Abstract

The deposition of a 30-Å-thick layer of iridium upon a 250-Å-thick osmium reflective layer for use as a diffraction grating in the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) satellite observatory has provided sufficient protection from an expected maximum orbital atomic-oxygen fluence of 1 × 1016 atoms/cm2. The grating parameters of groove constant and depth, efficiencies of zeroth-order, first and second inside orders, and first inside-order efficiency positional uniformity as well as stray light near the first inside order of the Ir-Os-coated grating were measured within a CHIPS spectral bandpass of 90–260 Å. Stray-light measurements were also made near the first inside spectral order at 304, 584, and 1216 Å. The results make the Ir-Os coat an acceptable grating reflectivity layer for CHIPS and other spaceborne extreme-ultraviolet spectrometers that employ grazing-incidence reflection optics.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

1996

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. R. McKinney, D. Mossessian, E. Gullikson, P. Heimann, “Efficiency and stray light measurements and calculations of diffraction gratings for the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2160–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. Wu, T. T. Tsong, “Overlayer formation and inter-diffusion of Rh atoms at the Pt(100) surface,” Surf. Sci. 318, 358–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, C. M. Fleetwood, “Long-duration orbital effects on optical coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1798–1804 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993), http://cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
[CrossRef]

1991

Y.-L. He, J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang, J. J. Low, “Diffusion of Rh overlayers grown on a Pt(110) surface,” Surf. Sci. 255, 269–279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS thermospheric model into the middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991), http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/models/misi.htm .
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

C. S. Fang, W. S. Tse, C. E. Maloney, “Re/Ir/W and Os/Ir/W alloy coatings on impregnated tungsten cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 1189–1199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

1984

1983

S. Chakrabarti, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, R. Kimble, “The extreme ultraviolet day airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4898–4904 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C and Os exposed during the shuttle STS-4 orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569–571 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blake, R. L.

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1993).

Bowyer, S.

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-mm-1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, C. Martin, S. Mrowka, “Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1737–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400 Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, R. Kimble, “The extreme ultraviolet day airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4898–4904 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.
[CrossRef]

Brion, D.

D. Brion, J. C. Tonnerre, A. Shroff, “Electron emission and surface composition of osmium and osmium-tungsten coated dispenser cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 20, 429–456 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Burek, A. J.

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400 Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, R. Kimble, “The extreme ultraviolet day airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4898–4904 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Clauss, T.

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993), http://cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
[CrossRef]

Davis, R.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, S.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, P.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Donakowski, W.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, J.

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-mm-1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Edelstein, M. C. Hettrick, S. Mrowka, P. Jelinsky, C. Martin, “Extreme UV measurements of a varied line-space Hitachi reflection grating: efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3267–3270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.
[CrossRef]

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, C. S.

C. S. Fang, W. S. Tse, C. E. Maloney, “Re/Ir/W and Os/Ir/W alloy coatings on impregnated tungsten cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 1189–1199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, J. J.

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleetwood, C. M.

Franck, K. D.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, A.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaines, G.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gómez, J. F.

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.
[CrossRef]

Graessle, D. E.

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, J. C.

Gull, T. R.

Gullikson, E.

W. R. McKinney, D. Mossessian, E. Gullikson, P. Heimann, “Efficiency and stray light measurements and calculations of diffraction gratings for the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2160–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993), http://cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
[CrossRef]

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. McKinney, C. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

Harris, B.

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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R. Hemphill, M. Pelizzo, M. Hurwitz, “Extreme-ultraviolet calibration of thin-film Zr filters for the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4680–4685 (2002).
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M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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J. Edelstein, M. C. Hettrick, S. Mrowka, P. Jelinsky, C. Martin, “Extreme UV measurements of a varied line-space Hitachi reflection grating: efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3267–3270 (1984).
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M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
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J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. McKinney, C. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
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J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.
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J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.
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M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).
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P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C and Os exposed during the shuttle STS-4 orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569–571 (1983).
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López-Moreno, J. J.

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.
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Y.-L. He, J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang, J. J. Low, “Diffusion of Rh overlayers grown on a Pt(110) surface,” Surf. Sci. 255, 269–279 (1991).
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Malina, R. F.

Maloney, C. E.

C. S. Fang, W. S. Tse, C. E. Maloney, “Re/Ir/W and Os/Ir/W alloy coatings on impregnated tungsten cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 1189–1199 (1988).
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Marchant, W.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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Marckwordt, M.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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McKinney, W. R.

W. R. McKinney, D. Mossessian, E. Gullikson, P. Heimann, “Efficiency and stray light measurements and calculations of diffraction gratings for the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2160–2163 (1995).
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Miller, E. R.

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C and Os exposed during the shuttle STS-4 orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569–571 (1983).
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Mirczak, J.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.
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Mossessian, D.

W. R. McKinney, D. Mossessian, E. Gullikson, P. Heimann, “Efficiency and stray light measurements and calculations of diffraction gratings for the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2160–2163 (1995).
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M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, C. Martin, S. Mrowka, “Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1737–1756 (1985).
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J. Edelstein, M. C. Hettrick, S. Mrowka, P. Jelinsky, C. Martin, “Extreme UV measurements of a varied line-space Hitachi reflection grating: efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3267–3270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. McKinney, C. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osantowski, J. F.

Paresce, F.

S. Chakrabarti, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, R. Kimble, “The extreme ultraviolet day airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4898–4904 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M.

Peters, P. N.

P. N. Peters, J. C. Gregory, J. T. Swann, “Effects on optical systems from interactions with oxygen atoms in low earth orbits,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1290–1298 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C and Os exposed during the shuttle STS-4 orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569–571 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sasseen, T.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, “Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors, 2–12 keV,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 52–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Harris, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, D. E. Graessle, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Blake, E. M. Gullikson, “Determination of optical constants for AXAF mirrors from 0.05–1.0 keV through reflectance measurements,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 40–51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sholl, M.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).
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Shroff, A.

