Abstract

Laser-induced pinpoint bulk damage of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate at 351 nm is shown to depend on the propagation direction relative to the crystallographic axes and on growth temperature in addition to the previously reported dependence on continuous filtration. Pulse-length scaling is also consistent with earlier reports. The leading hypothesis for the cause of pinpoint damage is absorbing nanoparticle impurities, and our results are consistent with but not conclusive for that model. Advances in technology have led to greatly improved damage resistance.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  50. Y.-J. Fu, S.-L. Gao, S.-L. Wang, Y.-L. Li, H. Zeng, A.-D. Duan, J.-P. Luo, “Study on K(DxH1–x)2PO4 crystals: growth habit, optical properties and their improvements by thermal conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35, 177–184 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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  53. R. Floyd, H. Robey, T. Land, R. Hawley-Fedder, J. DeYoreo, “Mechanism for micro-inclusion formation in KDP/DKDP,” presented at the Thirteenth American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy, Burlington, Vt., 12–16 August 2001.
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  55. S. Wood, A. E. Williams-Jones, “The aqueous geochemistry of the rare-earth elements and yttrium 4. Monazite solubility and REE mobility in exhalative massive sulfide-depositing environments,” Chem. Geol. 115, 47–60 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  56. T. Land, R. Floyd, M. McBurney, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. (personal communication, 2001).

2002

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47, 113–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Masui, K. Fukuhara, N. Imanaka, T. Sadata, H. Mori, T. Adachi, “Effects of titanium oxide on the optical properties of cerium oxide,” Chem. Lett. 2002, 474–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. Zaitseva, L. Carman, “Rapid growth of KDP-type crystals,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 43, 1–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsumo, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Vyazovkin, T. L. Ferrin, “Thermomechanical study of the high temperature phase transition in KH2PO4,” Solid State Commun. 113, 627–631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Fu, S.-L. Gao, S.-L. Wang, Y.-L. Li, H. Zeng, A.-D. Duan, J.-P. Luo, “Study on K(DxH1–x)2PO4 crystals: growth habit, optical properties and their improvements by thermal conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35, 177–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Marimoto, H. Tomonaga, A. Mitani, “Ultraviolet ray absorbing coatings on glass for automobiles,” Thin Solid Films 351, 61–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect cluster in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Zaitseva, J. Atherton, R. Rozsa, L. Carman, I. Smolsky, M. Runkel, R. Ryon, L. James, “Design and benefits of continuous filtration in rapid growth of large KDP and DKDP crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 911–920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Zaitseva, L. Carman, I. Smolsky, R. Torres, M. Yan, “The effect of impurities and supersaturation on the rapid growth of KDP crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 204, 512–524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. J. De Yoreo, T. A. Land, J. D. Lee, “Limits on surface vicinality and growth rate due to hollow dislocation cores on KDP {101},” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4462–4465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Lindl, “Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933–4024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Wood, A. E. Williams-Jones, “The aqueous geochemistry of the rare-earth elements and yttrium 4. Monazite solubility and REE mobility in exhalative massive sulfide-depositing environments,” Chem. Geol. 115, 47–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. E. Montgomery, F. P. Milanovich, “High-laser-damage-threshold potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3979–3982 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

Y. Nashida, A. Yokotani, T. Sasaki, K. Yoshida, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Improvement of the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by reducing the organic impurities in growth solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 420–421 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Singleton, J. F. Cooper, B. D. Andresen, F. P. Milanovich, “Laser-induced bulk damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 857–859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Yokotani, Y. Nishida, K. Fujioka, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “A chromogenic limulus test for detection of microbes that decreases the laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4696–4698 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. Yokotani, T. Sasaki, K. Yoshida, T. Yamanaka, C. Tamanaka, “Improvement of the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1030–1032 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. E. Swain, S. E. Stokowski, D. Milam, G. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–14 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Endert, W. Melle, “Laser-induced damage in KDP crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 74, 141–148 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

G. Endert, M. L. Martin, “The effect of chromium impurities on the laser damage threshold of KDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, K65–K66 (1981).

1980

A. Vaidyanathan, T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, “Relative roles of avalanche multiplication and multiphoton absorption in laser-induced damage of dielectrics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-16, 89–91 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976

P. K. Gallagher, “A study of the thermal decomposition of some alkali metal dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates,” Thermochim. Acta 14, 131–139 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971

E. S. Bliss, “Pulse duration dependence of laser damage mechanisms,” Opto-Electron. 3, 99–108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

R. W. Hopper, D. R. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4023–4037 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966

V. I. Bespalov, V. I. Talanov, “Filamentary structure of light beams in nonlinear liquids,” JETP Lett. 3, 307–312 (1966).

