Abstract

Photodiodes are used as easy-to-operate detectors in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt photodiodes are calibrated with an uncertainty of spectral responsivity of 0.3% or less. Stable photodiodes are a prerequisite for the dissemination of these high-accuracy calibrations to customers. Silicon photodiodes with different top layers were exposed to intense extreme-ultraviolet irradiation. Diodes coated with diamondlike carbon or TiSiN proved to be stable within a few percent up to a radiant exposure of 100 kJ/cm2. The changes in responsivity could be explained as being due to carbon contamination and to changes in the internal charge collection efficiency. In ultrahigh vacuum, no indication of oxidation was found.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Ulm, B. Beckhoff, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, “The PTB radiometry laboratory at the BESSY II electron storage ring,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Methods, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 610–621 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Rabus, V. Persch, G. Ulm, “Synchrotron-radiation operated cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as high-accuracy primary detector standard in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet, and soft-x-ray spectral ranges,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5421–5440 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes: high-accuracy measurements and improved self-calibration in the soft X-ray spectral range,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 534–543 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224–S228 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Scholze, G. Brandt, P. Müller, B. Meyer, F. Scholz, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration for EUV metrology at PTB,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 680–689 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Canfield, R. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, G. Ulm, “Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range,” Metrologia 35, 355–362 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, C. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, K. Vogler, “Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7167–7172 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Korde, J. S. Cable, L. R. Canfield, “One gigarad passivating nitrided oxides for 100% internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 1655–1659 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Dunningham, R. Vest, E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. Banine, J. Benshop, M. Leenders, R. Moors, “The relationship between EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 126–135 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926–2939 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224–S228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Dunningham, R. Vest, E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, C. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, K. Vogler, “Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7167–7172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

L. Canfield, R. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Werner, “Ultraviolet stability of silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 407–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, G. Ulm, “Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range,” Metrologia 35, 355–362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926–2939 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Korde, J. S. Cable, L. R. Canfield, “One gigarad passivating nitrided oxides for 100% internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 1655–1659 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Banine, V.

V. Banine, J. Benshop, M. Leenders, R. Moors, “The relationship between EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beckhoff, B.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Ulm, B. Beckhoff, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, “The PTB radiometry laboratory at the BESSY II electron storage ring,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Methods, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 610–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benshop, J.

V. Banine, J. Benshop, M. Leenders, R. Moors, “The relationship between EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bijkerk, F.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, G.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, G. Brandt, P. Müller, B. Meyer, F. Scholz, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration for EUV metrology at PTB,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 680–689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cable, J. S.

R. Korde, J. S. Cable, L. R. Canfield, “One gigarad passivating nitrided oxides for 100% internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 1655–1659 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, L.

L. Canfield, R. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, L. R.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Korde, J. S. Cable, L. R. Canfield, “One gigarad passivating nitrided oxides for 100% internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 1655–1659 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Desor, R.

L. Canfield, R. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dunningham, D.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Dunningham, R. Vest, E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elp, J. V.

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fliegauf, R.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gerth, C.

Goerts, P.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gottwald, A.

M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, C. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, K. Vogler, “Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7167–7172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Dunningham, R. Vest, E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, R.

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johannsen, U.

M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ulm, B. Beckhoff, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, “The PTB radiometry laboratory at the BESSY II electron storage ring,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Methods, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 610–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Korde, R.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Dunningham, R. Vest, E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Canfield, R. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Korde, J. S. Cable, L. R. Canfield, “One gigarad passivating nitrided oxides for 100% internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 1655–1659 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koster, N.

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kroth, U.

M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, C. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, K. Vogler, “Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7167–7172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krumrey, M.

G. Ulm, B. Beckhoff, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, “The PTB radiometry laboratory at the BESSY II electron storage ring,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Methods, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 610–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuschnerus, P.

M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, G. Ulm, “Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range,” Metrologia 35, 355–362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Larason, T. C.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leenders, M.

V. Banine, J. Benshop, M. Leenders, R. Moors, “The relationship between EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lykke, K. R.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mertens, B.

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, G. Brandt, P. Müller, B. Meyer, F. Scholz, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration for EUV metrology at PTB,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 680–689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moors, R.

V. Banine, J. Benshop, M. Leenders, R. Moors, “The relationship between EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Müller, P.

F. Scholze, G. Brandt, P. Müller, B. Meyer, F. Scholz, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration for EUV metrology at PTB,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 680–689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oestreich, S.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Persch, V.

Prince, C.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Dunningham, R. Vest, E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, H.

M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926–2939 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, G. Ulm, “Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range,” Metrologia 35, 355–362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabus, V. Persch, G. Ulm, “Synchrotron-radiation operated cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as high-accuracy primary detector standard in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet, and soft-x-ray spectral ranges,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5421–5440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ulm, B. Beckhoff, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, “The PTB radiometry laboratory at the BESSY II electron storage ring,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Methods, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 610–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes: high-accuracy measurements and improved self-calibration in the soft X-ray spectral range,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 534–543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, C. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, K. Vogler, “Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7167–7172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, G. Ulm, “Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range,” Metrologia 35, 355–362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rost, D.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

Schmidtke, H.

L. Canfield, R. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, D.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, F.

F. Scholze, G. Brandt, P. Müller, B. Meyer, F. Scholz, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration for EUV metrology at PTB,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 680–689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224–S228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926–2939 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, G. Ulm, “Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range,” Metrologia 35, 355–362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes: high-accuracy measurements and improved self-calibration in the soft X-ray spectral range,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 534–543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, G. Brandt, P. Müller, B. Meyer, F. Scholz, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration for EUV metrology at PTB,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 680–689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, P. S.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stietz, F.

