Abstract

We have measured the light absorption of a set of particle suspensions of varying nature (pure minerals, particulate standards, aquatic particles) using a double-beam spectrophotometer with a 15-cm-diameter integrating sphere. The sample was located inside the sphere so as to minimize the effect of light scattering by the particles. The results obtained showed highly variable absorption in the near-IR region of the wavelength spectrum. The same particle samples were deposited on glass-fiber filters, and their absorption was measured by the transmittance-reflectance method, based on a theoretical model that corrects for the effect of light scattering. The good agreement found between the results of the measurements carried out inside the sphere and by the transmittance-reflectance method confirms the validity of the scattering correction included in the above method.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 7, 207–217 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 639–663 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulate using the quantitative filter technique,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 137–148 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Babin, D. Stramsky, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variation in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
  7. J.-F. Berthon, M. Dowell, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Retrieving chlorophyll and non chlorophyllous matter from ocean colour satellite data in the Baltic Sea: “Case 2Y” waters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 353–357 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Dowell, J.-F. Berthon, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Absorption modelling in Case II waters: the need to distinguish coloured dissolved organic matter from non-chlorophyllous particulates,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 401–407 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, “Variability of the amplification factor of light absorption by filter-retained aquatic particles in the coastal environment,” J. Plankton Res. 22, 659–668 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “Relationships between Q-factor and seawater optical properties in a coastal region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1130–1140 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “Proposal for the measurement of backward and total scattering by mineral particles suspended in water,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8345–8353 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “A method for the experimental determination of light absorption by aquatic heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Plankton Res. 20, 757–766 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “A sensitivity analysis of the Transmittance-Reflectance method for measuring light absorption by aquatic particles retaind on filters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 757–774 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “A sensitivity analysis of the Transmittance-Reflectance method for measuring light absorption by aquatic particles retaind on filters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 757–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “Relationships between Q-factor and seawater optical properties in a coastal region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1130–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, “Variability of the amplification factor of light absorption by filter-retained aquatic particles in the coastal environment,” J. Plankton Res. 22, 659–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “Proposal for the measurement of backward and total scattering by mineral particles suspended in water,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8345–8353 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. L. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 639–663 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “A method for the experimental determination of light absorption by aquatic heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Plankton Res. 20, 757–766 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 7, 207–217 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, “Variability of the amplification factor of light absorption by filter-retained aquatic particles in the coastal environment,” J. Plankton Res. 22, 659–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramsky, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variation in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “Relationships between Q-factor and seawater optical properties in a coastal region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1130–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Dowell, J.-F. Berthon, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Absorption modelling in Case II waters: the need to distinguish coloured dissolved organic matter from non-chlorophyllous particulates,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 401–407 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon, M. Dowell, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Retrieving chlorophyll and non chlorophyllous matter from ocean colour satellite data in the Baltic Sea: “Case 2Y” waters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 353–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, “Variability of the amplification factor of light absorption by filter-retained aquatic particles in the coastal environment,” J. Plankton Res. 22, 659–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramsky, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variation in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Claustre, H.

M. Babin, D. Stramsky, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variation in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Dowell, M.

J.-F. Berthon, M. Dowell, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Retrieving chlorophyll and non chlorophyllous matter from ocean colour satellite data in the Baltic Sea: “Case 2Y” waters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 353–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Dowell, J.-F. Berthon, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Absorption modelling in Case II waters: the need to distinguish coloured dissolved organic matter from non-chlorophyllous particulates,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 401–407 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G. M.

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “A sensitivity analysis of the Transmittance-Reflectance method for measuring light absorption by aquatic particles retaind on filters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 757–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, “Variability of the amplification factor of light absorption by filter-retained aquatic particles in the coastal environment,” J. Plankton Res. 22, 659–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “Proposal for the measurement of backward and total scattering by mineral particles suspended in water,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8345–8353 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “A method for the experimental determination of light absorption by aquatic heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Plankton Res. 20, 757–766 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramsky, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variation in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Grossi, S.

