Abstract

An approach is presented to estimate the surface aerosol radiative forcing by use of collocated cloud-screened narrowband spectral and thermal-offset-corrected radiometric observations during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment 2000, South African Fire Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000, and Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia 2001. We show that aerosol optical depths from the Multiple-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer data match closely with those from the Cimel sunphotometer data for two SAFARI-2000 dates. The observed aerosol radiative forcings were interpreted on the basis of results from the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model, and, in some cases, cross checked with satellite-derived forcing parameters. Values of the aerosol radiative forcing and forcing efficiency, which quantifies the sensitivity of the surface fluxes to the aerosol optical depth, were generated on the basis of a differential technique for all three campaigns, and their scientific significance is discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (2)

S. A. Christopher, J. Wang, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, “Estimation of diurnal shortwave dust aerosol radiative forcing during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8596–8607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Z. Jin, T. Charlock, K. Rutledge, “Analysis of broadband solar radiation and albedo over the ocean surface at COVE,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 1585–1601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schafer, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, M. A. Yamasoe, A. S. Procopio, “Observed reductions of total solar irradiance by biomass burning aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon and Zambian Savanna,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1823–1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

E. G. Dutton, J. J. Michalsky, T. Stoffel, B. W. Forgan, J. Hickey, D. W. Nelson, T. L. Alberta, I. Reda, “Measurement of broadband diffuse solar irradiance using current commerical instrumentation with a correction for thermal offset errors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 18, 297–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Haeffelin, S. Kato, A. M. Smith, C. K. Rutledge, T. P. Charlock, J. R. Mahan, “Determination of the thermal offset of the Eppley precision spectral pyranometer,” Appl. Opt. 40, 472–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Alexandrov, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, B. Cairns, “Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part I: retrieval algorithm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnovm, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Conant, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Meywerk, V. Ramanathan, “Observations of the spectral clear-sky aerosol forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24359–24370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, J. H. Mather, G. G. Mace, M. L. Wesely, F. Murcray, J. Michalsky, “Uncertainties in modeled and measured clear-sky surface shortwave irradiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25882–25898 (1997).

R. N. Halthore, S. E. Schwartz, J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, R. A. Ferrare, B. N. Holben, H. Ten Brink, “Comparison of model estimated and measured direct-normal solar irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 22991–20002 (1997).

M. D. Chou, W. Zhao, “Estimation and model validation of surface solar radiation and cloud radiative forcing using TOGA COARE measurements,” J. Clim. 10, 610–620 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. P. Charlock, T. L. Alberta, “The CERES/ARM/GEWEX Experiment (CAGEX) for the retrieval of radiative fluxes with satellite data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 2673–2683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Tegen, A. A. Lacis, “Modeling of particle size distribution and its influence on the radiative properties of mineral dust aerosol.” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19237–19244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Q. Fu, K. N. Liou, “On the correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 2139–2156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “Improved data of solar spectral irradiance from 0.33 to 1.25 µm,” Sol. Phys. 74, 231–249 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

T. K. Van Heuklon, “Estimating atmospheric ozone for solar radiation models,” Sol. Energy 22, 63–68 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Ackerman, T. P.

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, J. H. Mather, G. G. Mace, M. L. Wesely, F. Murcray, J. Michalsky, “Uncertainties in modeled and measured clear-sky surface shortwave irradiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25882–25898 (1997).

Alberta, T. L.

E. G. Dutton, J. J. Michalsky, T. Stoffel, B. W. Forgan, J. Hickey, D. W. Nelson, T. L. Alberta, I. Reda, “Measurement of broadband diffuse solar irradiance using current commerical instrumentation with a correction for thermal offset errors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 18, 297–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Charlock, T. L. Alberta, “The CERES/ARM/GEWEX Experiment (CAGEX) for the retrieval of radiative fluxes with satellite data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 2673–2683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Alberta, T. P. Charlock, “A comprehensive resource for the investigation of shortwave fluxes in clear conditions: CAGEX version 3,” in preprints of the Tenth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1999), pp. 279–282.

Alexandrov, M. D.

M. D. Alexandrov, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, B. Cairns, “Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part I: retrieval algorithm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

R. N. Halthore, S. E. Schwartz, J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, R. A. Ferrare, B. N. Holben, H. Ten Brink, “Comparison of model estimated and measured direct-normal solar irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 22991–20002 (1997).

Anderson, T.