Adachi, T.

T. Masui, K. Fukuhara, N. Imanaka, T. Sadata, H. Mori, T. Adachi, “Effects of titanium oxide on the optical properties of cerium oxide,” Chem. Lett. 2002, 474–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, B. D.

M. F. Singleton, J. F. Cooper, B. D. Andresen, F. P. Milanovich, “Laser-induced bulk damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 857–859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, J.

N. Zaitseva, J. Atherton, R. Rozsa, L. Carman, I. Smolsky, M. Runkel, R. Ryon, L. James, “Design and benefits of continuous filtration in rapid growth of large KDP and DKDP crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 911–920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J.

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, A. Burnham, “The results of raster-scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE4679, 368–383 (2002).

M. Runkel, S. Maricle, R. Torres, J. Auerbach, R. Floyd, R. Hawley-Fedder, A. K. Burnham, “The effect of thermal annealing and second harmonic generation on bulk damage performance of rapid-growth KDP type I doublers at 1064 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 389–399 (2001).

Bespalov, V. I.

V. I. Bespalov, V. I. Talanov, “Filamentary structure of light beams in nonlinear liquids,” JETP Lett. 3, 307–312 (1966).

Bliss, E. S.

E. S. Bliss, “Pulse duration dependence of laser damage mechanisms,” Opto-Electron. 3, 99–108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bourcier, W. L.

K. G. Knauss, W. L. Bourcier, K. D. McKeegan, C. I. Merzbacher, S. N. Nguyen, F. J. Ryerson, D. K. Smith, H. C. Weed, L. Newton, “Dissolution kinetics of a simple analogue nuclear waste glass as a function of pH, time, and temperature,” in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIII, V. M. Oversby, P. W. Brown, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), Vol. 176, pp. 371–381.

Brusasco, R.

F. Rainer, R. Brusasco, J. Campbell, F. De Marco, R. Gonzales, M. Kozlowski, F. Milanovich, A. Morgan, M. Scrivener, M. Staggs, I. Thomas, S. Velsco, C. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 801 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 74–83.

Burnham, A.

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, A. Burnham, “The results of raster-scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE4679, 368–383 (2002).

T. Suratwala, T. Huser, R. Steele, A. Burnham, G. Gilmer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. (personal communication, 2002).

H. Robey, R. Floyd, R. Torres, A. Burnham, “Impurity leaching rates of 1000 liter tanks,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1999).

Burnham, A. K.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47, 113–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 373–381 (2001).

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M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, J. De Yoreo, “Impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).

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S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. H. de Yoreo, “Observation of photoexcited emission clusters in the bulk of KDP and laser conditioning under 355-nm irradiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 509–514 (1999).

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Imanaka, N.

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M. Runkel, B. Woods, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, M. Kozlowski, “Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 185–195 (1996).

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M. D. Feit, J. H. Campbell, D. Faux, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Riddle, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 350–355 (1998).

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J. J. De Yoreo, T. A. Land, J. D. Lee, “Limits on surface vicinality and growth rate due to hollow dislocation cores on KDP {101},” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4462–4465 (1997).
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J. J. De Yoreo, T. A. Land, J. D. Lee, “Limits on surface vicinality and growth rate due to hollow dislocation cores on KDP {101},” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4462–4465 (1997).
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Y.-J. Fu, S.-L. Gao, S.-L. Wang, Y.-L. Li, H. Zeng, A.-D. Duan, J.-P. Luo, “Study on K(DxH1–x)2PO4 crystals: growth habit, optical properties and their improvements by thermal conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35, 177–184 (2000).
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Y.-J. Fu, S.-L. Gao, S.-L. Wang, Y.-L. Li, H. Zeng, A.-D. Duan, J.-P. Luo, “Study on K(DxH1–x)2PO4 crystals: growth habit, optical properties and their improvements by thermal conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35, 177–184 (2000).
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D. Milam, J. T. Hunt, K. R. Manes, W. H. Williams, “Modeling of filamentation damage induced in silica by 351-nm laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 425–428 (1997).

Maricle, S.

M. Runkel, S. Maricle, R. Torres, J. Auerbach, R. Floyd, R. Hawley-Fedder, A. K. Burnham, “The effect of thermal annealing and second harmonic generation on bulk damage performance of rapid-growth KDP type I doublers at 1064 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 389–399 (2001).

