Abstract

The deposition of a 30-Å-thick layer of iridium upon a 250-Å-thick osmium reflective layer for use as a diffraction grating in the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) satellite observatory has provided sufficient protection from an expected maximum orbital atomic-oxygen fluence of 1 × 1016 atoms/cm2. The grating parameters of groove constant and depth, efficiencies of zeroth-order, first and second inside orders, and first inside-order efficiency positional uniformity as well as stray light near the first inside order of the Ir-Os-coated grating were measured within a CHIPS spectral bandpass of 90–260 Å. Stray-light measurements were also made near the first inside spectral order at 304, 584, and 1216 Å. The results make the Ir-Os coat an acceptable grating reflectivity layer for CHIPS and other spaceborne extreme-ultraviolet spectrometers that employ grazing-incidence reflection optics.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

1996 (1)

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. R. McKinney, D. Mossessian, E. Gullikson, P. Heimann, “Efficiency and stray light measurements and calculations of diffraction gratings for the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2160–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Wu, T. T. Tsong, “Overlayer formation and inter-diffusion of Rh atoms at the Pt(100) surface,” Surf. Sci. 318, 358–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993), http://cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
[CrossRef]

H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, C. M. Fleetwood, “Long-duration orbital effects on optical coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1798–1804 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

Y.-L. He, J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang, J. J. Low, “Diffusion of Rh overlayers grown on a Pt(110) surface,” Surf. Sci. 255, 269–279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS thermospheric model into the middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991), http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/models/misi.htm .
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

C. S. Fang, W. S. Tse, C. E. Maloney, “Re/Ir/W and Os/Ir/W alloy coatings on impregnated tungsten cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 1189–1199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (4)

1984 (2)

1983 (2)

S. Chakrabarti, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, R. Kimble, “The extreme ultraviolet day airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4898–4904 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C and Os exposed during the shuttle STS-4 orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569–571 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blake, R. L.

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1993).

Bowyer, S.

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-mm-1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, C. Martin, S. Mrowka, “Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1737–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400 Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, R. Kimble, “The extreme ultraviolet day airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4898–4904 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.

Brion, D.

D. Brion, J. C. Tonnerre, A. Shroff, “Electron emission and surface composition of osmium and osmium-tungsten coated dispenser cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 20, 429–456 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Burek, A. J.

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).

Chakrabarti, S.

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400 Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, R. Kimble, “The extreme ultraviolet day airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4898–4904 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Clauss, T.

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993), http://cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
[CrossRef]

Davis, R.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Dawson, S.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Denham, P. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, P.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Donakowski, W.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).

Edelstein, J.

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-mm-1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Edelstein, M. C. Hettrick, S. Mrowka, P. Jelinsky, C. Martin, “Extreme UV measurements of a varied line-space Hitachi reflection grating: efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3267–3270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Fang, C. S.

C. S. Fang, W. S. Tse, C. E. Maloney, “Re/Ir/W and Os/Ir/W alloy coatings on impregnated tungsten cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 1189–1199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, J. J.

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).

Fleetwood, C. M.

Franck, K. D.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, A.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Gaines, G.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Gómez, J. F.

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.

Graessle, D. E.

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).

Gregory, J. C.

Gull, T. R.

Gullikson, E.

W. R. McKinney, D. Mossessian, E. Gullikson, P. Heimann, “Efficiency and stray light measurements and calculations of diffraction gratings for the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2160–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993), http://cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. McKinney, C. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).

Harada, T.

Harris, B.

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).

He, Y.-L.

Y.-L. He, J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang, J. J. Low, “Diffusion of Rh overlayers grown on a Pt(110) surface,” Surf. Sci. 255, 269–279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hedin, A.

A. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS thermospheric model into the middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991), http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/models/misi.htm .
[CrossRef]

Heimann, P.

W. R. McKinney, D. Mossessian, E. Gullikson, P. Heimann, “Efficiency and stray light measurements and calculations of diffraction gratings for the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2160–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hemphill, R.

R. Hemphill, M. Pelizzo, M. Hurwitz, “Extreme-ultraviolet calibration of thin-film Zr filters for the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4680–4685 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993), http://cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H.

Hettrick, M. C.

Hoberman, J.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Hurwitz, M.

R. Hemphill, M. Pelizzo, M. Hurwitz, “Extreme-ultraviolet calibration of thin-film Zr filters for the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4680–4685 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-mm-1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley, Diffraction Gratings (Academic, London, 1982).

