Abstract

With a specially designed probe, the phase difference between s and p polarization of light reflected under surface-plasmon resonance is measured by use of a common-path heterodyne interferometer. For specific ratios of phase difference to glucose concentration, the glucose concentration can be estimated as a function of the measured phase data. A prototype was set up to demonstrate the feasibility of this sensor, which was experimentally tested in the range 40–500 mg/dl with a small quantity of solution and had a measurement resolution of 1.41 mg/dl at 25 °C.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Liu, P. Hering, M. O. Scully, “An integrated optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 18–23 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Chou, Y. C. Huang, C. M. Feng, M. Chang, “Amplitude sensitive optical heterodyne and phase lock-in technique for small optical rotation angle detection of chiral liquid,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 356–359 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. M. Feng, Y. C. Huang, J. G. Chang, M. Chang, C. Chou, “A true sensitive optical heterodyne polarimeter for glucose concentration measurement,” Opt. Commun. 141, 314–321 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. J. Mcnichols, G. L. Cote, “Optical glucose sensing in biological fluids: an overview,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5–16 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, J. H. Liou, “Application of a liquid sensor based on surface plasma wave excitation to distinguish methyl alcohol from ethyl alcohol,” Opt. Eng. 39, 311–314 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. H. Liao, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Tsai, “Effects of a metal film and prism dielectric properties of surface plasmon resonance in a multilayer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 36, 1105–1111 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Kolomenskii, P. D. Gershon, H. A. Schuessler, “Sensitivity and detection limit of concentration and absorption measurements by laser-induced surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6539–6547 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. H. Chiu, J. Y. Lee, D. C. Su, “Refractive index measurement based on the effects of total internal reflection and the use of heterodyne interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2936–2939 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Y. Lin, D. C. Su, “A new type of optical heterodyne polarimeter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 55–58 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. W. King, G. L. Cote, R. McNichols, M. J. Goetz, “Multispectral polarimetric glucose detection using a single Pockels cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2746–2753 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. H. Chiu, J. Y. Lee, D. C. Su, “Complex refractive-index measurement based on Fresnel’s equation and the uses of heterodyne interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4047–4052 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2003

J. Y. Lin, D. C. Su, “A new type of optical heterodyne polarimeter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 55–58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. J. Mcnichols, G. L. Cote, “Optical glucose sensing in biological fluids: an overview,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, J. H. Liou, “Application of a liquid sensor based on surface plasma wave excitation to distinguish methyl alcohol from ethyl alcohol,” Opt. Eng. 39, 311–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Kasunic, “Comparison of Kretschmann-Raether angular regimes for measuring changes in bulk refractive index,” Appl. Opt. 39, 61–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. A. Kolomenskii, P. D. Gershon, H. A. Schuessler, “Sensitivity and detection limit of concentration and absorption measurements by laser-induced surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6539–6547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chiu, J. Y. Lee, D. C. Su, “Refractive index measurement based on the effects of total internal reflection and the use of heterodyne interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2936–2939 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Tsai, “Effects of a metal film and prism dielectric properties of surface plasmon resonance in a multilayer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 36, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chou, Y. C. Huang, C. M. Feng, M. Chang, “Amplitude sensitive optical heterodyne and phase lock-in technique for small optical rotation angle detection of chiral liquid,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 356–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Feng, Y. C. Huang, J. G. Chang, M. Chang, C. Chou, “A true sensitive optical heterodyne polarimeter for glucose concentration measurement,” Opt. Commun. 141, 314–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. C. Su, M. H. Chiu, C. D. Chen, “Simple two-frequency laser,” Precis. Eng. 18, 161–163 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. W. King, G. L. Cote, R. McNichols, M. J. Goetz, “Multispectral polarimetric glucose detection using a single Pockels cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2746–2753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

Y. Liu, P. Hering, M. O. Scully, “An integrated optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 18–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. G.

C. M. Feng, Y. C. Huang, J. G. Chang, M. Chang, C. Chou, “A true sensitive optical heterodyne polarimeter for glucose concentration measurement,” Opt. Commun. 141, 314–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L. B.

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liao, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Tsai, “Effects of a metal film and prism dielectric properties of surface plasmon resonance in a multilayer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 36, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, M.

C. M. Feng, Y. C. Huang, J. G. Chang, M. Chang, C. Chou, “A true sensitive optical heterodyne polarimeter for glucose concentration measurement,” Opt. Commun. 141, 314–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chou, Y. C. Huang, C. M. Feng, M. Chang, “Amplitude sensitive optical heterodyne and phase lock-in technique for small optical rotation angle detection of chiral liquid,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 356–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. D.

D. C. Su, M. H. Chiu, C. D. Chen, “Simple two-frequency laser,” Precis. Eng. 18, 161–163 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, J. H. Liou, “Application of a liquid sensor based on surface plasma wave excitation to distinguish methyl alcohol from ethyl alcohol,” Opt. Eng. 39, 311–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, M. H.

Chou, C.

C. M. Feng, Y. C. Huang, J. G. Chang, M. Chang, C. Chou, “A true sensitive optical heterodyne polarimeter for glucose concentration measurement,” Opt. Commun. 141, 314–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chou, Y. C. Huang, C. M. Feng, M. Chang, “Amplitude sensitive optical heterodyne and phase lock-in technique for small optical rotation angle detection of chiral liquid,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 356–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cote, G. L.

