Abstract

We present sample Monte Carlo simulation results to illustrate the trends in multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) performance as the telescope aperture diameter increases from 8 to 32 m with all other first-order system parameters held constant. The MCAO system considered includes three deformable mirrors, a 1-arc min square field of view, and five wave-front-sensing references consisting of either natural guide stars or laser guide stars at a range of either 30 or 90 km. The rms residual wave-front error decreases slowly with increasing aperture diameter with natural guide stars, whereas performance degrades significantly with increasing aperture diameter for laser guide stars at 30 km if the number of guide stars is held fixed. Performance with laser guide stars at 90 km is a weak function of telescope aperture diameter in the range from 8 to 32 m, with rms wave-front errors no more than 20% greater than the corresponding natural guide-star case for the same level of wave-front sensor’s measurement noise.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 693–703.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  18. L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Iterative algorithms for large scale wave front reconstruction,” in Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Vol. 67 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 100–101 (postconference edition).
  19. J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).
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    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1994 (2)

1991 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

Agabi, A.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Avila, R.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Azouit, M.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Beckers, J.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 693–703.

Boyer, C.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, C. Boyer, C. d’Orgeville, M. R. Hunten, E. James, J. Sebag, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics for Gemini-South,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brunetto, E.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cochran, G. M.

G. M. Cochran, “Sparse matrix techniques in wavefront reconstruction,” (The Optical Sciences Company, Anaheim, Calif., 1986).

Conan, J.-M.

Conan, R.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

d’Orgeville, C.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, C. Boyer, C. d’Orgeville, M. R. Hunten, E. James, J. Sebag, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics for Gemini-South,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

de La Rue, I. A.

I. A. de La Rue, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Multiple guide stars to improve the performance of laser guide star adaptive optical systems,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 310–319 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dierickx, P.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Diolaiti, E.

M. Tordi, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, “Simulations of a layer oriented MCAO system,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, N. Hubin, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), pp. 223–230.

Ellerbroek, B. L.

B. L. Ellerbroek, “Efficient computation of minimum-variance wave-front reconstructors with sparse matrix techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1803–1816 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ellerbroek, “First-order performance evaluation of adaptive-optics systems for atmospheric-turbulence compensation in extended-field-of-view astronomical telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 783–805 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, “A computationally efficient wavefront reconstructor for simulation of multi-conjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 989–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Gilles, B. L. Ellerbroek, C. R. Vogel, “Layer-oriented multigrid wavefront reconstruction algorithms for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 1011–1022 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, “Scaling multiconjugate adaptive optics performance estimates to extremely large telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 1088–1099 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, C. Boyer, C. d’Orgeville, M. R. Hunten, E. James, J. Sebag, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics for Gemini-South,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Iterative algorithms for large scale wave front reconstruction,” in Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Vol. 67 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 100–101 (postconference edition).

I. A. de La Rue, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Multiple guide stars to improve the performance of laser guide star adaptive optical systems,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 310–319 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fusco, T.

Gardner, C. S.

Gilles, L.

L. Gilles, B. L. Ellerbroek, C. R. Vogel, “Layer-oriented multigrid wavefront reconstruction algorithms for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 1011–1022 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Iterative algorithms for large scale wave front reconstruction,” in Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Vol. 67 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 100–101 (postconference edition).

B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, “A computationally efficient wavefront reconstructor for simulation of multi-conjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 989–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gilmozzi, R.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gregory, B.

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hunten, M. R.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, C. Boyer, C. d’Orgeville, M. R. Hunten, E. James, J. Sebag, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics for Gemini-South,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

James, E.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, C. Boyer, C. d’Orgeville, M. R. Hunten, E. James, J. Sebag, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics for Gemini-South,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koch, F.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Le Louarn, M.

Marchetti, E.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martin, F.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Masciadri, E.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Michau, V.

Monnet, G. J.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mountain, M.

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mugnier, L. M.

Nelson, J. E.

J. E. Nelson, “CELT rocks,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 47–59 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pissanetsky, S.

S. Pissanetsky, Sparse Matrix Technology (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Chap. 4.

Quattri, M.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ragazzoni, R.

M. Tordi, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, “Simulations of a layer oriented MCAO system,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, N. Hubin, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), pp. 223–230.

Rigaut, F. J.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, C. Boyer, C. d’Orgeville, M. R. Hunten, E. James, J. Sebag, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics for Gemini-South,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, “Scaling multiconjugate adaptive optics performance estimates to extremely large telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 1088–1099 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rousset, G.