D. Brion, J. C. Tonnerre, A. Shroff, “Electron emission and surface composition of osmium and osmium-tungsten coated dispenser cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 20, 429–456 (1985).
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Siegmund, O.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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M. Sholl, W. Donakowski, M. Sirk, T. Clauss, M. Lampton, J. Edelstein, M. Hurwitz, “Optomechanical design of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS),” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 467–478 (2002).
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J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
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Stone, D.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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Sulack, S.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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Tackaberry, R. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
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Taylor, E.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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Tonnerre, J. C.

D. Brion, J. C. Tonnerre, A. Shroff, “Electron emission and surface composition of osmium and osmium-tungsten coated dispenser cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 20, 429–456 (1985).
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Torr, M. R.

Trapero, J.

J. J. López-Moreno, C. Morales, J. F. Gómez, J. Trapero, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, E. Korpela, M. Lampton, “Spectrum of the extreme ultraviolet nightglow as measured by EURD,” in Science with Minisat 01, A. Gimenez, ed. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–217.
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Tse, W. S.

C. S. Fang, W. S. Tse, C. E. Maloney, “Re/Ir/W and Os/Ir/W alloy coatings on impregnated tungsten cathodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 1189–1199 (1988).
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H. Wu, T. T. Tsong, “Overlayer formation and inter-diffusion of Rh atoms at the Pt(100) surface,” Surf. Sci. 318, 358–362 (1994).
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J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1–5 (1996).
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J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. McKinney, C. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
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Veno, M.

M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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Y.-L. He, J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang, J. J. Low, “Diffusion of Rh overlayers grown on a Pt(110) surface,” Surf. Sci. 255, 269–279 (1991).
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M. Hurwitz, R. Davis, S. Dawson, P. Dobson, W. Donakowski, A. Friedman, G. Gaines, J. Edelstein, R. Hemphill, J. Hoberman, J. Janicik, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, W. Marchant, M. Marckwordt, J. Mirczak, T. Sasseen, M. Sholl, O. Siegmund, M. Sirk, D. Stone, S. Sulack, E. Taylor, M. Veno, J. Woff, “Status of the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer (CHIPS) university-class explorer mission,” in Future EUV/FUV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. Blades, O. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 319–328 (2002).
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H. Wu, T. T. Tsong, “Overlayer formation and inter-diffusion of Rh atoms at the Pt(100) surface,” Surf. Sci. 318, 358–362 (1994).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CHIPS optical configuration consisting of six light-path channels converging on one microchannel plate detector located at the focal plane. Each of the three upper channels contains a flat Ir-coated metal pick-off mirror (hidden from view) almost abutting the interior of the slit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light enters a central channel through a 0.25- or a 1-mm slit and then diffracts off a cylindrical figured grating toward a microchannel plate detector located at the focal plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CHIPS grating dimensions and ruling direction. W, ruled line length; V, ruled line width; U, grating normal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated reflectivity of a 1000-Å-thick Os grating facet with a surface roughness of 20-Å at a 16.5° grazing-incidence angle (see Ref. 5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured reflectivities of the Ir-Os-Ir flat at a 14° grazing-incidence angle before (plusses) and after (diamonds) atomic-O bombardment with its best-fit calculated reflectivity (solid curve; from Ref. 5) for a value of 20 Å for both the Ir thickness and surface roughness. The estimated maximum measurement error is 10%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured reflectivities of the Ir-Os-Ir flat at 14.2° (plusses), 15.5° (stars), and 18.8° (diamonds) input graze angles. The estimated maximum measurement error is 10%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurement of the groove depth by a wavelength scan of the ALS beam line and observation of the zero-order beam intensity minimum for the Rh-coated (plusses), then Ir-Os overcoated (stars), grating. The estimated maximum measurement error is 10%.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a), (b), (c) Respective measurements of the zero-, first-, and second-inside-order efficiencies of the Rh-coated, then Ir-Os overcoated, grating as a function of the CHIPS bandpass for a 14° grazing-incidence input angle. The estimated maximum measurement error is 10%.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured 14° grazing-incidence angle grating first-order image profiles on the detector at a wavelength of 304 Å in the dispersion direction: (a) Rh-coated grating, (b) Ir-Os coatings over the Rh-coated grating. Each ordinate is the measured value of the fraction of the integrated intensity in the dispersion direction for the first inside order of each grating coat. The experimental error is estimated to be 20%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Rh-coated (plusses), then Ir/Os overcoated (stars) grating scattering coefficients (in inverse arc minutes as a function of important CHIPS in-band and scattering spectral lines. The grating scattering coefficients were calculated from the measured quantites of the direct and scattered beam intensities, detector background, reflectivity of each coating, and subtended angle.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 CHIPS Grating Parameters

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Table 2 Indices of Refraction of Ir and Os for Some Characteristic Wavelengths in the CHIPS Bandpass

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Table 3 Measurements of the Zeroth-Order and First-Inside-Order Efficiencies as a Function of Position and Wavelength for the Rh-Coated, then Ir-Os Overcoated, Gratinga

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Table 4 Values of the Rh Coated, Then Ir-Os Overcoated, Grating Scattering Coefficients Calculated from the Measured Quantities of Direct and Scattered Beam Intensities, Coating Reflectivity, Detector Background, and Subtended Angle as a Function of Important CHIPS In-Band and Scattering Spectral Lines

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d=d01+2b2/Rw+3b3/R2w2+4b4/R3w3,
1d=cosθi-cosθrλ.
λ/2=h sin θi,
θb=tan-1hd, λb2d sinθb sinθi+θb,

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