Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of 150-mW blue coherent single-mode radiation at 457 nm in a compact and inexpensive setup. The light is generated by frequency doubling the radiation of a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system in an enhancement cavity with a potassium niobate (KNbO3) crystal. The MOPA consists of a 914-nm single-mode diode laser and a broad-area diode laser (BAL) as the amplifier. The BAL is a multimode laser with a specified wavelength of 938 nm. Sufficient gain at 914 nm is obtained by antireflection coating the BAL front surface and by cooling it to -10 °C.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Keupp, T. E. Mehlstäubler, N. Rehbein, H. Wolff, A. Douillet, E. M. Rasel, W. Ertmmer, “Atom interferometry with cold magnesium atoms,” presented at the Seventh Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 28 September–2 October 2002.
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  13. T. Pawletko, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, M. Vedel, F. Vedel, “High power broad-area diode laser at 794 nm injected by an external cavity laser,” Opt. Commun. 174, 223–229 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (2)

I. Courtillot, A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, J.-J. Zondy, A. Landragin, A. Clairon, P. Lemonde, “Efficient cooling and trapping of strontium atoms,” Opt. Lett. 28, 468–470 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, “The Dick effect from optical frequency standard,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, S150–S154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Hald, “Second harmonic generation in an external ring cavity with a Brewster-cut nonlinear crystal: theoretical considerations,” Opt. Commun. 197, 169–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Pawletko, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, M. Vedel, F. Vedel, “High power broad-area diode laser at 794 nm injected by an external cavity laser,” Opt. Commun. 174, 223–229 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Shvarchuck, K. Dieckmann, M. Zielonkowski, J. T. M. Walraven, “Broad-area diode-laser system for a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 475–480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 163–166 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Gehrig, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of an AlGaAs oscillator broad area double pass amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 287–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. L. Sørensen, J. Hald, N. Jørgensen, J. Erland, E. S. Polzik, “Squeezing with χ(2) for atomic physics and spectroscopy,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 239–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. Shiv, J. L. Sørensen, E. S. Polzik, G. Mizell, “Inhibited light-induced absorption in KNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2270–2272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. Sengstock, U. Sterr, J. H. Müller, V. Rieger, D. Bettermann, W. Ermter, “Optical Ramsey spectroscopy on laser-trapped and thermal Mg atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 99–115 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Mabuchi, E. S. Polzik, H. J. Kimble, “Blue-light-induced infrared absorption in KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2023–2029 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1980 (1)

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, G. L.

Beier, B.

D. Woll, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, M. Hagberg, S. O. Brien, “1 W of blue 465-nm radiation generated by frequency doubling of the output of a high-power diode laser in critically phase-matched LiB3O5,” Opt. Lett. 24, 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gehrig, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of an AlGaAs oscillator broad area double pass amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 287–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bettermann, D.

K. Sengstock, U. Sterr, J. H. Müller, V. Rieger, D. Bettermann, W. Ermter, “Optical Ramsey spectroscopy on laser-trapped and thermal Mg atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 99–115 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

Boller, K.-J.

D. Woll, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, M. Hagberg, S. O. Brien, “1 W of blue 465-nm radiation generated by frequency doubling of the output of a high-power diode laser in critically phase-matched LiB3O5,” Opt. Lett. 24, 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gehrig, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of an AlGaAs oscillator broad area double pass amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 287–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Brien, S. O.

Chan, W. S.

Chen, J.

W. Pan, H. Lu, B. Luo, C. Zhang, J. Chen, “Analysis on oscillation wavelength of one-facet antireflection-coated semiconductor lasers,” in Advanced Photonic Sensors: Technology and Applications, J. Tang, C.-N. Xu, H. Li, eds., Proc. SPIE4220, 235–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, “The Dick effect from optical frequency standard,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, S150–S154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Courtillot, A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, J.-J. Zondy, A. Landragin, A. Clairon, P. Lemonde, “Efficient cooling and trapping of strontium atoms,” Opt. Lett. 28, 468–470 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couillaud, B.

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Courtillot, I.

I. Courtillot, A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, J.-J. Zondy, A. Landragin, A. Clairon, P. Lemonde, “Efficient cooling and trapping of strontium atoms,” Opt. Lett. 28, 468–470 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, “The Dick effect from optical frequency standard,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, S150–S154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dieckmann, K.

I. Shvarchuck, K. Dieckmann, M. Zielonkowski, J. T. M. Walraven, “Broad-area diode-laser system for a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 475–480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Douillet, A.

J. Keupp, T. E. Mehlstäubler, N. Rehbein, H. Wolff, A. Douillet, E. M. Rasel, W. Ertmmer, “Atom interferometry with cold magnesium atoms,” presented at the Seventh Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 28 September–2 October 2002.

Erland, J.

J. L. Sørensen, J. Hald, N. Jørgensen, J. Erland, E. S. Polzik, “Squeezing with χ(2) for atomic physics and spectroscopy,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 239–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ermter, W.

K. Sengstock, U. Sterr, J. H. Müller, V. Rieger, D. Bettermann, W. Ermter, “Optical Ramsey spectroscopy on laser-trapped and thermal Mg atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 99–115 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ertmmer, W.