Sanchez, L.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Sarazin, M.

Sarazin, M. S.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sebag, J.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, C. Boyer, C. d’Orgeville, M. R. Hunten, E. James, J. Sebag, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics for Gemini-South,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Spyromilio, J.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stepp, L. M.

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[Crossref]

Strom, S. E.

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tokovinin, A.

Tordi, M.

M. Tordi, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, “Simulations of a layer oriented MCAO system,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, N. Hubin, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), pp. 223–230.

Tyler, G. A.

Vernin, J.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Vogel, C. R.

L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Iterative algorithms for large scale wave front reconstruction,” in Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Vol. 67 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 100–101 (postconference edition).

B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, “A computationally efficient wavefront reconstructor for simulation of multi-conjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 989–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Gilles, B. L. Ellerbroek, C. R. Vogel, “Layer-oriented multigrid wavefront reconstruction algorithms for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 1011–1022 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wallner, E. P.

Walsh, B. M.

Yaitskova, N.

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ziad, A.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

Other (14)

I. A. de La Rue, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Multiple guide stars to improve the performance of laser guide star adaptive optical systems,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 310–319 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, “A computationally efficient wavefront reconstructor for simulation of multi-conjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 989–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Gilles, B. L. Ellerbroek, C. R. Vogel, “Layer-oriented multigrid wavefront reconstruction algorithms for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 1011–1022 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, C. Boyer, C. d’Orgeville, M. R. Hunten, E. James, J. Sebag, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics for Gemini-South,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 693–703.

J. E. Nelson, “CELT rocks,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 47–59 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Dierickx, J. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Gilmozzi, F. Koch, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Pissanetsky, Sparse Matrix Technology (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Chap. 4.

M. Tordi, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, “Simulations of a layer oriented MCAO system,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, N. Hubin, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), pp. 223–230.

L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Iterative algorithms for large scale wave front reconstruction,” in Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Vol. 67 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 100–101 (postconference edition).

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Pachon and Cerro Tololo,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, “Scaling multiconjugate adaptive optics performance estimates to extremely large telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 1088–1099 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. M. Cochran, “Sparse matrix techniques in wavefront reconstruction,” (The Optical Sciences Company, Anaheim, Calif., 1986).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MCAO performance versus telescope aperture diameter. This figure plots the performance of MCAO systems employing NGSs, sodium LGSs, or Rayleigh LGSs as a function of the telescope aperture diameter for two representative WFS noise levels of 0.02- and 0.08-arc sec rms. The two subplots on the left illustrate the aperture- and field-averaged rms phase-estimation error due to the limitations in wave-front sensing. The two subplots on the right describe the rms phase-correction error, which is a combination of the phase-estimation error and additional terms due to the finite number and limited spatial resolution of the DMs. The top (bottom) two subplots are for the case of rms WFS measurement noise of 0.08 (0.02) arc sec. Please see the text for further description of the atmospheric turbulence profile, the evaluation field of view, and the MCAO system parameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Convergence behavior of the PCG phase-estimation algorithm. This figure plots sample simulation results for the relative value of the residual norm ‖Aun - v‖, where un is the estimate for the atmospheric turbulence profile obtained after n iterations of the PCG algorithm. The top (bottom) two subplots present results with the rms WFS measurement noise equal to 0.02 (0.08) arc sec, and the left (right) two subplots illustrate the convergence history for 100 (20) iterations of the PCG algorithm. Results are overplotted for guide-star ranges of infinity, 90 km, and 30 km, as well as for aperture diameters of 24 (solid curves) and 32 m (dashed curves). The convergence rates are effectively independent of the choice of guide star, weakly dependent on telescope aperture diameter (as visible in the lower left subplot), and much more strongly dependent on the WFS noise level.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Atmospheric Turbulence Profile Used for MCAO Simulationsa

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Table 2 Simulated AO System Dimensionalities

Equations (11)

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s=Gx+n,
a=Es,
ϕ=Hxx-Haa.
σ2=ϕTWϕ,
E*=arg minEσ2+ka2.
E*=FxEx,
Fx=HaTWHa+kI-1HaTWHx,
Ex=GTnnT-1G+xxT-1-1GTnnT-1.
Aj=Lj+Dj+Uj,
Lj+Dj-1 uk=v-Ujuk,
Uj+Dj-1 uk+1=v-Ljuk.

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