R. J. Mcnichols, G. L. Cote, “Optical glucose sensing in biological fluids: an overview,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. King, G. L. Cote, R. McNichols, M. J. Goetz, “Multispectral polarimetric glucose detection using a single Pockels cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2746–2753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Feng, C. M.

C. M. Feng, Y. C. Huang, J. G. Chang, M. Chang, C. Chou, “A true sensitive optical heterodyne polarimeter for glucose concentration measurement,” Opt. Commun. 141, 314–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chou, Y. C. Huang, C. M. Feng, M. Chang, “Amplitude sensitive optical heterodyne and phase lock-in technique for small optical rotation angle detection of chiral liquid,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 356–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gershon, P. D.

Goetz, M. J.

T. W. King, G. L. Cote, R. McNichols, M. J. Goetz, “Multispectral polarimetric glucose detection using a single Pockels cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2746–2753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hering, P.

Y. Liu, P. Hering, M. O. Scully, “An integrated optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 18–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. C.

C. Chou, Y. C. Huang, C. M. Feng, M. Chang, “Amplitude sensitive optical heterodyne and phase lock-in technique for small optical rotation angle detection of chiral liquid,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 356–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Feng, Y. C. Huang, J. G. Chang, M. Chang, C. Chou, “A true sensitive optical heterodyne polarimeter for glucose concentration measurement,” Opt. Commun. 141, 314–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasunic, K. J.

King, T. W.

T. W. King, G. L. Cote, R. McNichols, M. J. Goetz, “Multispectral polarimetric glucose detection using a single Pockels cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2746–2753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kolomenskii, A. A.

Lee, C. M.

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liao, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Tsai, “Effects of a metal film and prism dielectric properties of surface plasmon resonance in a multilayer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 36, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

Liao, C. H.

C. H. Liao, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Tsai, “Effects of a metal film and prism dielectric properties of surface plasmon resonance in a multilayer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 36, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Y. Lin, D. C. Su, “A new type of optical heterodyne polarimeter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 55–58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liou, J. H.

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, J. H. Liou, “Application of a liquid sensor based on surface plasma wave excitation to distinguish methyl alcohol from ethyl alcohol,” Opt. Eng. 39, 311–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, P. Hering, M. O. Scully, “An integrated optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 18–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McNichols, R.

T. W. King, G. L. Cote, R. McNichols, M. J. Goetz, “Multispectral polarimetric glucose detection using a single Pockels cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2746–2753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mcnichols, R. J.

R. J. Mcnichols, G. L. Cote, “Optical glucose sensing in biological fluids: an overview,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuessler, H. A.

Scoong, T. H.

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

Y. Liu, P. Hering, M. O. Scully, “An integrated optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 18–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. M.

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Su, D. C.

Su, W. K.

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, J. H. Liou, “Application of a liquid sensor based on surface plasma wave excitation to distinguish methyl alcohol from ethyl alcohol,” Opt. Eng. 39, 311–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. H.

C. H. Liao, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Tsai, “Effects of a metal film and prism dielectric properties of surface plasmon resonance in a multilayer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 36, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

Y. Liu, P. Hering, M. O. Scully, “An integrated optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 18–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Liou, J. M. Shen, T. H. Scoong, “Design and measurement of a dielectric sensor based on surface plasma excitation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 136, 260–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

R. J. Mcnichols, G. L. Cote, “Optical glucose sensing in biological fluids: an overview,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phy.

C. H. Liao, C. M. Lee, L. B. Chang, J. H. Tsai, “Effects of a metal film and prism dielectric properties of surface plasmon resonance in a multilayer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 36, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

C. Chou, Y. C. Huang, C. M. Feng, M. Chang, “Amplitude sensitive optical heterodyne and phase lock-in technique for small optical rotation angle detection of chiral liquid,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 356–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. Y. Lin, D. C. Su, “A new type of optical heterodyne polarimeter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 55–58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. M. Feng, Y. C. Huang, J. G. Chang, M. Chang, C. Chou, “A true sensitive optical heterodyne polarimeter for glucose concentration measurement,” Opt. Commun. 141, 314–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. C. Cheng, W. K. Su, J. H. Liou, “Application of a liquid sensor based on surface plasma wave excitation to distinguish methyl alcohol from ethyl alcohol,” Opt. Eng. 39, 311–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. W. King, G. L. Cote, R. McNichols, M. J. Goetz, “Multispectral polarimetric glucose detection using a single Pockels cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2746–2753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng.

D. C. Su, M. H. Chiu, C. D. Chen, “Simple two-frequency laser,” Precis. Eng. 18, 161–163 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection at the boundary surface between a prism and a thin gold film under SPR.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement results and associated fitting curves of phase difference versus glucose concentration at 15, 25, and 35 °C.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

It=|Et|2 =¼ cos2 αrp2+sin2 αrs2+2 cos α sin αrprs cos2πft+ϕ,
rq=r12q+r23q expi2kz2d1+r12qr23q expi2kz2d, q=p, s,
ϕ=argrp-argrs,
Ir=½ 1+cos2πft.
Δc=|Δϕ|/s,

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