.

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R. Wilhelm, “Comparing geometrical and wave-optical algorithms of a novel propagation code applied to the VLTI,” in Wave-Optical Systems Engineering, F. Wyrowski, ed., Proc. SPIE4436, 89–100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. S.

C. S. Williams, O. A. Becklund, Optical Transfer Function (Wiley, New York, 1989) pp. 384–386.

Woolf, N. J.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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L. Zago, S. Droz, “A small parallel manipulator for the active alignment and focusing of the secondary mirror of the VLTI ATS,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 450–455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zou, W.

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

C. Aime, R. Soummer, B. Lopez, “Stellar coronography with a redundant array of telescopes in space: the multiple mask coronograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 680–688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, “Detection of Earth-like planets using apodized telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 548, L201–L205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

M. S. Scholl, G. Paez, “Cancellation of the star light generated by a nearby star-planet system upon detection with a rotationally shearing interferometer,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 357–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

J. L. Flores, G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Optimal aperture configuration for a segmented and partially diluted large telescope,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 729–742 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, J. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, N. J. Woolf, “Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer,” Nature 395, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

V. L. Gamiz, D. M. Payne, “Optical array interferometry: imaging through the atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2200, 516–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn.

O. Guyon, F. Roddier, “Aperture rotation synthesis: optimization of the (u, v)-plane coverage for a rotating phased array of telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 113, 98–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, D. Rouan, “Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronographs,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

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N. S. D. Horner, M. E. Gewrmain, F. H. Harris, M. S. Johnson, K. J. Johnston, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, J. D. Philips, R. D. Reasenberg, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, R. D. Vassar, “Full-sky astrometric mapping explorer: an optical, astrometric survey mission,” in UV, Optical and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jacobson, eds., SPIE Proc.4013, 473–481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J. M. Marriotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Radiometry,” in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D. Malacara, B. Thompson, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001), pp. 649–699.

B. Koehler, C. Flebus, “VLTI auxiliary telescopes,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 13–24 (2000).
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L. Zago, S. Droz, “A small parallel manipulator for the active alignment and focusing of the secondary mirror of the VLTI ATS,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 450–455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilhelm, “Comparing geometrical and wave-optical algorithms of a novel propagation code applied to the VLTI,” in Wave-Optical Systems Engineering, F. Wyrowski, ed., Proc. SPIE4436, 89–100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kaweda, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
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J. R. Fienup, “MTF and integration time versus fill factor for sparse-aperture imaging systems,” in Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras, S. R. Gyzak, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fieto, P. S. Idell, eds., Proc. SPIE4091, 43–47 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Fiete, J. A. Mooney, T. A. Tantalo, J. R. Calus, “Image quality assessment of sparse-aperture designs with decreasing fill factors,” in Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras, S. R. Cyzok, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fiete, P. S. Idell, eds., Proc. SPIE4091, 64–73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Williams, O. A. Becklund, Optical Transfer Function (Wiley, New York, 1989) pp. 384–386.

G. Paez, M. Strojnik, “Telescopes,” in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D. Malacara, B. Thompson, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001), pp. 207–261.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometrical parameters for a two-dimensional aperture layout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear array with N apertures of diameter D, spaced γD apart, with D equal to 1 m. The center of gravity of this configuration is denoted C.G.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PSF of the linear redundant configuration having the baseline L = 10 m, and N = 4, with the following parameters: first curve D = 1 m, γ = 2, and second curve D = 2 m, γ = 1.667. The angle subtended between the central peak and the first minimum is λ/(DNγ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MTF of the linear redundant array having the length L = 10 m, and N = 4, with the following parameters: for the first curve D = 1 m, γ = 2, and for the second one, D = 2 m, γ = 1.667. This configuration, with D/ L > 1/7, provides complete spatial coverage in the f x direction, without exhibiting any spatial frequency regions of zero MTF value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PSF of the nonredundant linear configuration shows a clearly defined central peak.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MTF of the nonredundant linear array provides a nearly uniform spatial frequency coverage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Rotationally shearing array incorporates four telescopes. Two aperture pairs are also in line, with the center separation of 10 m. Center of gravity of the configuration is marked with C. G.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PSF of the rotationally shearing configuration, for four values of the aperture diameter D.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

MTF of the rotationally shearing layout for four different values of D. These MTFs display a wide frequency band with strong modulation, isolated from other frequencies by the zero region of the MTF.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pr= n=1N WDr-Pn.
WDr=circ|r|D/2= 1|r|/D1/20|r|/D>1/2.
Pr=circ|r|D/2 ** n=1N δr-Pn.
ηxi, yi=circ|r|D/2n=1N δx-pn, y-qn× U=πxiD/λfV=πyiD/λf.
ηxi, yi=2J1U2+V21/2U2+V21/2n=1Nexp-i2Upn+Vqn/DU=πxiD/λfV=πyiD/λf.
n=1Nexp-i2Upn+Vqn/D=2 n=1N/2cos2n-1γU= sinNγUsinγU= sinNγπxiD/λfsinγπxiD/λf.
ηxi, yi=2J1U2+V21/2U2+V21/2×sinNγUsinγUU=πxiD/λfV=πyiD/λf.
ηxi, yi=2J1xi2+yi21/2πD/λfxi2+yi21/2πD/λf× sinNγπDxi/λfsinγπDxi/λf.
PSFU, V= 1N22J1U2+V21/2U2+V21/22×sinNγUsinγU2U=πxiD/λfV=πyiD/λf.
hxi, yi= 1N22J1xi2+yi21/2πD/λfxi2+yi21/2πD/λf2×sinNγπDxi/λfsinγπDxi/λf2.
PSFU, V= |ηU, V|2|η0, 0|2= 2J1U2+V21/2U2+V21/22×1N+ 1N2m=1N-1n=m+1Ncos2Upm+Vqm-Upn-Vqn/D.
PSFU, V= |ηU, V|2|η0, 0|2= 2J1U2+V21/2U2+V21/22×1N+ 1N2m=1N-1n=m+1Ncos2Upm-pn/D.
OTFfx= 1Nn=1Nm=1N  WDr-Pn×WDr-Pm-UλfπDd2r.
OTFfx= 1Nn=1Nm=1NOTFnmfx.
OTFnmfx= π2cos-1ρnmfx-ρnmfx1-ρnnf.
ρnmfx= 1D |fλfx- Pn-Pm|.

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