J. Redemann, S. Masonis, B. Schmid, T. Anderson, P. Russell, J. Livingston, O. Dubovik, A. Clarke, “Clear-column closure studies of aerosols and water vapor aboard the NCAR C-130 in ACE-Asia, 2001,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Artaxo, P.

J. S. Schafer, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, M. A. Yamasoe, A. S. Procopio, “Observed reductions of total solar irradiance by biomass burning aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon and Zambian Savanna,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1823–1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Augustine, J. A.

J. A. Augustine, C. I. Medina, “A new automated method of MFRSR-based optical depth analysis,” presented at the Twelfth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Long Beach, Calif., 9–13 February 2003.

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

M. D. Alexandrov, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, B. Cairns, “Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part I: retrieval algorithm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, B. E.

M. D. Alexandrov, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, B. Cairns, “Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part I: retrieval algorithm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Charlock, T.

Z. Jin, T. Charlock, K. Rutledge, “Analysis of broadband solar radiation and albedo over the ocean surface at COVE,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 1585–1601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Charlock, T. P.

M. Haeffelin, S. Kato, A. M. Smith, C. K. Rutledge, T. P. Charlock, J. R. Mahan, “Determination of the thermal offset of the Eppley precision spectral pyranometer,” Appl. Opt. 40, 472–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Charlock, T. L. Alberta, “The CERES/ARM/GEWEX Experiment (CAGEX) for the retrieval of radiative fluxes with satellite data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 2673–2683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Alberta, T. P. Charlock, “A comprehensive resource for the investigation of shortwave fluxes in clear conditions: CAGEX version 3,” in preprints of the Tenth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1999), pp. 279–282.

Chou, M. D.

M. D. Chou, W. Zhao, “Estimation and model validation of surface solar radiation and cloud radiative forcing using TOGA COARE measurements,” J. Clim. 10, 610–620 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Christopher, S. A.

S. A. Christopher, J. Wang, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, “Estimation of diurnal shortwave dust aerosol radiative forcing during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8596–8607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A.

J. Redemann, S. Masonis, B. Schmid, T. Anderson, P. Russell, J. Livingston, O. Dubovik, A. Clarke, “Clear-column closure studies of aerosols and water vapor aboard the NCAR C-130 in ACE-Asia, 2001,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Clothiaux, E. E.

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, J. H. Mather, G. G. Mace, M. L. Wesely, F. Murcray, J. Michalsky, “Uncertainties in modeled and measured clear-sky surface shortwave irradiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25882–25898 (1997).

Conant, W. C.

W. C. Conant, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

d’Almedia, G.

G. d’Almedia, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1999).

Dubovik, O.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnovm, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Redemann, S. Masonis, B. Schmid, T. Anderson, P. Russell, J. Livingston, O. Dubovik, A. Clarke, “Clear-column closure studies of aerosols and water vapor aboard the NCAR C-130 in ACE-Asia, 2001,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Dutton, E. G.

E. G. Dutton, J. J. Michalsky, T. Stoffel, B. W. Forgan, J. Hickey, D. W. Nelson, T. L. Alberta, I. Reda, “Measurement of broadband diffuse solar irradiance using current commerical instrumentation with a correction for thermal offset errors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 18, 297–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schafer, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, M. A. Yamasoe, A. S. Procopio, “Observed reductions of total solar irradiance by biomass burning aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon and Zambian Savanna,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1823–1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnovm, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

R. N. Halthore, S. E. Schwartz, J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, R. A. Ferrare, B. N. Holben, H. Ten Brink, “Comparison of model estimated and measured direct-normal solar irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 22991–20002 (1997).

Forgan, B. W.

E. G. Dutton, J. J. Michalsky, T. Stoffel, B. W. Forgan, J. Hickey, D. W. Nelson, T. L. Alberta, I. Reda, “Measurement of broadband diffuse solar irradiance using current commerical instrumentation with a correction for thermal offset errors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 18, 297–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q.

Q. Fu, K. N. Liou, “On the correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 2139–2156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haeffelin, M.

Halthore, R. N.

R. N. Halthore, S. E. Schwartz, J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, R. A. Ferrare, B. N. Holben, H. Ten Brink, “Comparison of model estimated and measured direct-normal solar irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 22991–20002 (1997).

Hess, M.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, J.