J. Keupp, T. E. Mehlstäubler, N. Rehbein, H. Wolff, A. Douillet, E. M. Rasel, W. Ertmmer, “Atom interferometry with cold magnesium atoms,” presented at the Seventh Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 28 September–2 October 2002.

Fischer, T.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 163–166 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gehrig, E.

E. Gehrig, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of an AlGaAs oscillator broad area double pass amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 287–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Hagberg, M.

Hald, J.

J. Hald, “Second harmonic generation in an external ring cavity with a Brewster-cut nonlinear crystal: theoretical considerations,” Opt. Commun. 197, 169–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Sørensen, J. Hald, N. Jørgensen, J. Erland, E. S. Polzik, “Squeezing with χ(2) for atomic physics and spectroscopy,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 239–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 163–166 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Houssin, M.

T. Pawletko, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, M. Vedel, F. Vedel, “High power broad-area diode laser at 794 nm injected by an external cavity laser,” Opt. Commun. 174, 223–229 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, N.

J. L. Sørensen, J. Hald, N. Jørgensen, J. Erland, E. S. Polzik, “Squeezing with χ(2) for atomic physics and spectroscopy,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 239–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kerkoc, P.

Keupp, J.

J. Keupp, T. E. Mehlstäubler, N. Rehbein, H. Wolff, A. Douillet, E. M. Rasel, W. Ertmmer, “Atom interferometry with cold magnesium atoms,” presented at the Seventh Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 28 September–2 October 2002.

Kimble, H. J.

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Knoop, M.

T. Pawletko, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, M. Vedel, F. Vedel, “High power broad-area diode laser at 794 nm injected by an external cavity laser,” Opt. Commun. 174, 223–229 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kovacich, R. P.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, “The Dick effect from optical frequency standard,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, S150–S154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Courtillot, A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, J.-J. Zondy, A. Landragin, A. Clairon, P. Lemonde, “Efficient cooling and trapping of strontium atoms,” Opt. Lett. 28, 468–470 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozlovsky, W. J.

Landragin, A.

Lemonde, P.

I. Courtillot, A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, J.-J. Zondy, A. Landragin, A. Clairon, P. Lemonde, “Efficient cooling and trapping of strontium atoms,” Opt. Lett. 28, 468–470 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, “The Dick effect from optical frequency standard,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, S150–S154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

W. Pan, H. Lu, B. Luo, C. Zhang, J. Chen, “Analysis on oscillation wavelength of one-facet antireflection-coated semiconductor lasers,” in Advanced Photonic Sensors: Technology and Applications, J. Tang, C.-N. Xu, H. Li, eds., Proc. SPIE4220, 235–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B.

W. Pan, H. Lu, B. Luo, C. Zhang, J. Chen, “Analysis on oscillation wavelength of one-facet antireflection-coated semiconductor lasers,” in Advanced Photonic Sensors: Technology and Applications, J. Tang, C.-N. Xu, H. Li, eds., Proc. SPIE4220, 235–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

MacAdam, K. B.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mehlstäubler, T. E.

J. Keupp, T. E. Mehlstäubler, N. Rehbein, H. Wolff, A. Douillet, E. M. Rasel, W. Ertmmer, “Atom interferometry with cold magnesium atoms,” presented at the Seventh Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 28 September–2 October 2002.

Mizell, G.

Müller, J. H.

K. Sengstock, U. Sterr, J. H. Müller, V. Rieger, D. Bettermann, W. Ermter, “Optical Ramsey spectroscopy on laser-trapped and thermal Mg atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 99–115 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

W. Pan, H. Lu, B. Luo, C. Zhang, J. Chen, “Analysis on oscillation wavelength of one-facet antireflection-coated semiconductor lasers,” in Advanced Photonic Sensors: Technology and Applications, J. Tang, C.-N. Xu, H. Li, eds., Proc. SPIE4220, 235–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pawletko, T.

T. Pawletko, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, M. Vedel, F. Vedel, “High power broad-area diode laser at 794 nm injected by an external cavity laser,” Opt. Commun. 174, 223–229 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peterman, K.

K. Peterman, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991).

Polzik, E. S.

Praeger, M.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 163–166 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quessada, A.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, “The Dick effect from optical frequency standard,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, S150–S154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Courtillot, A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, J.-J. Zondy, A. Landragin, A. Clairon, P. Lemonde, “Efficient cooling and trapping of strontium atoms,” Opt. Lett. 28, 468–470 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasel, E. M.

J. Keupp, T. E. Mehlstäubler, N. Rehbein, H. Wolff, A. Douillet, E. M. Rasel, W. Ertmmer, “Atom interferometry with cold magnesium atoms,” presented at the Seventh Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 28 September–2 October 2002.

Rehbein, N.

J. Keupp, T. E. Mehlstäubler, N. Rehbein, H. Wolff, A. Douillet, E. M. Rasel, W. Ertmmer, “Atom interferometry with cold magnesium atoms,” presented at the Seventh Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 28 September–2 October 2002.

Rieger, V.

