Abstract

Accurate radiative transfer modeling in the coupled atmosphere-sea system is increasing in importance for the development of advanced remote-sensing applications. Aiming to quantify the uncertainties in the modeling of coastal water radiometric quantities, we performed a closure experiment to intercompare theoretical and experimental data as a function of wavelength λ and water depth z. Specifically, the study focused on above-water downward irradiance E d(λ, 0+) and in-water spectral profiles of upward nadir radiance L u(λ, z), upward irradiance E u(λ, z), downward irradiance E d(λ, z), the E u(λ, z)/L u(λ, z) ratio (the nadir Q factor), and the E u(λ, z)/E d(λ, z) ratio (the irradiance reflectance). The theoretical data were produced with the finite-element method radiative transfer code ingesting in situ atmospheric and marine inherent optical properties. The experimental data were taken from a comprehensive coastal shallow-water data set collected in the northern Adriatic Sea. Under various measurement conditions, differences between theoretical and experimental data for the above-water E d(λ, 0+) and subsurface E d(λ, 0-) as well as for the in-water profiles of the nadir Q factor were generally less than 15%. In contrast, the in-water profiles of L u(λ, z), E d(λ, z), E u(λ, z) and of the irradiance reflectance exhibited larger differences [to approximately 60% for L u(λ, z) and E u(λ, z), 30% for E d(λ, z), and 50% for the irradiance reflectance]. These differences showed a high sensitivity to experimental uncertainties in a few input quantities used for the simulations: the seawater absorption coefficient; the hydrosol phase function backscattering probability; and, mainly for clear water, the bottom reflectance.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

2002 (5)

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4283–4306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sturm, G. Zibordi “SeaWiFS atmospheric correction by an approximate model and vicarious calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 489–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, P. A. Hwang, “The influence of coherent waves on the remotely sensed reflectance,” Opt. Express, 9, 260–265 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, “In situ relationships between the Q-factor and seawater optical properties in coastal regions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1130–1140 (2001).

1999 (2)

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli, V. Kisselev, L. Roberti, “Radiative transfer in the atmosphere-ocean system: the finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1530–1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1993 (1)

1986 (1)

E. C. Monahan, I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 627–642 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

1974 (1)

A. A. Lacis, J. E. Hansen, “A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 118–133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

W. A. Margraaf, M. Griggs, “Aircraft measurements and calculations of the total downward flux of the solar radiation as a function of altitude,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 469–477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. Ångstrom, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

E. Vigroux, “Contribution a l’etude experimentale de l’absorption de l’ozone,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 8, 709–762 (1953).

Ackleson, S. G.

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, J-F. Berthon, S. Grossi, “Numerical simulation of experimental apparent optical properties in coastal waters,” Ocean Optics XV Conference, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000, available on CD from S. G. Ackleson, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va. 22217.

Alberotanza, L.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based long-term measurement program,” , Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (2002), pp. 1–29.

Ångstrom, A.

A. Ångstrom, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

Berthon, J. F.

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, “In situ relationships between the Q-factor and seawater optical properties in coastal regions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1130–1140 (2001).

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, D. van der Linde, J. F. Berthon, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, S. McLean, G. Lazin. “The eight SeaWiFS intercomparison round robin experiment (SIRREX-8),” , Vol. 21, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 1–39.

S. Hooker, G. Zibordi, S. Maritorena, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. McClean, J. Sildam, “Results of the second SeaWiFS data analysis round-robin, March 2000 (DARR-2000),” , Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (2001), pp. 1–71.

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based long-term measurement program,” , Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (2002), pp. 1–29.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, “Coastal Atmospheric and Sea Time-Series project (CoASTS), Part 2: data analysis,” , Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2002), pp. 1–25.

Berthon, J-F.

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, J-F. Berthon, S. Grossi, “Numerical simulation of experimental apparent optical properties in coastal waters,” Ocean Optics XV Conference, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000, available on CD from S. G. Ackleson, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va. 22217.

Boss, E.

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buiteveldt, H.