Marimoto, T.

T. Marimoto, H. Tomonaga, A. Mitani, “Ultraviolet ray absorbing coatings on glass for automobiles,” Thin Solid Films 351, 61–65 (1999).
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G. Endert, M. L. Martin, “The effect of chromium impurities on the laser damage threshold of KDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, K65–K66 (1981).

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T. Masui, K. Fukuhara, N. Imanaka, T. Sadata, H. Mori, T. Adachi, “Effects of titanium oxide on the optical properties of cerium oxide,” Chem. Lett. 2002, 474–475 (2002).
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T. Land, R. Floyd, M. McBurney, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. (personal communication, 2001).

McKeegan, K. D.

K. G. Knauss, W. L. Bourcier, K. D. McKeegan, C. I. Merzbacher, S. N. Nguyen, F. J. Ryerson, D. K. Smith, H. C. Weed, L. Newton, “Dissolution kinetics of a simple analogue nuclear waste glass as a function of pH, time, and temperature,” in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIII, V. M. Oversby, P. W. Brown, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), Vol. 176, pp. 371–381.

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H. Endert, W. Melle, “Laser-induced damage in KDP crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 74, 141–148 (1982).
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Merzbacher, C. I.

K. G. Knauss, W. L. Bourcier, K. D. McKeegan, C. I. Merzbacher, S. N. Nguyen, F. J. Ryerson, D. K. Smith, H. C. Weed, L. Newton, “Dissolution kinetics of a simple analogue nuclear waste glass as a function of pH, time, and temperature,” in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIII, V. M. Oversby, P. W. Brown, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), Vol. 176, pp. 371–381.

Milam, D.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350–352 (1982).
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J. E. Swain, S. E. Stokowski, D. Milam, G. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–14 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Milam, J. T. Hunt, K. R. Manes, W. H. Williams, “Modeling of filamentation damage induced in silica by 351-nm laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 425–428 (1997).

M. Runkel, A. K. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, “The results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 359–372 (2001).

Milanovich, F.

F. Rainer, R. Brusasco, J. Campbell, F. De Marco, R. Gonzales, M. Kozlowski, F. Milanovich, A. Morgan, M. Scrivener, M. Staggs, I. Thomas, S. Velsco, C. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 801 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 74–83.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, M. R. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 444–456 (1991).

Milanovich, F. P.

K. E. Montgomery, F. P. Milanovich, “High-laser-damage-threshold potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3979–3982 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Singleton, J. F. Cooper, B. D. Andresen, F. P. Milanovich, “Laser-induced bulk damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 857–859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mitani, A.

T. Marimoto, H. Tomonaga, A. Mitani, “Ultraviolet ray absorbing coatings on glass for automobiles,” Thin Solid Films 351, 61–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, K. E.

K. E. Montgomery, F. P. Milanovich, “High-laser-damage-threshold potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3979–3982 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, A.

F. Rainer, R. Brusasco, J. Campbell, F. De Marco, R. Gonzales, M. Kozlowski, F. Milanovich, A. Morgan, M. Scrivener, M. Staggs, I. Thomas, S. Velsco, C. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 801 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 74–83.

Mori, H.

T. Masui, K. Fukuhara, N. Imanaka, T. Sadata, H. Mori, T. Adachi, “Effects of titanium oxide on the optical properties of cerium oxide,” Chem. Lett. 2002, 474–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsumo, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nashida, Y.

Y. Nashida, A. Yokotani, T. Sasaki, K. Yoshida, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Improvement of the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by reducing the organic impurities in growth solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 420–421 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Neeb, K.

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, A. Burnham, “The results of raster-scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE4679, 368–383 (2002).

Newton, L.

K. G. Knauss, W. L. Bourcier, K. D. McKeegan, C. I. Merzbacher, S. N. Nguyen, F. J. Ryerson, D. K. Smith, H. C. Weed, L. Newton, “Dissolution kinetics of a simple analogue nuclear waste glass as a function of pH, time, and temperature,” in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIII, V. M. Oversby, P. W. Brown, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), Vol. 176, pp. 371–381.

Nguyen, S. N.

K. G. Knauss, W. L. Bourcier, K. D. McKeegan, C. I. Merzbacher, S. N. Nguyen, F. J. Ryerson, D. K. Smith, H. C. Weed, L. Newton, “Dissolution kinetics of a simple analogue nuclear waste glass as a function of pH, time, and temperature,” in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIII, V. M. Oversby, P. W. Brown, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), Vol. 176, pp. 371–381.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 3–16.
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Nishida, Y.

