Abstract

We present a statistical approach to Langley evaluation (SALE) leading to an improved method of calibration of an automated solar radiometer. Software was developed with the SALE method to first determine whether a day is a good calibration day and then to automatically calculate an intercept value for the solar radiometer. Results from manual processing of calibration data sets agree with those of the automated method to within the errors of each approach.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. J. Thome, C. L. Gustafson-Bold, P. N. Slater, W. H. Farrand, “In-flight radiometric calibration of HYDICE using a reflectance-based approach,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Applications, S. S. Shen, ed., Proc. SPIE2821, 311–319 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. F. Biggar, D. I. Gellman, P. N. Slater, “Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 32, 91–101 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. J. Thome, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of precipitable water from solar transmission,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 232–240 (1988).
  5. A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. M. Herman, M. A. Box, J. A. Reagan, C. M. Evans, “Alternate approach to the analysis of solar photometer data,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2925–2928 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Kasten, A. T. Young, “Revised optical air mass tables and approximation formula,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4735–4738 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Meeus, Astronomical Algorithms, 2nd ed. (Willmann-Bell, Richmond, Va., 1991), pp. 177–180.
  9. Almanac for Computers 1991 (Nautical Almanac Office, U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C., 1991).
  10. L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. H. Lamarr, K. J. Thome, P. R. Spyak, “Verification and characterization of an autotracking solar radiometer,” in Earth Observing Systems II, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE3117, 262–268 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. P. Scott, K. J. Thome, M. R. Brownlee, “Evaluation of the Railroad Valley Playa for use in vicarious calibration,” in Multispectral Imaging for Terrestrial Applications, B. Huberty, J. B. Lurie, P. Choppin, J. A. Caylor, P. C. Roberts, eds., Proc. SPIE2818, 158–166 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. I. Gellman, S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, C. J. Bruegge, “Calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., SPIE Proc.1493, 175–180 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105D, 20673–20696 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. E. Shaw, “Error analysis of multi-wavelength sun photometry,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1–14 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Harrison, J. Michalsky, “Objective algorithms for the retrieval of optical depths from ground-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5126–5132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, “Recovery of spectral optical depth and zero-airmass solar spectral irradiance under conditions of temporally varying optical depth,” in Remote Sensing: from Research to Operational Use, Proceedings of IGARSS ’84,T. D. Guyenne, J. J. Hunt, eds., ESA-SP-125 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), Vol. 1, pp.455–459.
  19. D. J. Sheskin, Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 539–544.
  20. J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 258–266 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, “Effects of temporal variations in optical depth on the determination of the optical depth and solar constant from solar photometry,” in Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Extended Abstracts, K. Liou, Z. Xiuji, eds. (American Meteorological Society, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 116–119.

2001 (1)

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105D, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

S. F. Biggar, D. I. Gellman, P. N. Slater, “Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 32, 91–101 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

K. J. Thome, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of precipitable water from solar transmission,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 232–240 (1988).

1987 (1)

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

G. E. Shaw, “Error analysis of multi-wavelength sun photometry,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1–14 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, J. C.

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berkheiser, W. E.

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, J. L.

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biggar, S. F.

S. F. Biggar, D. I. Gellman, P. N. Slater, “Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 32, 91–101 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Gellman, S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, C. J. Bruegge, “Calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., SPIE Proc.1493, 175–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Box, M. A.

Brownlee, M. R.

K. P. Scott, K. J. Thome, M. R. Brownlee, “Evaluation of the Railroad Valley Playa for use in vicarious calibration,” in Multispectral Imaging for Terrestrial Applications, B. Huberty, J. B. Lurie, P. Choppin, J. A. Caylor, P. C. Roberts, eds., Proc. SPIE2818, 158–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bruegge, C. J.

D. I. Gellman, S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, C. J. Bruegge, “Calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., SPIE Proc.1493, 175–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105D, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehsani, A. R.

A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erxleben, W. H.

A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. M.

Farrand, W. H.

K. J. Thome, C. L. Gustafson-Bold, P. N. Slater, W. H. Farrand, “In-flight radiometric calibration of HYDICE using a reflectance-based approach,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Applications, S. S. Shen, ed., Proc. SPIE2821, 311–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gellman, D. I.

S. F. Biggar, D. I. Gellman, P. N. Slater, “Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 32, 91–101 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Gellman, S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, C. J. Bruegge, “Calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., SPIE Proc.1493, 175–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson-Bold, C. L.

K. J. Thome, C. L. Gustafson-Bold, P. N. Slater, W. H. Farrand, “In-flight radiometric calibration of HYDICE using a reflectance-based approach,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Applications, S. S. Shen, ed., Proc. SPIE2821, 311–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, L.

Harrison, L. C.

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

K. J. Thome, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of precipitable water from solar transmission,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 232–240 (1988).

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Herman, M. A. Box, J. A. Reagan, C. M. Evans, “Alternate approach to the analysis of solar photometer data,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2925–2928 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, “Effects of temporal variations in optical depth on the determination of the optical depth and solar constant from solar photometry,” in Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Extended Abstracts, K. Liou, Z. Xiuji, eds. (American Meteorological Society, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 116–119.

J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, “Recovery of spectral optical depth and zero-airmass solar spectral irradiance under conditions of temporally varying optical depth,” in Remote Sensing: from Research to Operational Use, Proceedings of IGARSS ’84,T. D. Guyenne, J. J. Hunt, eds., ESA-SP-125 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), Vol. 1, pp.455–459.

Holm, R. G.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, R. D.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kasten, F.

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105D, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamarr, J. H.

J. H. Lamarr, K. J. Thome, P. R. Spyak, “Verification and characterization of an autotracking solar radiometer,” in Earth Observing Systems II, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE3117, 262–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larson, N. R.

