Abstract

A folded structured light generator is presented. This spot generator is to be used in a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect. Three cascaded diffractive optical elements produce 4 × 8 clusters on an 800 µm × 1600 µm pitch, in which each cluster is a 4 × 4 array of 13.1-µm-radius spots on a 90-µm pitch. The folded configuration is more compact than an existing linear spot-array generator and replaces 14 optical surfaces with eight surfaces. Details of the optical design, sensitivity analysis, alignment techniques, assembly, and test results are presented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase grating,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Optomechanical, electrical, and thermal packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 502–505 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Chateauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of binary computer generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. H. Ayliffe, M. Châteauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Six-degrees-of-freedom alignment of two-dimensional array components by use of off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6515–6526 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of binary computer generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase grating,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M. H.

M. H. Ayliffe, M. Châteauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Six-degrees-of-freedom alignment of two-dimensional array components by use of off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6515–6526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Optomechanical, electrical, and thermal packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 502–505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Chateauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, E.

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Chateauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

Brosseau, D. F.

Chateauneuf, M.

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Chateauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

Cloonan, T. J.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

Hall, T. J.

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of binary computer generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, R.

Kabal, D.

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Optomechanical, electrical, and thermal packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 502–505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khurana, P.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Optomechanical, electrical, and thermal packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 502–505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

M. H. Ayliffe, M. Châteauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Six-degrees-of-freedom alignment of two-dimensional array components by use of off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6515–6526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of binary computer generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Optomechanical, electrical, and thermal packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 502–505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Chateauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, F.

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Chateauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Optomechanical, electrical, and thermal packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 502–505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. S.

McCormick, F. B.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase grating,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

M. H. Ayliffe, M. Châteauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Six-degrees-of-freedom alignment of two-dimensional array components by use of off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6515–6526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Optomechanical, electrical, and thermal packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 502–505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Chateauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

Robertson, W. M.

Rolston, D. R.

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tagizadeh, M. R.

Tooley, F. A. P.

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Optomechanical, electrical, and thermal packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 502–505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Chateauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of binary computer generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase grating,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Optomechanical, electrical, and thermal packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 502–505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Chateauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the modulator array on the optoelectronic VLSI chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the previous linear OPS. PM, polarization maintaining; QWP, quarter-wave plate; RPP, Risley prism pair; FOG, Fan-out grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the FOPS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the need for nonsymmetric DOEs. (a) Symmetric fan-out with a normal incident angle. (b) Compensation of the incident angle by use of nonsymmetric fan-out.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of (a) angular and (b) longitudinal misalignment analyses of the second substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of the FOPS (with the collimation module on the left).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left: photograph of a 512 spot array (inverted contrast). Right: test results of a spatial power scan.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spots incident on a test target.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intensity scan of a 4 × 4 cluster.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Power Supply Requirements

Tables Icon

Table 2 DOEs Specification of Two Fan-Out Module Designs

Tables Icon

Table 3 Efficiency and Standard Deviation for the DOEs of the FOPS

Tables Icon

Table 4 FOPS Requirements and Results

Equations (3)

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mλ=p sin θm.
12
ω0=fλ/πω0,

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