M. Dowell, J.-F. Berthon, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Absorption modelling in Case II waters: the need to distinguish coloured dissolved organic matter from non-chlorophyllous particulates,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 401–407 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon, M. Dowell, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Retrieving chlorophyll and non chlorophyllous matter from ocean colour satellite data in the Baltic Sea: “Case 2Y” waters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 353–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoepffner, N.

M. Babin, D. Stramsky, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variation in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

M. Dowell, J.-F. Berthon, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Absorption modelling in Case II waters: the need to distinguish coloured dissolved organic matter from non-chlorophyllous particulates,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 401–407 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon, M. Dowell, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Retrieving chlorophyll and non chlorophyllous matter from ocean colour satellite data in the Baltic Sea: “Case 2Y” waters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 353–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 639–663 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 639–663 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulate using the quantitative filter technique,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 137–148 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

S. L. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Obolensky, G.

M. Babin, D. Stramsky, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variation in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Prieur, L.

S. L. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S. L.

S. L. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stramsky, D.

M. Babin, D. Stramsky, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variation in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Tassan, S.

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “A sensitivity analysis of the Transmittance-Reflectance method for measuring light absorption by aquatic particles retaind on filters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 757–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, “Variability of the amplification factor of light absorption by filter-retained aquatic particles in the coastal environment,” J. Plankton Res. 22, 659–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “Proposal for the measurement of backward and total scattering by mineral particles suspended in water,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8345–8353 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “A method for the experimental determination of light absorption by aquatic heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Plankton Res. 20, 757–766 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. S.

C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 7, 207–217 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “Relationships between Q-factor and seawater optical properties in a coastal region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1130–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 639–663 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

S. L. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res. (3)

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “A sensitivity analysis of the Transmittance-Reflectance method for measuring light absorption by aquatic particles retaind on filters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 757–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, “Variability of the amplification factor of light absorption by filter-retained aquatic particles in the coastal environment,” J. Plankton Res. 22, 659–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “A method for the experimental determination of light absorption by aquatic heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Plankton Res. 20, 757–766 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “Relationships between Q-factor and seawater optical properties in a coastal region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1130–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 7, 207–217 (1962).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Babin, D. Stramsky, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variation in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

J.-F. Berthon, M. Dowell, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Retrieving chlorophyll and non chlorophyllous matter from ocean colour satellite data in the Baltic Sea: “Case 2Y” waters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 353–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Dowell, J.-F. Berthon, N. Hoepffner, S. Grossi, “Absorption modelling in Case II waters: the need to distinguish coloured dissolved organic matter from non-chlorophyllous particulates,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 401–407 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulate using the quantitative filter technique,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 137–148 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorbance measured with the cuvette outside the entrance port (thin curve) and inside the integrating sphere (thick curve) before improvement of the experimental setup. A, melissa infusion; B, KMnO4; C, CuSO4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorbance of a mixture of basalt and calcium carbonate particles (thin curve) and of a coastal water sample (thick curve) as measured inside the integrating sphere before improvement of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Formazin absorbance: (a) as measured by the T-R method; (b) as measured inside the integrating sphere.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorbance of pure mineral particles as measured inside the integrating sphere (thin curves) and by the T-R method (normalized spectra, thick curves). (a) calcium carbonate; (b) clay; (c) silica; (d) basalt; (e) sodium feldspar.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorbance of pure mineral particles retained on GFFs. T-R absorbance (medium thickness curves), transmittance absorbance (thick curves), scattering loss (thin curves). (a) calcium carbonate; (b) clay; (c) silica; (d) basalt; (e) sodium feldspar.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorbance of particle standards as measured inside the sphere (thin curves) and by the T-R method (normalized spectra, thick curves). (a) BL/3; (b) RS 2704; (c) BCSS 1; (d) EUROSOIL; (e) EST 1646; (f) RS 1645.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorbance of aquatic particles collected in situ as measured inside the sphere (thin curves) and by the T-R method (normalized spectra, thick curves). (a) Platform 1; (b) Platform 2; (c) Lake Varese; (d) River Tresa; (e) River Bardello; (f) Venice lagoon 1; (g) Venice lagoon 2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Significant Parameters of Absorbance Spectra Measured inside the Integrating Sphere and by the T-R Method

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

RS/RC=1-api,
Ap=log1/1-api=logRC/RS.

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