H. Buiteveldt, J. H. M. Hakvoort, M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bulgarelli, B.

B. Bulgarelli, V. Kisselev, L. Roberti, “Radiative transfer in the atmosphere-ocean system: the finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1530–1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, J-F. Berthon, S. Grossi, “Numerical simulation of experimental apparent optical properties in coastal waters,” Ocean Optics XV Conference, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000, available on CD from S. G. Ackleson, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va. 22217.

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, “Comparison between numerical models for radiative transfer simulation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, submitted for publication.

Chang, G. C.

D’Alimonte, D.

S. Hooker, G. Zibordi, S. Maritorena, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. McClean, J. Sildam, “Results of the second SeaWiFS data analysis round-robin, March 2000 (DARR-2000),” , Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (2001), pp. 1–71.

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, D. van der Linde, J. F. Berthon, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, S. McLean, G. Lazin. “The eight SeaWiFS intercomparison round robin experiment (SIRREX-8),” , Vol. 21, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 1–39.

Dana, D. R.

Dickey, T. D.

Donze, M.

H. Buiteveldt, J. H. M. Hakvoort, M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J. P.

J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4283–4306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, J-F. Berthon, S. Grossi, “Numerical simulation of experimental apparent optical properties in coastal waters,” Ocean Optics XV Conference, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000, available on CD from S. G. Ackleson, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va. 22217.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, “Coastal Atmospheric and Sea Time-Series project (CoASTS), Part 2: data analysis,” , Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2002), pp. 1–25.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based long-term measurement program,” , Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (2002), pp. 1–29.

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, “Comparison between numerical models for radiative transfer simulation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, submitted for publication.

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, “UV, visible and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km,” (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1968).

Forand, J. L.

J. L. Forand, G. R. Fournier, “Particle distributions and index of refraction estimation for Canadian waters,” in Airborns and In-Water Underwater Imaging, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE3761, 34–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G. R.

J. L. Forand, G. R. Fournier, “Particle distributions and index of refraction estimation for Canadian waters,” in Airborns and In-Water Underwater Imaging, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE3761, 34–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frölich, C.

Fry, E. S.

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

Griggs, M.

W. A. Margraaf, M. Griggs, “Aircraft measurements and calculations of the total downward flux of the solar radiation as a function of altitude,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 469–477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Grossi, S.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, “Coastal Atmospheric and Sea Time-Series project (CoASTS), Part 2: data analysis,” , Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2002), pp. 1–25.

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, J-F. Berthon, S. Grossi, “Numerical simulation of experimental apparent optical properties in coastal waters,” Ocean Optics XV Conference, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000, available on CD from S. G. Ackleson, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va. 22217.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based long-term measurement program,” , Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (2002), pp. 1–29.

Hakvoort, J. H. M.

H. Buiteveldt, J. H. M. Hakvoort, M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

A. A. Lacis, J. E. Hansen, “A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 118–133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S.

S. Hooker, G. Zibordi, S. Maritorena, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. McClean, J. Sildam, “Results of the second SeaWiFS data analysis round-robin, March 2000 (DARR-2000),” , Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (2001), pp. 1–71.

Hooker, S. B.

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, D. van der Linde, J. F. Berthon, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, S. McLean, G. Lazin. “The eight SeaWiFS intercomparison round robin experiment (SIRREX-8),” , Vol. 21, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 1–39.

Hwang, P. A.

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Kattawar, G. W.

Kaufman, Y. J.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kisselev, V.

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflection-tube absorption meters,” J. S. Jaffe, ed., in Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE2258, 44–54 (1994).

Labs, D.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A. A.

A. A. Lacis, J. E. Hansen, “A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 118–133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lazin, G.

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, D. van der Linde, J. F. Berthon, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, S. McLean, G. Lazin. “The eight SeaWiFS intercomparison round robin experiment (SIRREX-8),” , Vol. 21, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 1–39.

Maffione, R. A.

Margraaf, W. A.

W. A. Margraaf, M. Griggs, “Aircraft measurements and calculations of the total downward flux of the solar radiation as a function of altitude,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 469–477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

S. Hooker, G. Zibordi, S. Maritorena, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. McClean, J. Sildam, “Results of the second SeaWiFS data analysis round-robin, March 2000 (DARR-2000),” , Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (2001), pp. 1–71.

