Abstract

Multilayer lifetime has emerged as one of the major issues for the commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). We describe the performance of an oxidation-resistant capping layer of Ru atop multilayers that results in a reflectivity above 69% at 13.2 nm, which is suitable for EUVL projection optics and has been tested with accelerated electron-beam and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light in a water-vapor environment. Based on accelerated exposure results, we calculated multilayer lifetimes for all reflective mirrors in a typical commercial EUVL tool and concluded that Ru-capped multilayers have ∼40× longer lifetimes than Si-capped multilayers, which translates to 3 months to many years, depending on the mirror dose.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

2002 (5)

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, W. M. Clift, M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, P. Grunow, S. Bajt, “Radiation-induced protective carbon coating for extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 696–703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393–2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, B. Vidal, “Extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors deposited using radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering: the influence of self-bias voltage on reflectivity and roughness,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 3969–3976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

St. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, Th. Holz, H. Mai, S. Müllender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Singh, J. J. M. Braat, “Capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer interference coatings,” Opt. Lett. 26, 259–261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

Alameda, J.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

L. E. Klebanoff, W. M. Clift, M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, P. Grunow, S. Bajt, “Radiation-induced protective carbon coating for extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 696–703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 217–224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Malinowski, C. A. Steinhaus, D. E. Meeker, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Relation between electron- and photon-caused oxidation in EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 429–438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 460–469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S.

Barbee, T.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bijkerk,

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bijkerk, F.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

Braat, J. J. M.

Braun, St.

St. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, Th. Holz, H. Mai, S. Müllender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

Chapman, H. N.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clift, M.

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393–2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 460–469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, P. Grunow, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Use of molecular oxygen to reduce EUV-induced carbon contamination of optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 347–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clift, W. M.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, W. M. Clift, M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, P. Grunow, S. Bajt, “Radiation-induced protective carbon coating for extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 696–703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, P. Grunow, W. M. Clift, C. Steinhaus, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 342–346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the engineering test stand,” in Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 310–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Malinowski, C. A. Steinhaus, D. E. Meeker, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Relation between electron- and photon-caused oxidation in EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 429–438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 217–224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dietsch, R.

St. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, Th. Holz, H. Mai, S. Müllender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Folta, J. A.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 217–224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaines, D. P.

Görts, P.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Görts, P. C.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gottwald, A.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grabner, R. F.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graham, S.

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393–2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 460–469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the engineering test stand,” in Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 310–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grantham, S.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grunow, P.

L. E. Klebanoff, W. M. Clift, M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, P. Grunow, S. Bajt, “Radiation-induced protective carbon coating for extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 696–703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, P. Grunow, W. M. Clift, C. Steinhaus, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 342–346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, P. Grunow, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Use of molecular oxygen to reduce EUV-induced carbon contamination of optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 347–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grunow, P. A.

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the engineering test stand,” in Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 310–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. A. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High performance Mo/Si multilayer coatings for EUV lithography using ion beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4058 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 217–224 (1999).
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Haidl, M.

St. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, Th. Holz, H. Mai, S. Müllender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 9–15 (2001).
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S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
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E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
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Haney, S. J.

L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, P. Grunow, W. M. Clift, C. Steinhaus, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 342–346 (2001).
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L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the engineering test stand,” in Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 310–315 (2002).
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Holz, Th.

St. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, Th. Holz, H. Mai, S. Müllender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 9–15 (2001).
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R. Hudyma, “High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” U.S. patent6,033,079 (7March2000).

R. Hudyma, “An overview of optical systems for 30 nm resolution lithography at EUV wavelengths,” in International Optical Design Conference 2002, P. K. Manhart, J. M. Sasian, eds., Proc. SPIE4832, 137–148 (2002).
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R. Hudyma, D. Shafer, “High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” U.S. patent6,188,513 (13March2001).

Jansen, R.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
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Jonkers, J.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kandaka, N.

M. Shiraishi, N. Kandaka, K. Murakami, “Mo/Si multilayers deposited by low-pressure rotary magnet cathode sputtering for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 249–256 (2003).
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Kaufmann, B.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
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Kessels, M. J. H.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
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Klebanoff, L.