E. G. Dutton, J. J. Michalsky, T. Stoffel, B. W. Forgan, J. Hickey, D. W. Nelson, T. L. Alberta, I. Reda, “Measurement of broadband diffuse solar irradiance using current commerical instrumentation with a correction for thermal offset errors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 18, 297–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schafer, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, M. A. Yamasoe, A. S. Procopio, “Observed reductions of total solar irradiance by biomass burning aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon and Zambian Savanna,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1823–1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnovm, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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Hsu, N. C.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnovm, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
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S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, J. H. Mather, G. G. Mace, M. L. Wesely, F. Murcray, J. Michalsky, “Uncertainties in modeled and measured clear-sky surface shortwave irradiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25882–25898 (1997).

Mahan, J. R.

Masonis, S.

J. Redemann, S. Masonis, B. Schmid, T. Anderson, P. Russell, J. Livingston, O. Dubovik, A. Clarke, “Clear-column closure studies of aerosols and water vapor aboard the NCAR C-130 in ACE-Asia, 2001,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

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S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, J. H. Mather, G. G. Mace, M. L. Wesely, F. Murcray, J. Michalsky, “Uncertainties in modeled and measured clear-sky surface shortwave irradiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25882–25898 (1997).

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E. G. Dutton, J. J. Michalsky, T. Stoffel, B. W. Forgan, J. Hickey, D. W. Nelson, T. L. Alberta, I. Reda, “Measurement of broadband diffuse solar irradiance using current commerical instrumentation with a correction for thermal offset errors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 18, 297–314 (2001).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
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S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, J. H. Mather, G. G. Mace, M. L. Wesely, F. Murcray, J. Michalsky, “Uncertainties in modeled and measured clear-sky surface shortwave irradiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25882–25898 (1997).

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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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E. G. Dutton, J. J. Michalsky, T. Stoffel, B. W. Forgan, J. Hickey, D. W. Nelson, T. L. Alberta, I. Reda, “Measurement of broadband diffuse solar irradiance using current commerical instrumentation with a correction for thermal offset errors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 18, 297–314 (2001).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnovm, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
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J. S. Schafer, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, M. A. Yamasoe, A. S. Procopio, “Observed reductions of total solar irradiance by biomass burning aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon and Zambian Savanna,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1823–1826 (2002).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
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J. Meywerk, V. Ramanathan, “Observations of the spectral clear-sky aerosol forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24359–24370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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E. G. Dutton, J. J. Michalsky, T. Stoffel, B. W. Forgan, J. Hickey, D. W. Nelson, T. L. Alberta, I. Reda, “Measurement of broadband diffuse solar irradiance using current commerical instrumentation with a correction for thermal offset errors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 18, 297–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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J. Redemann, S. Masonis, B. Schmid, T. Anderson, P. Russell, J. Livingston, O. Dubovik, A. Clarke, “Clear-column closure studies of aerosols and water vapor aboard the NCAR C-130 in ACE-Asia, 2001,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Reid, J. S.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnovm, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
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J. Redemann, S. Masonis, B. Schmid, T. Anderson, P. Russell, J. Livingston, O. Dubovik, A. Clarke, “Clear-column closure studies of aerosols and water vapor aboard the NCAR C-130 in ACE-Asia, 2001,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Rutledge, C. K.

Rutledge, K.

Z. Jin, T. Charlock, K. Rutledge, “Analysis of broadband solar radiation and albedo over the ocean surface at COVE,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 1585–1601 (2002).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
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J. S. Schafer, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, M. A. Yamasoe, A. S. Procopio, “Observed reductions of total solar irradiance by biomass burning aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon and Zambian Savanna,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1823–1826 (2002).
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J. Redemann, S. Masonis, B. Schmid, T. Anderson, P. Russell, J. Livingston, O. Dubovik, A. Clarke, “Clear-column closure studies of aerosols and water vapor aboard the NCAR C-130 in ACE-Asia, 2001,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

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M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
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R. N. Halthore, S. E. Schwartz, J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, R. A. Ferrare, B. N. Holben, H. Ten Brink, “Comparison of model estimated and measured direct-normal solar irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 22991–20002 (1997).

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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G. d’Almedia, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1999).

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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnovm, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnovm, A.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnovm, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “An observational approach for determining aerosol surface radiative forcing: results from the first field phase of INDOEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15347–15360 (2000).
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Smith, A. M.

Stoffel, T.