McClean, S.

S. Hooker, G. Zibordi, S. Maritorena, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. McClean, J. Sildam, “Results of the second SeaWiFS data analysis round-robin, March 2000 (DARR-2000),” , Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (2001), pp. 1–71.

McLean, S.

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, D. van der Linde, J. F. Berthon, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, S. McLean, G. Lazin. “The eight SeaWiFS intercomparison round robin experiment (SIRREX-8),” , Vol. 21, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 1–39.

Mobley, C.

C. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

Mobley, C. D.

Monahan, E. C.

E. C. Monahan, I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 627–642 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflection-tube absorption meters,” J. S. Jaffe, ed., in Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE2258, 44–54 (1994).

Morel, A.

Mueller, J. L.

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, D. van der Linde, J. F. Berthon, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, S. McLean, G. Lazin. “The eight SeaWiFS intercomparison round robin experiment (SIRREX-8),” , Vol. 21, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 1–39.

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O’Muircheartaigh, I. G.

E. C. Monahan, I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 627–642 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N. T.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, S.

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected natural waters,” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, San Diego, Calif., 1972).

Pope, R. M.

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J. S.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P.

Roberti, L.

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. E.

Sildam, J.

S. Hooker, G. Zibordi, S. Maritorena, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. McClean, J. Sildam, “Results of the second SeaWiFS data analysis round-robin, March 2000 (DARR-2000),” , Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (2001), pp. 1–71.

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R. H.

Sturm, B.

B. Sturm, G. Zibordi “SeaWiFS atmospheric correction by an approximate model and vicarious calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 489–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Tanre, D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Targa, C.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based long-term measurement program,” , Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (2002), pp. 1–29.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, “Coastal Atmospheric and Sea Time-Series project (CoASTS), Part 2: data analysis,” , Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2002), pp. 1–25.

van der Linde, D.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, “Coastal Atmospheric and Sea Time-Series project (CoASTS), Part 2: data analysis,” , Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2002), pp. 1–25.

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, D. van der Linde, J. F. Berthon, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, S. McLean, G. Lazin. “The eight SeaWiFS intercomparison round robin experiment (SIRREX-8),” , Vol. 21, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 1–39.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based long-term measurement program,” , Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (2002), pp. 1–29.

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vigroux, E.

E. Vigroux, “Contribution a l’etude experimentale de l’absorption de l’ozone,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 8, 709–762 (1953).

Young, A. T.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, P. A. Hwang, “The influence of coherent waves on the remotely sensed reflectance,” Opt. Express, 9, 260–265 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflection-tube absorption meters,” J. S. Jaffe, ed., in Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE2258, 44–54 (1994).

Zibordi, G.

B. Sturm, G. Zibordi “SeaWiFS atmospheric correction by an approximate model and vicarious calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 489–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4283–4306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, “In situ relationships between the Q-factor and seawater optical properties in coastal regions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1130–1140 (2001).

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, D. van der Linde, J. F. Berthon, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, S. McLean, G. Lazin. “The eight SeaWiFS intercomparison round robin experiment (SIRREX-8),” , Vol. 21, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 1–39.

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, J-F. Berthon, S. Grossi, “Numerical simulation of experimental apparent optical properties in coastal waters,” Ocean Optics XV Conference, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000, available on CD from S. G. Ackleson, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va. 22217.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, “Coastal Atmospheric and Sea Time-Series project (CoASTS), Part 2: data analysis,” , Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2002), pp. 1–25.

S. Hooker, G. Zibordi, S. Maritorena, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. McClean, J. Sildam, “Results of the second SeaWiFS data analysis round-robin, March 2000 (DARR-2000),” , Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (2001), pp. 1–71.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based long-term measurement program,” , Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (2002), pp. 1–29.

Ann. Phys. (Paris) (1)

E. Vigroux, “Contribution a l’etude experimentale de l’absorption de l’ozone,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 8, 709–762 (1953).