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393–2400 (2002).
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M. Malinowski, P. Grunow, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Use of molecular oxygen to reduce EUV-induced carbon contamination of optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 347–356 (2001).
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Klebanoff, L. E.

L. E. Klebanoff, W. M. Clift, M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, P. Grunow, S. Bajt, “Radiation-induced protective carbon coating for extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 696–703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, P. Grunow, W. M. Clift, C. Steinhaus, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 342–346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the engineering test stand,” in Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 310–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 460–469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Malinowski, C. A. Steinhaus, D. E. Meeker, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Relation between electron- and photon-caused oxidation in EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 429–438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 217–224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 217–224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koster, N.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krumrey, M.

Kurt, R.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leson, A.

St. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leung, A. H.

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the engineering test stand,” in Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 310–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, P. Grunow, W. M. Clift, C. Steinhaus, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 342–346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maas, E. L. G.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

Mai, H.

St. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, Th. Holz, H. Mai, S. Müllender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, M.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, P. Grunow, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Use of molecular oxygen to reduce EUV-induced carbon contamination of optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 347–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, M. E.

L. E. Klebanoff, W. M. Clift, M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, P. Grunow, S. Bajt, “Radiation-induced protective carbon coating for extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 696–703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, P. Grunow, W. M. Clift, C. Steinhaus, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 342–346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Malinowski, C. A. Steinhaus, D. E. Meeker, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Relation between electron- and photon-caused oxidation in EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 429–438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 217–224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meeker, D. E.

M. E. Malinowski, C. A. Steinhaus, D. E. Meeker, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Relation between electron- and photon-caused oxidation in EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 429–438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meiling, H.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

Mertens, B.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

Mertin, M.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, P. A.

Mirkarimi, P. B.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moss, M.

St. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muellender, S.

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

Müllender, S.

St. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, Th. Holz, H. Mai, S. Müllender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, K.

M. Shiraishi, N. Kandaka, K. Murakami, “Mo/Si multilayers deposited by low-pressure rotary magnet cathode sputtering for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 249–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K.

Nguyen, N.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oestreich, S.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Putero-Vuaroqueaux, M.

M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, B. Vidal, “Extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors deposited using radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering: the influence of self-bias voltage on reflectivity and roughness,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 3969–3976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. C.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, D.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, R.

St. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, Th. Holz, H. Mai, S. Müllender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scolze, F.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shafer, D.

R. Hudyma, D. Shafer, “High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” U.S. patent6,188,513 (13March2001).

Shiraishi, M.

M. Shiraishi, N. Kandaka, K. Murakami, “Mo/Si multilayers deposited by low-pressure rotary magnet cathode sputtering for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 249–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

Sperry, V.

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. A. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High performance Mo/Si multilayer coatings for EUV lithography using ion beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4058 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Spiller, “Smooth multilayer coatings on rough substrates,” presented at the conference for Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Chamonix Mont Blanc, France, 3–7 March 2002, http://cletus.phys.columbia.edu/pxrms/ .

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E. A.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, R. C.

Stearns, D.

Steinhaus, C.

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393–2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, W. M. Clift, M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, P. Grunow, S. Bajt, “Radiation-induced protective carbon coating for extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 696–703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, P. Grunow, W. M. Clift, C. Steinhaus, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 342–346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, P. Grunow, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Use of molecular oxygen to reduce EUV-induced carbon contamination of optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 347–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steinhaus, C. A.

M. E. Malinowski, C. A. Steinhaus, D. E. Meeker, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Relation between electron- and photon-caused oxidation in EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 429–438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steinhaus, C. E.

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 460–469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stietz, F.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

Stuik, R.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tarrio, C.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

D. P. Gaines, R. C. Spitzer, N. M. Ceglio, M. Krumrey, G. Ulm, “Radiation hardness of molybdenum silicon multilayers designed for use in a soft-x-ray projection lithography system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6991–6998 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Tarnishing of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6985–6990 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Runstraat, A.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, B.

