Abstract

A novel application of a phase only filter model, which is implementable in the optical domain, is proposed. In this application, automated target tracking is accomplished with a novel sub-imaging technique with correlation tracking inside a radius of interest. In this technique the image is subdivided and the correlation is tracked by comparing only the autocorrelation of the filter with itself. A radius of interest is used to reduce the number of computations required to track a moving target. Real-world video images are used to demonstrate the performance of the model.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  15. A. Rosenfeld, G. J. VanderBrug, “Coarse-fine template matching,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man. Cybern. SMC-7104–107 (1977).
  16. M. Svedlow, C. D. McGillem, P. E. Anuta, “Experimental examination of similarity measures and preprocessing methods used for image registration,” presented at the Symp. Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, 1976.
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. V. Nevel, A. Mahlanobis, “Comparative study of maximum average correlation height filter variants using ladar,” Opt. Eng. 42, 541–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. L. Pech-Pacheco, J. Alvarez-Borrego, G. Cristobal, M. S. Keil, “Automatic object identification irrespective of geometric changes,” Opt. Eng. 42, 551–559 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. S. Shahriar, R. Tripathi, M. Kleinschmit, J. Donoghue, W. Weathers, M. Huq, J. T. Shen, “Superparallel holographic correlator for ultrafast database searches,” Opt. Lett. 28, 525–527 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

E. Ozylidiz, N. Krahnstover, R. Sharma, “Adaptive texture and color segmentation for moving objects,” Pattern Recogn. 35, 2013–2029 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, T. S. Huang, “Nonstationary color tracking for vision-based human-computer interaction,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 13, 948–960 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

T. Takahashi, Y. Ishii, “Object-binarized phase-only matched filtering with dual liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1073–1085 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Rastogi, B. N. Chatterji, A. K. Ray, “Design of real-time tracking system for fast moving objects,” IETE Journal of Research 43, 359–369 (1997).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

E. Oron, A. Kumar, Y. Barshalom, “Precision Tracking with segmentation for imaging sensors,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 29, 977–987 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6, 374–378 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

G. J. VanderBrug, A. Rosenfeld, “Two-stage template matching,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26, 384–393 (1977).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

1959 (1)

J. S. Bomba, “Alpha-numeric character recognition using local operations,” in 1959 fall East Joint Comput. Conf.218–224 (1959).

Alvarez-Borrego, J.

J. L. Pech-Pacheco, J. Alvarez-Borrego, G. Cristobal, M. S. Keil, “Automatic object identification irrespective of geometric changes,” Opt. Eng. 42, 551–559 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anuta, P. E.

M. Svedlow, C. D. McGillem, P. E. Anuta, “Experimental examination of similarity measures and preprocessing methods used for image registration,” presented at the Symp. Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, 1976.

Awwal, A. A. S.

M. A. Karim, A. A. S. Awwal, Optical Computing: An Introduction (Wiley, New York, 1992).

Barshalom, Y.

E. Oron, A. Kumar, Y. Barshalom, “Precision Tracking with segmentation for imaging sensors,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 29, 977–987 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bartholic, J. F.

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6, 374–378 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bomba, J. S.

J. S. Bomba, “Alpha-numeric character recognition using local operations,” in 1959 fall East Joint Comput. Conf.218–224 (1959).

Casasent, D.

Chatterji, B. N.

A. K. Rastogi, B. N. Chatterji, A. K. Ray, “Design of real-time tracking system for fast moving objects,” IETE Journal of Research 43, 359–369 (1997).

Cristobal, G.

J. L. Pech-Pacheco, J. Alvarez-Borrego, G. Cristobal, M. S. Keil, “Automatic object identification irrespective of geometric changes,” Opt. Eng. 42, 551–559 (2003).
[Crossref]

Donoghue, J.

Gage, S. H.

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6, 374–378 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goshtasby, A.

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6, 374–378 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horner, J. L.

Huang, T. S.

Y. Wu, T. S. Huang, “Nonstationary color tracking for vision-based human-computer interaction,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 13, 948–960 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huq, M.

Ishii, Y.

Karim, M. A.

M. A. Karim, A. A. S. Awwal, Optical Computing: An Introduction (Wiley, New York, 1992).

Keil, M. S.

J. L. Pech-Pacheco, J. Alvarez-Borrego, G. Cristobal, M. S. Keil, “Automatic object identification irrespective of geometric changes,” Opt. Eng. 42, 551–559 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kleinschmit, M.

Krahnstover, N.

E. Ozylidiz, N. Krahnstover, R. Sharma, “Adaptive texture and color segmentation for moving objects,” Pattern Recogn. 35, 2013–2029 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

E. Oron, A. Kumar, Y. Barshalom, “Precision Tracking with segmentation for imaging sensors,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 29, 977–987 (1993).
[Crossref]

Leger, J.

Mahalanobis, A.

Mahlanobis, A.

A. V. Nevel, A. Mahlanobis, “Comparative study of maximum average correlation height filter variants using ladar,” Opt. Eng. 42, 541–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

McGillem, C. D.

M. Svedlow, C. D. McGillem, P. E. Anuta, “Experimental examination of similarity measures and preprocessing methods used for image registration,” presented at the Symp. Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, 1976.

Mears, R. J.