K. Sengstock, U. Sterr, J. H. Müller, V. Rieger, D. Bettermann, W. Ermter, “Optical Ramsey spectroscopy on laser-trapped and thermal Mg atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 99–115 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

Santarelli, G.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, “The Dick effect from optical frequency standard,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, S150–S154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sengstock, K.

K. Sengstock, U. Sterr, J. H. Müller, V. Rieger, D. Bettermann, W. Ermter, “Optical Ramsey spectroscopy on laser-trapped and thermal Mg atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 99–115 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shiv, L.

Shvarchuck, I.

I. Shvarchuck, K. Dieckmann, M. Zielonkowski, J. T. M. Walraven, “Broad-area diode-laser system for a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 475–480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, J. L.

J. L. Sørensen, J. Hald, N. Jørgensen, J. Erland, E. S. Polzik, “Squeezing with χ(2) for atomic physics and spectroscopy,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 239–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Shiv, J. L. Sørensen, E. S. Polzik, G. Mizell, “Inhibited light-induced absorption in KNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2270–2272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steinbach, A.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

K. Sengstock, U. Sterr, J. H. Müller, V. Rieger, D. Bettermann, W. Ermter, “Optical Ramsey spectroscopy on laser-trapped and thermal Mg atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 99–115 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vedel, F.

T. Pawletko, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, M. Vedel, F. Vedel, “High power broad-area diode laser at 794 nm injected by an external cavity laser,” Opt. Commun. 174, 223–229 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vedel, M.

T. Pawletko, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, M. Vedel, F. Vedel, “High power broad-area diode laser at 794 nm injected by an external cavity laser,” Opt. Commun. 174, 223–229 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 163–166 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

D. Woll, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, M. Hagberg, S. O. Brien, “1 W of blue 465-nm radiation generated by frequency doubling of the output of a high-power diode laser in critically phase-matched LiB3O5,” Opt. Lett. 24, 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gehrig, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of an AlGaAs oscillator broad area double pass amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 287–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walraven, J. T. M.

I. Shvarchuck, K. Dieckmann, M. Zielonkowski, J. T. M. Walraven, “Broad-area diode-laser system for a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 475–480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, H.

J. Keupp, T. E. Mehlstäubler, N. Rehbein, H. Wolff, A. Douillet, E. M. Rasel, W. Ertmmer, “Atom interferometry with cold magnesium atoms,” presented at the Seventh Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 28 September–2 October 2002.

Woll, D.

Wu, L.-S.

Yang, S.

Zhang, C.

W. Pan, H. Lu, B. Luo, C. Zhang, J. Chen, “Analysis on oscillation wavelength of one-facet antireflection-coated semiconductor lasers,” in Advanced Photonic Sensors: Technology and Applications, J. Tang, C.-N. Xu, H. Li, eds., Proc. SPIE4220, 235–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zielonkowski, M.

I. Shvarchuck, K. Dieckmann, M. Zielonkowski, J. T. M. Walraven, “Broad-area diode-laser system for a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 475–480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 163–166 (1998).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top view of the master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) setup at 914 nm and the enhancement cavity for frequency doubling. f 1f 6, lenses for beam shaping; OM, MOPA’s output mirror; T C , input coupler (partial reflector) in the enhancement cavity. The inset shows the coupling into the BAL in the vertical plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spontaneous emission wavelength as a function of BAL temperature. Squares, peak wavelength; circles, wavelengths at which the spontaneous emission spectral density is reduced by 3 dB. Solid lines, linear fits; dashed line, the wavelength of interest (914 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral density of the free-running BAL at the drive currents of 350 (solid curve), 600 (dotted curve), and 900 mA (dashed curve). The resolution bandwidth is 0.1 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral density of the BAL output when the master laser is injected. The BAL drive currents are 350 (solid curve), 600 (dotted curve), and 900 mA (dashed curve). The resolution bandwidth is 0.1 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output power from the BAL as a function of the BAL drive current. The power of the injected master laser is 42 mW. Circles, total output power; squares, frequency-locked output power; triangles, BAL output without injection. Filled symbol data, measurements at -10 °C; open symbol data, measurements at +10 °C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Horizontal and vertical beam profiles for the MOPA output. The vertical profile is displaced vertically by 0.2 units for clarity. Solid curves, actual measurements; dotted curves, Gaussian fits to the central part of the measured profiles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Circles (triangle), measured conversion efficiency with T C = 3.0% (T C = 5.7%). All curves, theoretical conversion efficiency based on Eq. (1), with E NL = 0.76% W-1, L = 1.0% + L B , and κ = 0.88. Solid curve, L B = 0 and T C = 3.0%; dashed (dotted) curve, L B = 0.012 (P2ωout)0.40 and T C = 3.0% (T C = 5.7%). The injected power Pωi includes only the coherent part in the TEM00 cavity mode.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured blue power at 457 nm versus time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spot size (radius) of the generated blue beam as a function of position. Squares, horizontal plane; circles, vertical plane. Solid curve, theoretical fit with M 2 = 1.03 ± 0.02.

Equations (1)

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η=4TCκENLPωi2-1-TC2-L-ENLP2ωout/κ2,

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