Appl. Opt. (10)

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6057–6067 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bulgarelli, V. Kisselev, L. Roberti, “Radiative transfer in the atmosphere-ocean system: the finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1530–1542 (1999).
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R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
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C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4283–4306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, C. D. Mobley, E. Boss, S. Pegau, “Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1574–1582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Young, “Revised depolarization corrections for atmospheric extinction,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3427–3428 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (2)

B. Sturm, G. Zibordi “SeaWiFS atmospheric correction by an approximate model and vicarious calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 489–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Monahan, I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 627–642 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (3)

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Margraaf, M. Griggs, “Aircraft measurements and calculations of the total downward flux of the solar radiation as a function of altitude,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 469–477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacis, J. E. Hansen, “A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 118–133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, “In situ relationships between the Q-factor and seawater optical properties in coastal regions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1130–1140 (2001).

Opt. Express (1)

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
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Tellus (1)

A. Ångstrom, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1969).
[CrossRef]

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L. Elterman, “UV, visible and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km,” (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1968).

A. Deepak, H. E. Gerber, eds, Report of the Experts Meeting on Aerosol and Their Climate Effects, (World Meterological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland1983).

C. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. St. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 1–24.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected natural waters,” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, San Diego, Calif., 1972).

J. L. Forand, G. R. Fournier, “Particle distributions and index of refraction estimation for Canadian waters,” in Airborns and In-Water Underwater Imaging, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE3761, 34–44 (1999).
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S. Hooker, G. Zibordi, S. Maritorena, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. McClean, J. Sildam, “Results of the second SeaWiFS data analysis round-robin, March 2000 (DARR-2000),” , Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (2001), pp. 1–71.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflection-tube absorption meters,” J. S. Jaffe, ed., in Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE2258, 44–54 (1994).

HydroSoft Data Processing Notes, HOBI Labs, Inc., Moss Landing, Calif. (2002), http://www.hobilabs.com/products/hydrosoft/hydrosoftprocessingnotes.html .

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, “Comparison between numerical models for radiative transfer simulation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, submitted for publication.

B. Bulgarelli, J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, J-F. Berthon, S. Grossi, “Numerical simulation of experimental apparent optical properties in coastal waters,” Ocean Optics XV Conference, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000, available on CD from S. G. Ackleson, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va. 22217.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based long-term measurement program,” , Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (2002), pp. 1–29.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, “Coastal Atmospheric and Sea Time-Series project (CoASTS), Part 2: data analysis,” , Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2002), pp. 1–25.

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[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, D. van der Linde, J. F. Berthon, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, S. McLean, G. Lazin. “The eight SeaWiFS intercomparison round robin experiment (SIRREX-8),” , Vol. 21, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 1–39.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Aerosol single-scattering albedo ω a as a function of wavelength λ for △, pure maritime aerosol39; ▽, pure continental aerosol39; ○, the aerosol of case 1; *, the aerosol of case 2; □, the aerosol of case 3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental values of (a) S w , (b) a p (λ, z) + a ys (λ, z), (c) b p (λ, z), (d) B p (λ, z) at λ = 412, 490, 555, and 665 nm as a function of depth z (×, 412 nm; ◇, 490 nm; ✡, 555 nm; *, 665 nm). The straight line in panels (d) corresponds to the backscattering probability of the average Petzold phase function B p = 0.018.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FF phase functions (- -, B p = 0.011; —, B p = 0.033) and average Petzold phase function (···, B p = 0.018) as a function of the scattering angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) ε[E d (λ,0 +)] and (b) ε[E d (λ,0 -)] as functions of wavelength λ (○, case 1; *, case 2; □, case 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Case 1. (a) In-water profiles of L u (λ, z), E u (λ, z), and E d (λ, z) at λ = 412, 490, and 555 nm: ●, experimental results; □, simulated results obtained with the standard model (see Section 3). (b) Corresponding ε profiles: x, 412 nm; ◇, 490 nm; ✡, 555 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Case 2. (a) In-water profiles of L u (λ, z), E u (λ, z), and E d (λ, z) at λ = 412, 490, and 555 nm: ●, experimental results; □, simulated results obtained with the standard model (see Section 3). (b) Corresponding ε profiles: x, 412 nm; ◇, 490 nm; ✡, 555 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Case 3. (a) In-water profiles of L u (λ, z), E u (λ, z), and E d (λ, z) at λ = 412, 490, and 555 nm: ●, experimental results; □, simulated results obtained with the standard model (see Section 3). (b) Corresponding ε profiles: x, 412 nm; ◇, 490 nm; ✡, 555 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Case 2. (a) In-water profiles of L u (λ, z), E u (λ, z), and E d (λ, z) at λ = 665 nm: ●, experimental results; □, FEM; ◇, Hydrolight 4.1 simulated data obtained with the standard model (see Section 3). (b) In-water profiles of L u (λ, z), E u (λ, z), and E d (λ, z) at λ = 665 nm: ●, experimental results; ◇, Hydrolight 4.1 simulated data obtained that account for inelastic scattering processes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