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laulainen, N. S.

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mao, Y.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Meeus, J.

J. Meeus, Astronomical Algorithms, 2nd ed. (Willmann-Bell, Richmond, Va., 1991), pp. 177–180.

Michalsky, J.

Michalsky, J. J.

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moran, M. S.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, J. M.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Thome, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of precipitable water from solar transmission,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 232–240 (1988).

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Herman, M. A. Box, J. A. Reagan, C. M. Evans, “Alternate approach to the analysis of solar photometer data,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2925–2928 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, “Effects of temporal variations in optical depth on the determination of the optical depth and solar constant from solar photometry,” in Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Extended Abstracts, K. Liou, Z. Xiuji, eds. (American Meteorological Society, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 116–119.

J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, “Recovery of spectral optical depth and zero-airmass solar spectral irradiance under conditions of temporally varying optical depth,” in Remote Sensing: from Research to Operational Use, Proceedings of IGARSS ’84,T. D. Guyenne, J. J. Hunt, eds., ESA-SP-125 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), Vol. 1, pp.455–459.

Schlemmer, J. A.

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, R. M.

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, “Recovery of spectral optical depth and zero-airmass solar spectral irradiance under conditions of temporally varying optical depth,” in Remote Sensing: from Research to Operational Use, Proceedings of IGARSS ’84,T. D. Guyenne, J. J. Hunt, eds., ESA-SP-125 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), Vol. 1, pp.455–459.

Scott, K. P.

K. P. Scott, K. J. Thome, M. R. Brownlee, “Evaluation of the Railroad Valley Playa for use in vicarious calibration,” in Multispectral Imaging for Terrestrial Applications, B. Huberty, J. B. Lurie, P. Choppin, J. A. Caylor, P. C. Roberts, eds., Proc. SPIE2818, 158–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scott-Fleming, I. C.

J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, “Recovery of spectral optical depth and zero-airmass solar spectral irradiance under conditions of temporally varying optical depth,” in Remote Sensing: from Research to Operational Use, Proceedings of IGARSS ’84,T. D. Guyenne, J. J. Hunt, eds., ESA-SP-125 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), Vol. 1, pp.455–459.

J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, “Effects of temporal variations in optical depth on the determination of the optical depth and solar constant from solar photometry,” in Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Extended Abstracts, K. Liou, Z. Xiuji, eds. (American Meteorological Society, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 116–119.

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, “Error analysis of multi-wavelength sun photometry,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1–14 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sheskin, D. J.

D. J. Sheskin, Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 539–544.

Slater, P. N.

S. F. Biggar, D. I. Gellman, P. N. Slater, “Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 32, 91–101 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Thome, C. L. Gustafson-Bold, P. N. Slater, W. H. Farrand, “In-flight radiometric calibration of HYDICE using a reflectance-based approach,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Applications, S. S. Shen, ed., Proc. SPIE2821, 311–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Gellman, S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, C. J. Bruegge, “Calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., SPIE Proc.1493, 175–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Spyak, P. R.

J. H. Lamarr, K. J. Thome, P. R. Spyak, “Verification and characterization of an autotracking solar radiometer,” in Earth Observing Systems II, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE3117, 262–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thome, K. J.

K. J. Thome, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of precipitable water from solar transmission,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 232–240 (1988).

K. J. Thome, C. L. Gustafson-Bold, P. N. Slater, W. H. Farrand, “In-flight radiometric calibration of HYDICE using a reflectance-based approach,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Applications, S. S. Shen, ed., Proc. SPIE2821, 311–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lamarr, K. J. Thome, P. R. Spyak, “Verification and characterization of an autotracking solar radiometer,” in Earth Observing Systems II, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE3117, 262–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Scott, K. J. Thome, M. R. Brownlee, “Evaluation of the Railroad Valley Playa for use in vicarious calibration,” in Multispectral Imaging for Terrestrial Applications, B. Huberty, J. B. Lurie, P. Choppin, J. A. Caylor, P. C. Roberts, eds., Proc. SPIE2818, 158–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

Yuan, B.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

K. J. Thome, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of precipitable water from solar transmission,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 232–240 (1988).

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

J. J. Michalsky, J. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Residual optical depth plot for 5 January 2001 at Railroad Valley, Nevada.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Residual optical depth plot for 31 March 2000 at Railroad Valley, Nevada.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fifteen different air-mass regions used to represent even portions of the data collection are shown by the black horizontal lines. Data points shown represent radiometer output for the 780-nm band of ASR 20 for 5 January 2001 at Railroad Valley, Nevada.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Residual intercept plot for 5 January 2001 at Railroad Valley, Nevada. Temporal deviation, 780 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Residual intercept plot for 31 March 2000 at Railroad Valley, Nev. Temporal deviation, 780 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Raw solar radiometer data of air mass bins for intercept determination.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Automated intercepts found from ASR 20 data collected between 1998 and 2001 including both good and bad days. Ave, average; STDEV, standard deviation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Automated intercepts compared with manually derived intercepts for band 7 of ASR 20 from 1998 to 2001. Ave, average; STDEV, standard deviation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Automated (Auto.) intercepts compared with manually derived average intercepts for band 7 of ASR 20 from 1998 to 2001.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Automated Intercept Results Compared with Expertly Derived Intercepts for the 780-nm Band of ASR 20 for Eight Days from 2001 to 2002

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m=1cosθs+0.50572096.079950-θs1.63640,
Eλ=E0λ exp-mδλ,
lnEλ=lnE0λ-mδλ.
lnVλc=lnV0λc-mδλc,
δinstantaneousλc=lnV0λc-lnVλcm.
P=1-k  xy- x  ykx2-x2ky2-Ky21/22,

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