Nevel, A. V.

A. V. Nevel, A. Mahlanobis, “Comparative study of maximum average correlation height filter variants using ladar,” Opt. Eng. 42, 541–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. C.

Oron, E.

E. Oron, A. Kumar, Y. Barshalom, “Precision Tracking with segmentation for imaging sensors,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 29, 977–987 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ozylidiz, E.

E. Ozylidiz, N. Krahnstover, R. Sharma, “Adaptive texture and color segmentation for moving objects,” Pattern Recogn. 35, 2013–2029 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pech-Pacheco, J. L.

J. L. Pech-Pacheco, J. Alvarez-Borrego, G. Cristobal, M. S. Keil, “Automatic object identification irrespective of geometric changes,” Opt. Eng. 42, 551–559 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rastogi, A. K.

A. K. Rastogi, B. N. Chatterji, A. K. Ray, “Design of real-time tracking system for fast moving objects,” IETE Journal of Research 43, 359–369 (1997).

Ray, A. K.

A. K. Rastogi, B. N. Chatterji, A. K. Ray, “Design of real-time tracking system for fast moving objects,” IETE Journal of Research 43, 359–369 (1997).

Rosenfeld, A.

G. J. VanderBrug, A. Rosenfeld, “Two-stage template matching,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26, 384–393 (1977).
[Crossref]

Shahriar, M. S.

Sharma, R.

E. Ozylidiz, N. Krahnstover, R. Sharma, “Adaptive texture and color segmentation for moving objects,” Pattern Recogn. 35, 2013–2029 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shen, J. T.

Svedlow, M.

M. Svedlow, C. D. McGillem, P. E. Anuta, “Experimental examination of similarity measures and preprocessing methods used for image registration,” presented at the Symp. Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, 1976.

Takahashi, T.

Tripathi, R.

VanderBrug, G. J.

G. J. VanderBrug, A. Rosenfeld, “Two-stage template matching,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26, 384–393 (1977).
[Crossref]

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

Weathers, W.

Wilkinson, T. D.

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, T. S. Huang, “Nonstationary color tracking for vision-based human-computer interaction,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 13, 948–960 (2002).
[Crossref]

1959 fall East Joint Comput. Conf. (1)

J. S. Bomba, “Alpha-numeric character recognition using local operations,” in 1959 fall East Joint Comput. Conf.218–224 (1959).

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (1)

E. Oron, A. Kumar, Y. Barshalom, “Precision Tracking with segmentation for imaging sensors,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 29, 977–987 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

G. J. VanderBrug, A. Rosenfeld, “Two-stage template matching,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26, 384–393 (1977).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. (1)

Y. Wu, T. S. Huang, “Nonstationary color tracking for vision-based human-computer interaction,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 13, 948–960 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6, 374–378 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IETE Journal of Research (1)

A. K. Rastogi, B. N. Chatterji, A. K. Ray, “Design of real-time tracking system for fast moving objects,” IETE Journal of Research 43, 359–369 (1997).

Opt. Eng. (2)

A. V. Nevel, A. Mahlanobis, “Comparative study of maximum average correlation height filter variants using ladar,” Opt. Eng. 42, 541–550 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. L. Pech-Pacheco, J. Alvarez-Borrego, G. Cristobal, M. S. Keil, “Automatic object identification irrespective of geometric changes,” Opt. Eng. 42, 551–559 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pattern Recogn. (1)

E. Ozylidiz, N. Krahnstover, R. Sharma, “Adaptive texture and color segmentation for moving objects,” Pattern Recogn. 35, 2013–2029 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. A. Karim, A. A. S. Awwal, Optical Computing: An Introduction (Wiley, New York, 1992).

A. Rosenfeld, G. J. VanderBrug, “Coarse-fine template matching,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man. Cybern. SMC-7104–107 (1977).

M. Svedlow, C. D. McGillem, P. E. Anuta, “Experimental examination of similarity measures and preprocessing methods used for image registration,” presented at the Symp. Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, 1976.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scene with two embedded targets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Input filter, pattern to search for.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the POF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Input scene with noisy sky of low energy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Input scene with noisy sky of high energy.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

POF result, target E is detected.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

POF results, failed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A real world infrared image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Real world, POF is deceived by high energy of the sky.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sub-image grid.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Adaptive POF ATR System.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Flow chart.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

First tracked image in first sequence.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Last image in first sequence.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

First tracked image in second sequence.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Last tracked image in second sequence.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

First tracked image in third sequence.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Last tracked image in third sequence.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Normalized autocorrelation and cross correlation.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Autocorrelation and cross correlation.

Equations (14)

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FUx, Uy=|FUx, Uy|expjΦUx, Uy.
HCMFUx, Uy=F*Ux, Uy=|FUx, Uy|exp-jΦUx, Uy.
HPOFUx, Uy=exp-jΦUx, Uy.
F-1FUx, UyHPOFUx, Uy
Im=p1,1, p1,2,p128,128.
T=t1,1, t1,2,tmax,max.
TIm
TS ImIm.
TS ImIm.
S ImT,S ImT|S ImTTT.
Im=S Im1, S Im2,S Imn.
n1=rrs×ccs.
n2=r-rs2rs×c-cs2cs.
i=1m ni.

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