Abstract

In many situations it is not possible for an adaptive optics system to use a point source to measure the phase derivative, such as imaging along slant paths through the atmosphere and observation of the earth from space with a lightweight optic. Instead, small subimages of the observed scene can be used in a scene-based wave-front sensing technique. This study presents three important advances in the understanding of this technique. Rigorous analysis shows how slope estimation performance depends precisely on scene content and illumination. Scaling laws for changes in illumination are derived. The technique, when applied to point sources, is more robust to detect size changes and background levels than current methods.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. C. Chen, C. W. Bowers, D. A. Content, M. Marzouk, R. C. Romeo, “Advances in very lightweight composite mirror technology,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2320–2329 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, “Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243–264 (1994).
  4. R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, C. U. Keller, “Evaluation of phase-diversity techniques for solar-image restoration,” Astrophys. J. 466, 1087–1099 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. R. Rimmele, “Solar adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 218–231 (2000).
  6. T. R. Rimmele, O. von der Luehe, P. H. Wiborg, A. L. Widener, R. B. Dunn, G. Spence, “Solar feature correlation tracker,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 186–193 (1991).
  7. L. G. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comp. Surveys 24, 325–376 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. van Dam, R. G. Lane, “Wave-front slope estimation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1319–1324 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 188–200 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. A. Tyler, D. L. Fried, “Image-position error associated with a quadrant detector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 804–808 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds., The Infrared Handbook, revised ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1978).
  12. L. A. Poyneer, D. T. Gavel, J. M. Brase, “Fast wave-front reconstruction in large adaptive optics systems with use of the Fourier transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2100–2111 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University, New York, 1998).
  14. J.-P. Veran, G. Herriot, “Centroid gain compensation in Shack-Hartmann adaptive optics systems with natural or laser guide star,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1430–1439 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. de Pater, S. G. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, H. G. Roe, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, “Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings,” Icarus 160, 359–374 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (3)

H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 188–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. de Pater, S. G. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, H. G. Roe, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, “Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings,” Icarus 160, 359–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, D. T. Gavel, J. M. Brase, “Fast wave-front reconstruction in large adaptive optics systems with use of the Fourier transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2100–2111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

M. A. van Dam, R. G. Lane, “Wave-front slope estimation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1319–1324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Veran, G. Herriot, “Centroid gain compensation in Shack-Hartmann adaptive optics systems with natural or laser guide star,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1430–1439 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chen, C. W. Bowers, D. A. Content, M. Marzouk, R. C. Romeo, “Advances in very lightweight composite mirror technology,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2320–2329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, C. U. Keller, “Evaluation of phase-diversity techniques for solar-image restoration,” Astrophys. J. 466, 1087–1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, “Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243–264 (1994).

1992 (1)

L. G. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comp. Surveys 24, 325–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. A. Tyler, D. L. Fried, “Image-position error associated with a quadrant detector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 804–808 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Acton, D. S.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

An, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Avicola, K.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berthod, M.

H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 188–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, C. W.

P. C. Chen, C. W. Bowers, D. A. Content, M. Marzouk, R. C. Romeo, “Advances in very lightweight composite mirror technology,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2320–2329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brase, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brase, J. M.

Brown, L. G.

L. G. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comp. Surveys 24, 325–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. C.

P. C. Chen, C. W. Bowers, D. A. Content, M. Marzouk, R. C. Romeo, “Advances in very lightweight composite mirror technology,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2320–2329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Content, D. A.

P. C. Chen, C. W. Bowers, D. A. Content, M. Marzouk, R. C. Romeo, “Advances in very lightweight composite mirror technology,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2320–2329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Pater, I.

I. de Pater, S. G. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, H. G. Roe, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, “Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings,” Icarus 160, 359–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R. B.

T. R. Rimmele, O. von der Luehe, P. H. Wiborg, A. L. Widener, R. B. Dunn, G. Spence, “Solar feature correlation tracker,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 186–193 (1991).

Foroosh, H.

H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 188–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

G. A. Tyler, D. L. Fried, “Image-position error associated with a quadrant detector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 804–808 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gathright, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

L. A. Poyneer, D. T. Gavel, J. M. Brase, “Fast wave-front reconstruction in large adaptive optics systems with use of the Fourier transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2100–2111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. de Pater, S. G. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, H. G. Roe, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, “Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings,” Icarus 160, 359–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ghez, A.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gibbard, S. G.