A. Yokotani, Y. Nishida, K. Fujioka, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “A chromogenic limulus test for detection of microbes that decreases the laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4696–4698 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect cluster in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, M. Staggs, A. M. Rubenshik, M. D. Feit, S. G. Demos, “Time-resolved spectroscopic investigation of emission observed during damage in the bulk of fused silica and DKDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE4679, 360–365 (2002).

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. H. de Yoreo, “Observation of photoexcited emission clusters in the bulk of KDP and laser conditioning under 355-nm irradiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 509–514 (1999).

Rainer, F.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, R. Brusasco, J. Campbell, F. De Marco, R. Gonzales, M. Kozlowski, F. Milanovich, A. Morgan, M. Scrivener, M. Staggs, I. Thomas, S. Velsco, C. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 801 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 74–83.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, M. R. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 444–456 (1991).

Riddle, R.

M. D. Feit, J. H. Campbell, D. Faux, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Riddle, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 350–355 (1998).

Robey, H.

H. Robey, R. Floyd, R. Torres, A. Burnham, “Impurity leaching rates of 1000 liter tanks,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1999).

R. Floyd, H. Robey, T. Land, R. Hawley-Fedder, J. DeYoreo, “Mechanism for micro-inclusion formation in KDP/DKDP,” presented at the Thirteenth American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy, Burlington, Vt., 12–16 August 2001.

Rozsa, R.

N. Zaitseva, J. Atherton, R. Rozsa, L. Carman, I. Smolsky, M. Runkel, R. Ryon, L. James, “Design and benefits of continuous filtration in rapid growth of large KDP and DKDP crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 911–920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A.

M. Runkel, A. K. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, “The results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 359–372 (2001).

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Runkel, “Analysis of bulk DKDP damage distribution, obscuration and pulse length dependence,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 383–388 (2001).

M. D. Feit, J. H. Campbell, D. Faux, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Riddle, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 350–355 (1998).

Rubenshik, A. M.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, M. Staggs, A. M. Rubenshik, M. D. Feit, S. G. Demos, “Time-resolved spectroscopic investigation of emission observed during damage in the bulk of fused silica and DKDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE4679, 360–365 (2002).

Runkel, M.

N. Zaitseva, J. Atherton, R. Rozsa, L. Carman, I. Smolsky, M. Runkel, R. Ryon, L. James, “Design and benefits of continuous filtration in rapid growth of large KDP and DKDP crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 911–920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Runkel, “Analysis of bulk DKDP damage distribution, obscuration and pulse length dependence,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 383–388 (2001).

R. Sharp, M. Runkel, “Automated damage onset analysis techniques applied to KDP damage and the Zeus small area damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 361–368 (2000).

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 373–381 (2001).

B. Woods, M. Runkel, M. Yan, M. Staggs, N. Zaitseva, M. Kozlowski, J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of damage in KDP using light scattering techniques,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 20–31 (1997).

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, A. Burnham, “The results of raster-scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE4679, 368–383 (2002).

M. Runkel, A. K. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, “The results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 359–372 (2001).

M. Runkel, B. Woods, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, M. Kozlowski, “Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 185–195 (1996).

M. Runkel, A. K. Burnham, “Differences in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 408–419 (2001).

M. Runkel, S. Maricle, R. Torres, J. Auerbach, R. Floyd, R. Hawley-Fedder, A. K. Burnham, “The effect of thermal annealing and second harmonic generation on bulk damage performance of rapid-growth KDP type I doublers at 1064 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 389–399 (2001).

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, J. De Yoreo, “Impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 211–222 (1998).

Ryerson, F. J.

K. G. Knauss, W. L. Bourcier, K. D. McKeegan, C. I. Merzbacher, S. N. Nguyen, F. J. Ryerson, D. K. Smith, H. C. Weed, L. Newton, “Dissolution kinetics of a simple analogue nuclear waste glass as a function of pH, time, and temperature,” in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIII, V. M. Oversby, P. W. Brown, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), Vol. 176, pp. 371–381.

Ryon, R.

N. Zaitseva, J. Atherton, R. Rozsa, L. Carman, I. Smolsky, M. Runkel, R. Ryon, L. James, “Design and benefits of continuous filtration in rapid growth of large KDP and DKDP crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 911–920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sadata, T.

