Abstract

We experimentally studied the three-dimensional imaging of the microspheres by using confocal and conventional scanning polarization microscopes. Because of the field amplitude averaging effect of the confocal system, the polarization of the detected signals is mainly parallel to the initial polarization. As a result, the signal intensity from the microspheres in the confocal polarization microscope with a crossed analyzer was found to be weaker than that in the conventional system. Based on a vector approach that takes the polarization into account and on the image formations of the two systems, theoretical expressions are given that agree well with the experimental results.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. F. Hallimond, The Polarizing Microscope (Vickers, York, UK, 1970).
  2. H. Kubota, S. Inoué, “Diffraction images in the polarizing microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 191–198 (1959).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, “On the extinction coefficient in confocal polarization microscopy,” J. Microsc. 179, 238–240 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, P. Higdon, “The imaging of dielectric point scatterers in conventional and confocal polarisation microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 141, 298–313 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681–1698 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “On the general properties of polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 148, 300–315 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Ashkin, “Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853–4860 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Fayngold, “Spherical particle imaging and glare-ring spectroscopy with backscattered light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1825–1835 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Inami, Y. Kawata, “Three-dimensional imaging analysis of confocal and conventional polarization microscopes by use of Mie scattering theory,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6369–6373 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1632–1639 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).
  15. J. Mahler, G. Rafler, “Modified melamine resins for optical applications,” Opt. Mater. 12, 363–368 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. T. Grandy, Scattering of Waves from Large Spheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of optical resonances of dielectric spheres by light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1803–1814 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, N. Gaponik, A. Kornowski, A. L. Rogach, H. Möhwald, “Core-shell structures formed by the solvent-controlled precipitation of luminescent CdTe nanocrystals on latex spheres,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1684–1687 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Möller, M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, “Mode identification in spherical microcavities doped with quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253–3255 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, N. P. Gaponik, A. L. Rogach, “Whispering gallery mode emission from a core-shell system of CdTe nanocrystals on a spherical microcavity,” in Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures, V. E. Borisenko, S. V. Gaponenko, V. S. Gurin, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2003), pp. 120–123.

2002 (2)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Möller, M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, “Mode identification in spherical microcavities doped with quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253–3255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, N. Gaponik, A. Kornowski, A. L. Rogach, H. Möhwald, “Core-shell structures formed by the solvent-controlled precipitation of luminescent CdTe nanocrystals on latex spheres,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1684–1687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Inami, Y. Kawata, “Three-dimensional imaging analysis of confocal and conventional polarization microscopes by use of Mie scattering theory,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6369–6373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Mahler, G. Rafler, “Modified melamine resins for optical applications,” Opt. Mater. 12, 363–368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681–1698 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “On the general properties of polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 148, 300–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. Ashkin, “Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853–4860 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, P. Higdon, “The imaging of dielectric point scatterers in conventional and confocal polarisation microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 141, 298–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Fayngold, “Spherical particle imaging and glare-ring spectroscopy with backscattered light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1825–1835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, “On the extinction coefficient in confocal polarization microscopy,” J. Microsc. 179, 238–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

Alexander, D. R.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Artemyev, M. V.

B. Möller, M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, “Mode identification in spherical microcavities doped with quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253–3255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853–4860 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of optical resonances of dielectric spheres by light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1803–1814 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. P.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Caruso, F.

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

Y. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, N. P. Gaponik, A. L. Rogach, “Whispering gallery mode emission from a core-shell system of CdTe nanocrystals on a spherical microcavity,” in Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures, V. E. Borisenko, S. V. Gaponenko, V. S. Gurin, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2003), pp. 120–123.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of optical resonances of dielectric spheres by light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1803–1814 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Eychmuller, A.

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fayngold, M.

Gaponik, N.

I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, N. Gaponik, A. Kornowski, A. L. Rogach, H. Möhwald, “Core-shell structures formed by the solvent-controlled precipitation of luminescent CdTe nanocrystals on latex spheres,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1684–1687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaponik, N. P.