M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, B. Vidal, “Extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors deposited using radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering: the influence of self-bias voltage on reflectivity and roughness,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 3969–3976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Visser, M.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C. C.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wedowski, M.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 217–224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A. E.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

Zalm, P.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, B. Vidal, “Extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors deposited using radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering: the influence of self-bias voltage on reflectivity and roughness,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 3969–3976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

L. E. Klebanoff, W. M. Clift, M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, P. Grunow, S. Bajt, “Radiation-induced protective carbon coating for extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 696–703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393–2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

St. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

St. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, Th. Holz, H. Mai, S. Müllender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (17)

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 236–248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudyma, “An overview of optical systems for 30 nm resolution lithography at EUV wavelengths,” in International Optical Design Conference 2002, P. K. Manhart, J. M. Sasian, eds., Proc. SPIE4832, 137–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudyma, “High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” U.S. patent6,033,079 (7March2000).

R. Hudyma, D. Shafer, “High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” U.S. patent6,188,513 (13March2001).

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Malinowski, C. A. Steinhaus, D. E. Meeker, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Relation between electron- and photon-caused oxidation in EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 429–438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the engineering test stand,” in Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 310–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, “Smooth multilayer coatings on rough substrates,” presented at the conference for Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Chamonix Mont Blanc, France, 3–7 March 2002, http://cletus.phys.columbia.edu/pxrms/ .

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Görts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 64–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, P. Grunow, W. M. Clift, C. Steinhaus, A. H. Leung, S. J. Haney, “First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 342–346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 217–224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiraishi, N. Kandaka, K. Murakami, “Mo/Si multilayers deposited by low-pressure rotary magnet cathode sputtering for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 249–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, E. L. G. Maas, F. Bijkerk, R. Klein, F. Scholze, P. Zalm, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, S. Muellender, B. Mertens, H. Meiling, “Protection of Mo/Si multilayers with a carbon capping layer,” presented at the ASET/SEMATECH Workshop on Extreme UV Lithography, Matsue, Japan, 29–31 October 2001.

Product names are mentioned only for completeness, and their mention does not constitute any endorsements by the U.S. government.

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 460–469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, P. Grunow, C. Steinhaus, M. Clift, L. Klebanoff, “Use of molecular oxygen to reduce EUV-induced carbon contamination of optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 347–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Görts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. G. Maas, M. J. H. Kessels, Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scolze, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectivity curve as a function of wavelength for an interface-engineered multilayer with a Ru capping layer demonstrating a record 69.6% reflectivity at 13.2 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Capping layer design, Ru-on-B4C-on-Si layer, deposited on top of a standard Mo-Si multilayer. All Ru-capped multilayers exposed to electron and EUV beams in this study had this type of capping layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lattice fringes caused by polycrystalline Ru grains are shown in this high-resolution TEM image taken in plane view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Small-angle electron-beam diffraction pattern obtained in plane view on a Ru/B4C bilayer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Auger depth profiles of an as-deposited Ru-capped multilayer (solid) and a Ru-capped multilayer exposed to an electron beam in presence of water vapor for 55 h (dashed).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

XPS spectra showing the surface chemistry (Ru and O) of an as-deposited Ru-capped multilayer (exposure time, 0 h) and an electron-beam exposed Ru-capped multilayer (exposure time, 55 h).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance difference maps for (a) Ru- and (b) Si-capped multilayers after 55 h of electron-beam exposure in a water-vapor environment. The Si-capped multilayer lost ∼17% in reflectance, whereas the Ru-capped multilayer lost only ∼2% under identical conditions. The scale bar ranges from 0 to -17%.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance difference maps for (a) Ru- and (b) Si-capped multilayers for EUV exposures in a water-vapor environment. The Si-capped multilayer lost ∼16.4% in reflectance, whereas the Ru-capped multilayer lost ∼1.4% under identical conditions. The scale bar ranges from 0 to -16.4%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Lifetimes of Optical Elements Based on Electron-Beam Extrapolations Lne and EUV Extrapolations L n EUV a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

 in=1 Riλdλ,
Jn=Pn/An=Pw/ AnR7-n=DwAw/twAnR7-n,

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