E. G. Dutton, J. J. Michalsky, T. Stoffel, B. W. Forgan, J. Hickey, D. W. Nelson, T. L. Alberta, I. Reda, “Measurement of broadband diffuse solar irradiance using current commerical instrumentation with a correction for thermal offset errors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 18, 297–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swap, R. J.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
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Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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I. Tegen, A. A. Lacis, “Modeling of particle size distribution and its influence on the radiative properties of mineral dust aerosol.” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19237–19244 (1996).
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R. N. Halthore, S. E. Schwartz, J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, R. A. Ferrare, B. N. Holben, H. Ten Brink, “Comparison of model estimated and measured direct-normal solar irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 22991–20002 (1997).

Thekaekara, M. P.

Tsay, S. C.

S. A. Christopher, J. Wang, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, “Estimation of diurnal shortwave dust aerosol radiative forcing during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8596–8607 (2003).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. K. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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Wang, J.

S. A. Christopher, J. Wang, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, “Estimation of diurnal shortwave dust aerosol radiative forcing during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8596–8607 (2003).
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Ward, D. E.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477–8497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425–3448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wesely, M. L.

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, J. H. Mather, G. G. Mace, M. L. Wesely, F. Murcray, J. Michalsky, “Uncertainties in modeled and measured clear-sky surface shortwave irradiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25882–25898 (1997).

Yamasoe, M. A.

J. S. Schafer, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, M. A. Yamasoe, A. S. Procopio, “Observed reductions of total solar irradiance by biomass burning aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon and Zambian Savanna,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1823–1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Arrangement of short-wave and long-wave radiometers at the UCLA surface site. (b) Cimel 318A sunphotometer at the UCLA surface radiation site. (c) Example of a downward short-wave flux profile on a clear day (20 January 2000) at the UCLA surface site. (d) Example of a downward short-wave flux profile on a partially cloudy day (22 January 2000) at the UCLA surface site.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PSP-CG1 nighttime output correlation. (b) Correction-unventilated PSP nighttime signals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scatter-ratio time series for 8 and 9 July 2000 during PRIDE. The cutoff (dashed line) is at 0.0003. (b) Comparison of total solar fluxes with and without application of the cloud-screening scheme for 8 July 2000 during PRIDE.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) TOMS satellite image of the African continent on 6 September 2000 showing aerosol loading due to biomass burnings in savanna ecosystems. (b) Same as (a) except on 7 September. The circles denote the surface observation site at Skukuza, South Africa. TOMS images courtesy of Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Code 916.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Retrieved 0.5-µm aerosol optical depths (Cimel sunphotometer and MFRSR) on 6 and 7 September 2000 during SAFARI. (b) Same as (a) except on 2 May 2001 during ACE-Asia. (c) Same as (a) except on 19 July 2000 during PRIDE.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angstrom shaping factor by use of 0.87- and 0.67-µm channel pair of MFRSR and Cimel sunphotometer (SAFARI 2000).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Results of observed surface fluxes versus Fu-Liou model on 6 September 2000 (SAFARI). (b) Results of observed surface fluxes versus Fu-Liou model on 7 September 2000 (SAFARI). (c) Results of observed SARF versus Fu-Liou model at solar noon on 6 and 7 September 2000 (SAFARI).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Estimated aerosol forcing with MFRSR-retrieved 0.5-µm aerosol optical depths (PRIDE 2000). Cloud screening applied with a scattering ratio threshold of 0.0003. (b) Estimated aerosol forcing at 0.5 µm (SAFARI 2000). Cloud screening applied with a scattering ratio threshold of 0.0005. (c) Estimated aerosol forcing at 0.5 µm (ACE-Asia 2001). Cloud screening applied with a scattering ratio threshold of 0.0005.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Estimated forcing efficiency at 0.5 µm with slices of air mass of 1.2, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0. (b) Estimated forcing efficiency at 0.5 µm with slices of air mass of 1.2, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0. (c) Estimated forcing efficiency at 0.5 µm with slices of air mass of 1.1, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Primary Instruments and Measurements for PRIDE, SAFARI, and ACE-Asia

Tables Icon

Table 2 MFRSR Solar Spectral Constantsa

Tables Icon

Table 3 τ a Statistics

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δPSP=0.039CG1-0.39,
Iλ/Ioλ=exp-τt m,
τaλ=1/mμolnIoλ-lnIλ-τRλ-τoλ,
τRλ=0.008569λ-41+0.0113λ-2+0.00013λ-4p/po,
τoλ=aoλCoρ,
τ=βλ-α,
Z=τaλ1/τaλ2=λ1/λ2-α+2=y-α+2.
α*=2-logy Z.

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