Y. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, N. P. Gaponik, A. L. Rogach, “Whispering gallery mode emission from a core-shell system of CdTe nanocrystals on a spherical microcavity,” in Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures, V. E. Borisenko, S. V. Gaponenko, V. S. Gurin, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2003), pp. 120–123.

Giersig, M.

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grandy, W. T.

W. T. Grandy, Scattering of Waves from Large Spheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Hallimond, A. F.

A. F. Hallimond, The Polarizing Microscope (Vickers, York, UK, 1970).

Hare, J.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Higdon, P.

T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, P. Higdon, “The imaging of dielectric point scatterers in conventional and confocal polarisation microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 141, 298–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Higdon, P. D.

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681–1698 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “On the general properties of polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 148, 300–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Inami, W.

Inoué, S.

Juškaitis, R.

T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, P. Higdon, “The imaging of dielectric point scatterers in conventional and confocal polarisation microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 141, 298–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, “On the extinction coefficient in confocal polarization microscopy,” J. Microsc. 179, 238–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornowski, A.

I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, N. Gaponik, A. Kornowski, A. L. Rogach, H. Möhwald, “Core-shell structures formed by the solvent-controlled precipitation of luminescent CdTe nanocrystals on latex spheres,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1684–1687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, J.

J. Mahler, G. Rafler, “Modified melamine resins for optical applications,” Opt. Mater. 12, 363–368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Möhwald, H.

I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, N. Gaponik, A. Kornowski, A. L. Rogach, H. Möhwald, “Core-shell structures formed by the solvent-controlled precipitation of luminescent CdTe nanocrystals on latex spheres,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1684–1687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Möller, B.

B. Möller, M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, “Mode identification in spherical microcavities doped with quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253–3255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Radtchenko, I. L.

I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, N. Gaponik, A. Kornowski, A. L. Rogach, H. Möhwald, “Core-shell structures formed by the solvent-controlled precipitation of luminescent CdTe nanocrystals on latex spheres,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1684–1687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rafler, G.

J. Mahler, G. Rafler, “Modified melamine resins for optical applications,” Opt. Mater. 12, 363–368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rakovich, Y.

Y. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, N. P. Gaponik, A. L. Rogach, “Whispering gallery mode emission from a core-shell system of CdTe nanocrystals on a spherical microcavity,” in Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures, V. E. Borisenko, S. V. Gaponenko, V. S. Gurin, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2003), pp. 120–123.

Rogach, A. L.

I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, N. Gaponik, A. Kornowski, A. L. Rogach, H. Möhwald, “Core-shell structures formed by the solvent-controlled precipitation of luminescent CdTe nanocrystals on latex spheres,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1684–1687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, N. P. Gaponik, A. L. Rogach, “Whispering gallery mode emission from a core-shell system of CdTe nanocrystals on a spherical microcavity,” in Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures, V. E. Borisenko, S. V. Gaponenko, V. S. Gurin, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2003), pp. 120–123.

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, S. A.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhorukov, G. B.

I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, N. Gaponik, A. Kornowski, A. L. Rogach, H. Möhwald, “Core-shell structures formed by the solvent-controlled precipitation of luminescent CdTe nanocrystals on latex spheres,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1684–1687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Susha, A. S.

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Török, P.

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “On the general properties of polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 148, 300–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681–1698 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wannemacher, R.

B. Möller, M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, “Mode identification in spherical microcavities doped with quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253–3255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weller, H.

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “On the general properties of polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 148, 300–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681–1698 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, P. Higdon, “The imaging of dielectric point scatterers in conventional and confocal polarisation microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 141, 298–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, “On the extinction coefficient in confocal polarization microscopy,” J. Microsc. 179, 238–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

Woggon, U.