I. de Pater, S. G. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, H. G. Roe, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, “Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings,” Icarus 160, 359–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University, New York, 1998).

Herriot, G.

Ho, K.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, C. U.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, C. U. Keller, “Evaluation of phase-diversity techniques for solar-image restoration,” Astrophys. J. 466, 1087–1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lai, O.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lane, R. G.

Larkin, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lofdahl, M. G.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, C. U. Keller, “Evaluation of phase-diversity techniques for solar-image restoration,” Astrophys. J. 466, 1087–1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, “Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243–264 (1994).

Lupton, W.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

I. de Pater, S. G. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, H. G. Roe, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, “Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings,” Icarus 160, 359–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marzouk, M.

P. C. Chen, C. W. Bowers, D. A. Content, M. Marzouk, R. C. Romeo, “Advances in very lightweight composite mirror technology,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2320–2329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Max, C.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Max, C. E.

I. de Pater, S. G. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, H. G. Roe, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, “Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings,” Icarus 160, 359–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paxman, R. G.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, C. U. Keller, “Evaluation of phase-diversity techniques for solar-image restoration,” Astrophys. J. 466, 1087–1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

Rimmele, T. R.

T. R. Rimmele, “Solar adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 218–231 (2000).

T. R. Rimmele, O. von der Luehe, P. H. Wiborg, A. L. Widener, R. B. Dunn, G. Spence, “Solar feature correlation tracker,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 186–193 (1991).

Roe, H. G.

I. de Pater, S. G. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, H. G. Roe, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, “Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings,” Icarus 160, 359–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, R. C.

P. C. Chen, C. W. Bowers, D. A. Content, M. Marzouk, R. C. Romeo, “Advances in very lightweight composite mirror technology,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2320–2329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scharmer, G. B.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, C. U. Keller, “Evaluation of phase-diversity techniques for solar-image restoration,” Astrophys. J. 466, 1087–1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, “Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243–264 (1994).

Seldin, J. H.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, C. U. Keller, “Evaluation of phase-diversity techniques for solar-image restoration,” Astrophys. J. 466, 1087–1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, C.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spence, G.

T. R. Rimmele, O. von der Luehe, P. H. Wiborg, A. L. Widener, R. B. Dunn, G. Spence, “Solar feature correlation tracker,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 186–193 (1991).

Stomski, P.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsubota, K.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, G. A.

G. A. Tyler, D. L. Fried, “Image-position error associated with a quadrant detector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 804–808 (1982).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

Veran, J.-P.

von der Luehe, O.

T. R. Rimmele, O. von der Luehe, P. H. Wiborg, A. L. Widener, R. B. Dunn, G. Spence, “Solar feature correlation tracker,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 186–193 (1991).

Wiborg, P. H.

T. R. Rimmele, O. von der Luehe, P. H. Wiborg, A. L. Widener, R. B. Dunn, G. Spence, “Solar feature correlation tracker,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 186–193 (1991).

Widener, A. L.

T. R. Rimmele, O. von der Luehe, P. H. Wiborg, A. L. Widener, R. B. Dunn, G. Spence, “Solar feature correlation tracker,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 186–193 (1991).

Wizinowich, P.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zerubia, J. B.

H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 188–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

ACM Comp. Surveys (1)

L. G. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comp. Surveys 24, 325–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, “Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243–264 (1994).

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Lofdahl, G. B. Scharmer, C. U. Keller, “Evaluation of phase-diversity techniques for solar-image restoration,” Astrophys. J. 466, 1087–1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

I. de Pater, S. G. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, H. G. Roe, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, “Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings,” Icarus 160, 359–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 188–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. C. Chen, C. W. Bowers, D. A. Content, M. Marzouk, R. C. Romeo, “Advances in very lightweight composite mirror technology,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2320–2329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. R. Rimmele, “Solar adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 218–231 (2000).

T. R. Rimmele, O. von der Luehe, P. H. Wiborg, A. L. Widener, R. B. Dunn, G. Spence, “Solar feature correlation tracker,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 186–193 (1991).

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University, New York, 1998).

W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds., The Infrared Handbook, revised ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1978).

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