T. Masui, K. Fukuhara, N. Imanaka, T. Sadata, H. Mori, T. Adachi, “Effects of titanium oxide on the optical properties of cerium oxide,” Chem. Lett. 2002, 474–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

M. D. Feit, J. H. Campbell, D. Faux, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Riddle, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 350–355 (1998).

Sasaki, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsumo, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nashida, A. Yokotani, T. Sasaki, K. Yoshida, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Improvement of the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by reducing the organic impurities in growth solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 420–421 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Yokotani, Y. Nishida, K. Fujioka, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “A chromogenic limulus test for detection of microbes that decreases the laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4696–4698 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Yokotani, T. Sasaki, K. Yoshida, T. Yamanaka, C. Tamanaka, “Improvement of the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1030–1032 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Scrivener, M.

F. Rainer, R. Brusasco, J. Campbell, F. De Marco, R. Gonzales, M. Kozlowski, F. Milanovich, A. Morgan, M. Scrivener, M. Staggs, I. Thomas, S. Velsco, C. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 801 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 74–83.

Sell, W.

M. Runkel, A. K. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, “The results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 359–372 (2001).

Sharp, R.

R. Sharp, M. Runkel, “Automated damage onset analysis techniques applied to KDP damage and the Zeus small area damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 361–368 (2000).

Sheehan, L.

R. Fluck, P. Wegner, L. Sheehan, L. A. Hackel, “Angle-resolved scatter measurements of laser-damaged DKDP crystals using a bi-directional scatter diagnostic,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 423–431 (2001).

Singleton, M. F.

M. F. Singleton, J. F. Cooper, B. D. Andresen, F. P. Milanovich, “Laser-induced bulk damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 857–859 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Gonzales, M. C. Staggs, M. F. Singleton, D. George, C. L. Weinzapfel, S. Weinzapfel, “Variations with laser pulse duration of the thresholds at 350-nm and 1064-nm for bulk damage in crystals of KDP,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Laser Materials: 1986, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., NIST (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 752 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 206.

Smith, D. K.

K. G. Knauss, W. L. Bourcier, K. D. McKeegan, C. I. Merzbacher, S. N. Nguyen, F. J. Ryerson, D. K. Smith, H. C. Weed, L. Newton, “Dissolution kinetics of a simple analogue nuclear waste glass as a function of pH, time, and temperature,” in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIII, V. M. Oversby, P. W. Brown, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), Vol. 176, pp. 371–381.

Smolsky, I.

N. Zaitseva, J. Atherton, R. Rozsa, L. Carman, I. Smolsky, M. Runkel, R. Ryon, L. James, “Design and benefits of continuous filtration in rapid growth of large KDP and DKDP crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 911–920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Zaitseva, L. Carman, I. Smolsky, R. Torres, M. Yan, “The effect of impurities and supersaturation on the rapid growth of KDP crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 204, 512–524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect cluster in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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B. Woods, M. Runkel, M. Yan, M. Staggs, N. Zaitseva, M. Kozlowski, J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of damage in KDP using light scattering techniques,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 20–31 (1997).

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M. Runkel, B. Woods, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, M. Kozlowski, “Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 185–195 (1996).

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. H. de Yoreo, “Observation of photoexcited emission clusters in the bulk of KDP and laser conditioning under 355-nm irradiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 509–514 (1999).

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M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, J. De Yoreo, “Impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 211–222 (1998).

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M. Runkel, B. Woods, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, M. Kozlowski, “Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 185–195 (1996).

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. H. de Yoreo, “Observation of photoexcited emission clusters in the bulk of KDP and laser conditioning under 355-nm irradiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 509–514 (1999).

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, M. Staggs, A. M. Rubenshik, M. D. Feit, S. G. Demos, “Time-resolved spectroscopic investigation of emission observed during damage in the bulk of fused silica and DKDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE4679, 360–365 (2002).

M. Runkel, S. Maricle, R. Torres, J. Auerbach, R. Floyd, R. Hawley-Fedder, A. K. Burnham, “The effect of thermal annealing and second harmonic generation on bulk damage performance of rapid-growth KDP type I doublers at 1064 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 389–399 (2001).

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B. Woods, M. Runkel, M. Yan, M. Staggs, N. Zaitseva, M. Kozlowski, J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of damage in KDP using light scattering techniques,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 20–31 (1997).

R. Floyd, H. Robey, T. Land, R. Hawley-Fedder, J. DeYoreo, “Mechanism for micro-inclusion formation in KDP/DKDP,” presented at the Thirteenth American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy, Burlington, Vt., 12–16 August 2001.