In-water profiles of ε[L u (λ, z)], ε[E d (λ, z)], and ε[E u (λ, z)] for simulations performed at λ = 555 nm by assuming an uncertainty on the bottom reflectance ρ oc (λ) equal to □, 0%; ▽, -50%; △, +50% for (a) case 1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

In-water profiles of ε[L u (λ, z)], ε[E d (λ, z)], and ε[E u (λ, z)] for simulations performed at λ = 443 nm by assuming an uncertainty on a(λ, z) equal to □, 0%; ▽, -5%; ◇, -10%; △, -20% for (a) case 1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

In-water profiles of ε[L u (λ, z)], ε[E d (λ, z)], and ε[E u (λ, z)] for simulations performed at λ = 443 nm by assuming an uncertainty on B p (λ, z) equal to □, 0%; ▽, +10%; ◇, +30%; △, +50% for (a) case 1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

In-water profiles of ε[L u (λ, z)], ε[E d (λ, z)], and ε[E u (λ, z)] for simulations performed at λ = 443 nm: □, according to the standard model (Section 3) and ▽, adopting the average Petzold phase function (B p = 0.018) for (a) case 1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Case 3. (a) In-water profiles of L u (λ, z), E u (λ, z), and E d (λ, z) at λ = 412, 490, and 555 nm: ●, experimental results; □, simulated results obtained with the standard model and empirical adjustment of a(λ, z) and B p (λ, z) as follows: a(λ, z) - 0.05 a(λ, z) at λ = 412 nm and a(λ, z) - 0.1 a(λ, z) at the other λ; B p (λ, z) + 0.4 B p (λ, z) at λ = 412, B p (λ, z) + 0.3 B p (λ, z) at the other λ. No empirical adjustment was done on ρ c (λ). (b) Corresponding ε profiles: x, 412 nm; ◇, 490 nm; ✡, 555 nm. The dotted lines delimit the ±10% and ±20% regions.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

ε[ n (λ, 0-)] as a function of wavelength λ: ○, case 1; *, case 2; □, case 3. The same scale as in Fig. 4 was applied to ensure comparability of plots.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) In-water profiles of ε[ n (λ, z)] and (b) of ε[(λ, z)] at λ = 412, 490, and 555 nm: x, 412 nm; ◇, 490 nm; ✡, 555 nm. The dotted lines delimit the ±10% and ±20% regions.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Case 3: in-water profiles of ε[(λ, z)] at λ = 412, 490, and 555 nm obtained empirically by adjustment of a(λ, z) and B p (λ, z) as for Fig. 13: x, 412 nm; ◇, 490 nm; ✡, 555 nm. The dotted lines delimit the ±10% and ±20% regions.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 General Elements that Identify the Selected Case Studies

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Table 2 Data for the Three Case Studiesa

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Table 3 Chla and TSM Obtained from Laboratory Analysisa

Equations (8)

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λ, z, t0=λ, z, tEdλ, 0+, t0Edλ, 0+, t,
UB=3.36×10-0.00309Tw.
aλ, z=awλ+apλ, z+aysλ, z,
bλ, z=cλ, z-aλ, z
bλ, z=bwλ+bpλ, z,
Bpλ, z=bbλ, z-bwλBwλbpλ, z,
ελ, z=sλ, z-mλ, zmλ, z 100.
ε˜λ, z=1Ni=1N|ελi, z|,

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