Abstract

Photonic bandgap (PBG) regions have been calculated for periodically grooved Si structures, acting as a one-dimensional photonic crystal. The wavelength range of the PBG as a function of the ratio (D Si/A) is presented, where D Si is the width of the Si walls and A is the grooved silicon lattice constant. The influence of the parameter D Si, the refractive index of the space between the Si walls and the number of structure periods, m, on the forming of PBG regions is discussed. A good correlation between the calculated and the experimentally observed PBG regions is obtained.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. V. A. Tolmachev, T. S. Perova, J. K. Vij, E. V. Astrova, K. Berwick, A. Moore, “FTIR and Raman investigation of vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” in Opto-Ireland 2002: Optics and Photonics Technologies and Applications, T. G. Glynn, ed., Proc. SPIE4876, 196–205 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003

V. Tolmachev, T. Perova, E. Astrova, B. Volchek, J. K. Vij, “Vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 544–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, F. Shanhui, C. Chiping, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystal: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. L. Kendall, “Vertical etching of silicon at very high aspect ratios,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 9, 373–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Astrova, E.

V. Tolmachev, T. Perova, E. Astrova, B. Volchek, J. K. Vij, “Vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 544–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astrova, E. V.

V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Tolmachev, T. S. Perova, J. K. Vij, E. V. Astrova, K. Berwick, A. Moore, “FTIR and Raman investigation of vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” in Opto-Ireland 2002: Optics and Photonics Technologies and Applications, T. G. Glynn, ed., Proc. SPIE4876, 196–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1977).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1977).

Berwick, K.

V. A. Tolmachev, T. S. Perova, J. K. Vij, E. V. Astrova, K. Berwick, A. Moore, “FTIR and Raman investigation of vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” in Opto-Ireland 2002: Optics and Photonics Technologies and Applications, T. G. Glynn, ed., Proc. SPIE4876, 196–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chigrin, D. N.

Chiping, C.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, F. Shanhui, C. Chiping, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, F. Shanhui, C. Chiping, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaponenko, S. V.

Granitsyna, L. S.

V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, F. Shanhui, C. Chiping, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Singapore, 1995).

Kendall, D. L.

D. L. Kendall, “Vertical etching of silicon at very high aspect ratios,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 9, 373–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuo-Yi, Lim

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Singapore, 1995).

Michel, J.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, F. Shanhui, C. Chiping, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, A.

V. A. Tolmachev, T. S. Perova, J. K. Vij, E. V. Astrova, K. Berwick, A. Moore, “FTIR and Raman investigation of vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” in Opto-Ireland 2002: Optics and Photonics Technologies and Applications, T. G. Glynn, ed., Proc. SPIE4876, 196–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nashchekin, A. V.

V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perova, T.

V. Tolmachev, T. Perova, E. Astrova, B. Volchek, J. K. Vij, “Vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 544–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perova, T. S.

V. A. Tolmachev, T. S. Perova, J. K. Vij, E. V. Astrova, K. Berwick, A. Moore, “FTIR and Raman investigation of vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” in Opto-Ireland 2002: Optics and Photonics Technologies and Applications, T. G. Glynn, ed., Proc. SPIE4876, 196–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reif, R.

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Remenyuk, A. D.

V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shanhui, F.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, F. Shanhui, C. Chiping, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, H. I.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, F. Shanhui, C. Chiping, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolmachev, V.

V. Tolmachev, T. Perova, E. Astrova, B. Volchek, J. K. Vij, “Vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 544–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tolmachev, V. A.

V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Tolmachev, T. S. Perova, J. K. Vij, E. V. Astrova, K. Berwick, A. Moore, “FTIR and Raman investigation of vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” in Opto-Ireland 2002: Optics and Photonics Technologies and Applications, T. G. Glynn, ed., Proc. SPIE4876, 196–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vij, J. K.

V. Tolmachev, T. Perova, E. Astrova, B. Volchek, J. K. Vij, “Vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 544–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Tolmachev, T. S. Perova, J. K. Vij, E. V. Astrova, K. Berwick, A. Moore, “FTIR and Raman investigation of vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” in Opto-Ireland 2002: Optics and Photonics Technologies and Applications, T. G. Glynn, ed., Proc. SPIE4876, 196–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vlasova, E. N.

V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Volchek, B.

V. Tolmachev, T. Perova, E. Astrova, B. Volchek, J. K. Vij, “Vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 544–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Volchek, B. Z.

V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, F. Shanhui, C. Chiping, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Singapore, 1995).

Wu, S.-T.

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystal: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yarotsky, D. A.

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci.

D. L. Kendall, “Vertical etching of silicon at very high aspect ratios,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 9, 373–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, Lim Kuo-Yi, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, R. Reif, “Air-bridge microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystal: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

V. Tolmachev, T. Perova, E. Astrova, B. Volchek, J. K. Vij, “Vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 544–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, F. Shanhui, C. Chiping, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semiconductors

V. A. Tolmachev, L. S. Granitsyna, E. N. Vlasova, B. Z. Volchek, A. V. Nashchekin, A. D. Remenyuk, E. V. Astrova, “One-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by vertical anisotropic etching of silicon,” Semiconductors 36, 996–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. A. Tolmachev, T. S. Perova, J. K. Vij, E. V. Astrova, K. Berwick, A. Moore, “FTIR and Raman investigation of vertically etched silicon as 1D photonic crystal,” in Opto-Ireland 2002: Optics and Photonics Technologies and Applications, T. G. Glynn, ed., Proc. SPIE4876, 196–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Singapore, 1995).

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1977).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscopy image of 1D PC based on the periodically grooved Si with the lattice constant A = 4 μm, the number of lattice periods m = 7, and the width of Si walls D Si = 0.8 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculations of the main PBG (M) and secondary (1, 2, 3 etc.) PBGs for a 1D PC based on the grooved Si with number of periods m = 7, A = 4 μm at normal incidence of light. (b) Calculated (dotted line) and measured (solid line) IR reflectance spectrum of sample S2. Note that the reflection band cannot be measured above 15 μm owing to the cutoff of the detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PBG regions for the main and the two closest secondary bandgaps versus filling factor D Si/A and number of periods m shown beside the respective bandgap. (b) Calculated reflectance spectrum for the grooved Si structure with 1 lattice period (m = 1). The lattice constant A = 4 μm was used for all calculations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) PBG regions for the main and the two closest secondary bandgaps for the empty (n Si/n space = 3.42/1) and composite (n Si/n space = 3.42/1.6) grooved Si structures. (b) Calculated reflectance spectra for the same conditions with D Si/A = 0.125, A = 4 μm, and m = 7.

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