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R. Sharp, M. Runkel, “Automated damage onset analysis techniques applied to KDP damage and the Zeus small area damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 361–368 (2000).

M. Runkel, A. K. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, “The results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 359–372 (2001).

R. Fluck, P. Wegner, L. Sheehan, L. A. Hackel, “Angle-resolved scatter measurements of laser-damaged DKDP crystals using a bi-directional scatter diagnostic,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 423–431 (2001).

M. Runkel, A. K. Burnham, “Differences in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 408–419 (2001).

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Runkel, “Analysis of bulk DKDP damage distribution, obscuration and pulse length dependence,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 383–388 (2001).

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[CrossRef]

A 10% damage threshold is plotted for the triplers because it corresponds roughly to 0.1% light scattering, which is thought to be close to the limit for achieving the desired beam spatial fluence uniformity in the National Ignition Facility. Scattered light mixes with unscattered light, and the resulting phase modulation evolves into a spatial fluence modulation given by c = (2fs)1/2, where c is the rms contrast and fs is the fraction of scattered light.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 373–381 (2001).

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, J. De Yoreo, “Impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).

F. Rainer, R. Brusasco, J. Campbell, F. De Marco, R. Gonzales, M. Kozlowski, F. Milanovich, A. Morgan, M. Scrivener, M. Staggs, I. Thomas, S. Velsco, C. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 801 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 74–83.

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D. Milam, J. T. Hunt, K. R. Manes, W. H. Williams, “Modeling of filamentation damage induced in silica by 351-nm laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 425–428 (1997).

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M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 211–222 (1998).

R. P. Gonzales, M. C. Staggs, M. F. Singleton, D. George, C. L. Weinzapfel, S. Weinzapfel, “Variations with laser pulse duration of the thresholds at 350-nm and 1064-nm for bulk damage in crystals of KDP,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Laser Materials: 1986, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., NIST (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 752 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 206.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Orientation of the three types of damage sample relative to the crystal geometry. The face of the tripler is oriented 59° from the base—the light propagation through the tripler is 59° from the c axis. The shaded areas grow from the side face and are called prismatic material, and the clear area is called pyramidal material.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of laser propagation direction on the unconditioned and conditioned damage (CD) probability of DKDP conventionally grown (CG) by Cleveland Crystals, Inc. (LL10) and rapidly grown (RG) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (CD35). The lack of polarization dependence is also shown for tripler cuts from CD35, with 0 deg. indicating that the electric field has a component along the c axis of the crystal. THG, third-harmonic generation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Side view of damage track images showing the differences in pinpoint (pp) density and size for 1-, 3-, and 10-ns pulses of 351-nm light in the 8–10-J/cm2 fluence range. The irradiated region is approximately 250 µm in diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log-log plot of the distribution of bulk damage pinpoint sizes from exposure of rapid-growth material BD7 at various pulse lengths. The power-law exponents for each pulse duration are all near m = 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Semilog plot of data in Table 3 scaled by the quarter power of the pulse length.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ten percent damage probability fluences for 20-l samples grown in the years 1999 and 2001.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Rise and fall of impurities in the growth solution and boule for rapid-growth runs in a 1000-l borosilicate crystallizer. (a) Comparison of measured and calculated A1 and Fe concentrations in KDP rapid-growth run F4. (b) Variation in Al, Fe, and Ba concentrations in the prism material across rapidly grown DKDP boule BD5. est., estimated; act., actual.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Samples from Two Large DKDP Boules Used to Determine Whether the Damage Resistance Depends on the Orientation of the Tripler Cut to the Pyramidal Growth Plane

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Table 2 Average Sizes of Pinpoint Damage Sites as a Function of Pulse Length and Viewing Anglea

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Table 3 Internal Transmittance at 355 nm (Fresnel Losses Removed) for 1-cm Spots of Rapid-Growth DKDP Sample BD7 Exposed on the Optical Sciences Laser to Various Fluences and Pulse Lengthsa

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Table 4 ICP-MS Analysis Results for Digestion of Track-Etched Filters with Associated Particulates Collected after Dissolution of Various Samples of DKDPa

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Table 5 Summary of Laser-Induced Damage Test Data for Large DKDP Boules Grown in Glass Tanksa

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Table 6 Damage Results and Selected Impurity Concentrations for Growth Runs in 1200-l Polycarbonate Tank Crystallizersa

Equations (1)

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Tt=αIa2/κ1+4τ

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