Janicik, J.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Jelinsky, P.

J. Edelstein, M. C. Hettrick, S. Mrowka, P. Jelinsky, C. Martin, “Extreme UV measurements of a varied line-space Hitachi reflection grating: efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3267–3270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Kimble, R.

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400 Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, R. Kimble, “The extreme ultraviolet day airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4898–4904 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kita, T.

Koike, M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. McKinney, C. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).

Korpela, E.

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.

Lampton, M.

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).

Linton, R. C.

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C and Os exposed during the shuttle STS-4 orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569–571 (1983).
[CrossRef]

López-Moreno, J. J.

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.

Low, J. J.

Y.-L. He, J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang, J. J. Low, “Diffusion of Rh overlayers grown on a Pt(110) surface,” Surf. Sci. 255, 269–279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Malina, R. F.

Maloney, C. E.

C. S. Fang, W. S. Tse, C. E. Maloney, “Re/Ir/W and Os/Ir/W alloy coatings on impregnated tungsten cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 1189–1199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, W.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Marckwordt, M.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Martin, C.

McKinney, W. R.

W. R. McKinney, D. Mossessian, E. Gullikson, P. Heimann, “Efficiency and stray light measurements and calculations of diffraction gratings for the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2160–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. R.

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C and Os exposed during the shuttle STS-4 orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569–571 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mirczak, J.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Morales, C.

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.

Mossessian, D.

W. R. McKinney, D. Mossessian, E. Gullikson, P. Heimann, “Efficiency and stray light measurements and calculations of diffraction gratings for the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2160–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, C. Martin, S. Mrowka, “Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1737–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Edelstein, M. C. Hettrick, S. Mrowka, P. Jelinsky, C. Martin, “Extreme UV measurements of a varied line-space Hitachi reflection grating: efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3267–3270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. McKinney, C. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).

Osantowski, J. F.

Paresce, F.

S. Chakrabarti, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, R. Kimble, “The extreme ultraviolet day airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4898–4904 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M.

Peters, P. N.

P. N. Peters, J. C. Gregory, J. T. Swann, “Effects on optical systems from interactions with oxygen atoms in low earth orbits,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1290–1298 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C and Os exposed during the shuttle STS-4 orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569–571 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sasseen, T.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Schwartz, D. A.

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).

Sholl, M.

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Shroff, A.

D. Brion, J. C. Tonnerre, A. Shroff, “Electron emission and surface composition of osmium and osmium-tungsten coated dispenser cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 20, 429–456 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, O.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Sirk, M.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).

Steele, W. F.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stone, D.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Sulack, S.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Swann, J. T.

Tackaberry, R. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, E.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Toft, A. R.

Tonnerre, J. C.

D. Brion, J. C. Tonnerre, A. Shroff, “Electron emission and surface composition of osmium and osmium-tungsten coated dispenser cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 20, 429–456 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Torr, M. R.

Trapero, J.

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.

Tse, W. S.

C. S. Fang, W. S. Tse, C. E. Maloney, “Re/Ir/W and Os/Ir/W alloy coatings on impregnated tungsten cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 1189–1199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tsong, T. T.

H. Wu, T. T. Tsong, “Overlayer formation and inter-diffusion of Rh atoms at the Pt(100) surface,” Surf. Sci. 318, 358–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. McKinney, C. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).

Veno, M.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-L. He, J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang, J. J. Low, “Diffusion of Rh overlayers grown on a Pt(110) surface,” Surf. Sci. 255, 269–279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Woff, J.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1993).

Wu, H.

H. Wu, T. T. Tsong, “Overlayer formation and inter-diffusion of Rh atoms at the Pt(100) surface,” Surf. Sci. 318, 358–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, J.-K.

Y.-L. He, J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang, J. J. Low, “Diffusion of Rh overlayers grown on a Pt(110) surface,” Surf. Sci. 255, 269–279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

C. S. Fang, W. S. Tse, C. E. Maloney, “Re/Ir/W and Os/Ir/W alloy coatings on impregnated tungsten cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 1189–1199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Brion, J. C. Tonnerre, A. Shroff, “Electron emission and surface composition of osmium and osmium-tungsten coated dispenser cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 20, 429–456 (1985).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993), http://cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C and Os exposed during the shuttle STS-4 orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569–571 (1983).
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