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tassy, I.

Thornagel, R.

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ulm, B. Beckhoff, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, “The PTB radiometry laboratory at the BESSY II electron storage ring,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Methods, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 610–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tiedtke, K.

Tümmler, J.

F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224–S228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, G. Brandt, P. Müller, B. Meyer, F. Scholz, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration for EUV metrology at PTB,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 680–689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224–S228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926–2939 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, G. Ulm, “Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range,” Metrologia 35, 355–362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabus, V. Persch, G. Ulm, “Synchrotron-radiation operated cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as high-accuracy primary detector standard in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet, and soft-x-ray spectral ranges,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5421–5440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes: high-accuracy measurements and improved self-calibration in the soft X-ray spectral range,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 534–543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Ulm, B. Beckhoff, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, “The PTB radiometry laboratory at the BESSY II electron storage ring,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Methods, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 610–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, G. Brandt, P. Müller, B. Meyer, F. Scholz, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration for EUV metrology at PTB,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 680–689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van de Runstraat, A.

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, M.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vest, R.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Dunningham, R. Vest, E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Canfield, R. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vest, R. E.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, G. Brandt, P. Müller, B. Meyer, F. Scholz, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration for EUV metrology at PTB,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 680–689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vogler, K.

Wedowski, M.

R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Werner, L.

M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Werner, “Ultraviolet stability of silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 407–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, G. Ulm, “Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range,” Metrologia 35, 355–362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weser, J.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE4344, 402–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

R. Korde, J. S. Cable, L. R. Canfield, “One gigarad passivating nitrided oxides for 100% internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 1655–1659 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926–2939 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (6)

F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224–S228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Dunningham, R. Vest, E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Werner, “Ultraviolet stability of silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 407–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, U. Johannsen, P. Kuschnerus, U. Kroth, H. Rabus, G. Ulm, L. Werner, “The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the ultraviolet,” Metrologia 37, 515–518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Canfield, R. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, G. Ulm, “Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range,” Metrologia 35, 355–362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Goerts, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “The new PTB-beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. Ulm, B. Beckhoff, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, “The PTB radiometry laboratory at the BESSY II electron storage ring,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Methods, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 610–621 (1998).
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R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, G. Ulm, M. Wedowski, F. Stietz, B. Mertens, N. Koster, J. V. Elp, “Lifetime testing of EUV optics using intense synchrotron radiation at the PTB radiometry laboratory,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 105–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, J. Tümmler, M. Wedowski, R. Jansen, B. Mertens, A. van de Runstraat, G. Ulm, “Irradiation of EUV multilayer optics with synchrotron radiation of different time structure,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A. K. Freund, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, J. L. Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE4782, 292–299 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral responsivity of two SXUV diodes that have top layers made from DLC (open circles) and PtSi (filled circles).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral responsivity of two SXUV diodes. The two diodes have TiSiN top layers from different production lots.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the irradiation beam line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated radiant power at the irradiation beam line for an electron-beam current of 100 mA. Solid curve, bending magnet spectrum after mirror deflection. Short-dashed curve, middle of the spectrum with the 50% EUV transmission filter inserted. Long-dashed curve, spectrum with the 1% filter inserted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left, measured power density ∼350 mm behind the focus. The image was taken with a calibrated CCD camera with the storage ring operated with a reduced electron-beam current to adapt the irradiation intensity. Each gray level represents a 10% change in irradiance. Approximately 40% of the power was focused into the hot-spot region about the tip of the wedge (light-gray region). The average power density in the hot spot was 1.8 W/cm2 at a stored electron current of 100 mA. Right, vertical cross section at the center of the photo at the left (indicated there by the dashed line). The power in the hot spot is approximately three times the power in the low-power region. Additionally, there is a short-range variation of ∼30%. This small structure could not be resolved in the responsitivity measurements across the diode surface; see Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Homogeneity of the responsivity of a diode with a TiSiN top layer after 143-kJ/cm2 radiant exposure measured at (a) 13 nm and (b) 11 nm, with a spot size of approximately 0.5 mm by 0.5 mm. The shading is in steps of 0.1% from 98% (dark) to 100% (bright). The variation of responsivity in the region close to the spot is only 1%, as shown in (c) in the vertical cross sections at horizontal position 2 mm in parts (a) and (b). Solid curve, 13 nm; dashed curve, 11 nm; dotted curve, initial measurement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral responsivity of photodiode PtSi (Table 2): initial responsivity (open circles) and responsivity after 5.7-kJ/cm2 irradiation (filled circles). The ratio (bottom) shows significant degradation at longer wavelengths. The solid curve is the calculated transmittance of a layer of 0.45-μg/cm2 C and 1.3-μg/cm2 Pt.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 7 but for photodiode DLC after 69-kJ/cm2 radiant exposure: Dashed lines, range of ±1%. No significant degradation was measured.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 7 but for photodiode TiSiN (lot 1), after 143-kJ/cm2 radiant exposure, shown also in Fig. 6. The simulation was made with an absorbing layer of 0.56-μg/cm2 C, a decrease in the effectively dead Ti layer by 0.23-μg/cm2 Ti, and a slight increase in the charge collection efficiency at the front side.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as Fig. 7 but for photodiode TiSiN (lot 2) after 143-kJ/cm2 radiant exposure. The simulation is similar to that in Fig. 9, but here the absorbing layer is only 0.11-μg/cm2 C.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Irradiation Parameters for a Time-Integrated Electron-Beam Current of 1 mA/h in the Hot-Spot Regiona

Tables Icon

Table 2 Irradiation Parameters for the Diodes Investigated

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