B. Möller, M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, “Mode identification in spherical microcavities doped with quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253–3255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, N. Gaponik, A. Kornowski, A. L. Rogach, H. Möhwald, “Core-shell structures formed by the solvent-controlled precipitation of luminescent CdTe nanocrystals on latex spheres,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1684–1687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Möller, M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, “Mode identification in spherical microcavities doped with quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253–3255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. A (1)

A. S. Susha, F. Caruso, A. L. Rogach, G. B. Sukhorukov, A. Kornowski, H. Möhwald, M. Giersig, A. Eychmuller, H. Weller, “Formation of luminescent spherical core-shell particles by the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolyte and CdTe(S) nanocrystals on latex colloids,” Colloids Surf. A 163, 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, “On the extinction coefficient in confocal polarization microscopy,” J. Microsc. 179, 238–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681–1698 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “On the general properties of polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 148, 300–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, R. Juškaitis, P. Higdon, “The imaging of dielectric point scatterers in conventional and confocal polarisation microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 141, 298–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Mahler, G. Rafler, “Modified melamine resins for optical applications,” Opt. Mater. 12, 363–368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

A. Ashkin, “Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853–4860 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. F. Hallimond, The Polarizing Microscope (Vickers, York, UK, 1970).

T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

W. T. Grandy, Scattering of Waves from Large Spheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, N. P. Gaponik, A. L. Rogach, “Whispering gallery mode emission from a core-shell system of CdTe nanocrystals on a spherical microcavity,” in Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures, V. E. Borisenko, S. V. Gaponenko, V. S. Gurin, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2003), pp. 120–123.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a confocal scanning or conventional (when the pinhole is removed) polarization microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized confocal scanning images of microspheres, 5.2 μm in diameter, with different axial locations. From (a) to (f) z = -a, -a/2, 0, a/4, a/2, a, respectively. There are two defects, A and B, inside the spheres.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Focused light incident upon a sphere edge at point P.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized images of spheres, 5.2 μm in diameter, obtained with the confocal scanning polarization microscope with a crossed analyzer. From (a) to (c), z = -a, 0, 3a/4, respectively. There are two defects, A and B, inside the spheres.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized images of microspheres, 5.2 μm in diameter, obtained with a conventional scanning optical microscope with (a) a parallel analyzer, (b) a crossed analyzer, and (c) no analyzer at z = 0.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization images of spheres, 5.2 μm in diameter, obtained with a conventional scanning optical microscope with a crossed analyzer. Focal positions from (a) to (d) are z = -a, -a/2, a/2, a, respectively.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ex=Pβ, θ, ϕ+Qβ, θ, ϕcos 2ϕ+ξ,
Ey=Qβ, θ, ϕsin 2ϕ+ξ.
Iconf=02π0αEsin θ cos θdθdϕ2,
E=Pβ, θ, ϕcos γ+Qβ, θ, ϕcos2ϕ+2ξ-γ.
Iconf=02π0αPβ, θ, ϕcos γ+Qβ, θ, ϕcos 2ϕ cos2ξ-γsin θ cos θdθdϕ2.
I//conf=02π0αPβ, θ, ϕ+Qβ, θ, ϕcos 2ϕ cos 2ξsin θ cos θdθdϕ2.
I//conf0α Pβ, θ, ϕsin θ cos θdθdϕ2,
Iγconf0α Pβ, θ, ϕsin θ cos θdθdϕ2 cos2 γ.
Iconf=sin2 2ξ×02π0α Qβ, θ, ϕcos 2ϕ sin θ cos θdθdϕ2,
Iintconfξ, z=02π0αrθ, ϕ, zfϕ+Q cos 2ϕ+ξexpjΦsin θ cos θdθdϕ2,
Iintconfξ, z=Γ2+2ΓΘ cos Φ sin 2ξ+Θ2 sin2 2ξ,
Θ=02π0α Q cos 2ϕ sin θ cos θdθdϕ.
Iconv=02π0α |E|2 sin θ cos θdθdϕ.
I//conv=02π0αP2+2PQ cos 2ϕ cos 2ξ+Q2 cos2 2ϕ cos2 2ξsin θ cos θdθdϕ.
Iconv=sin2 2ξ02π0α Q2 cos2 2ϕ sin θ cos θdθdϕ,
Iconv=02π0αP2+2PQ cos 2ϕ cos 2ξ+Q2 cos2 2ϕsin θ cos θdθdϕ.

Metrics