Abstract

We demonstrate in vivo optical coherence tomography using a Fourier-domain optical delay line constructed with a commercially available polygonal scanner. The 20-faceted polygonal mirror array, capable of scanning at rates up to 15 kHz, is implemented at 4 kHz to acquire 500 × 500 pixel images at 8 frames/s with a signal-to-noise ratio of 80 dB. Features of this delay line include scalability to high repetition rates, 98.6% linearity in group delay over 2 mm, and bandwidth support exceeding 150 nm. Images are obtained in an animal model (Xenopus laevis), and limitations due to phase-delay nonlinearity and polygon asymmetry are discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–864 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds., Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Exp. 3, 219–229 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, R. P. Salathe, “Air-turbine driven optical low-coherence reflectometry at 28.6-kHz scan repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 154, 1–4 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Lai, “Kilohertz scanning optical delay line employing a prism array,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6334–6336 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. G. Chen, Q. Zhu, “Rotary mirror array for high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 607–609 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P.-L. Hsiung, X. Li, C. Chudoba, I. Hartl, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed path-length scanning with a multiple-pass cavity delay line,” Appl. Opt. 42, 640–648 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L878–L880 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, S. A. Boppart, “Study of an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture fiber continuum generation source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2010–2012 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. G. Pololeanu, “Unbalanced versus balanced operation in an optical coherence tomography system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 173–182 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Lai, “Kilohertz scanning optical delay line employing a prism array,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6334–6336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, R. P. Salathe, “Air-turbine driven optical low-coherence reflectometry at 28.6-kHz scan repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 154, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–864 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Exp. 3, 219–229 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachtold, W.

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bleuler, H.

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, R. P. Salathe, “Air-turbine driven optical low-coherence reflectometry at 28.6-kHz scan repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 154, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, S. A. Boppart, “Study of an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture fiber continuum generation source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2010–2012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–864 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–864 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–864 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, N. G.

Christov, S.

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chudoba, C.

Delachenal, N.

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, R. P. Salathe, “Air-turbine driven optical low-coherence reflectometry at 28.6-kHz scan repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 154, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durr, U.

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

P.-L. Hsiung, X. Li, C. Chudoba, I. Hartl, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed path-length scanning with a multiple-pass cavity delay line,” Appl. Opt. 42, 640–648 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–864 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gianotti, R.

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, R. P. Salathe, “Air-turbine driven optical low-coherence reflectometry at 28.6-kHz scan repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 154, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golubovic, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haas, A.

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.-L.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Exp. 3, 219–229 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Kourogi, M.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Exp. 3, 219–229 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Lai, M.

Lee, S.-J.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindgren, F.

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

Nussberger, M.

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Pitris, C.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–864 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pololeanu, A. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, J. J.

Rollins, A. M.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Exp. 3, 219–229 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, R. P. Salathe, “Air-turbine driven optical low-coherence reflectometry at 28.6-kHz scan repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 154, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmatz, M. L.

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–864 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szydlo, J.

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, R. P. Salathe, “Air-turbine driven optical low-coherence reflectometry at 28.6-kHz scan repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 154, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulbers, G.

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Exp. 3, 219–229 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Wagner, P.

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walti, R.

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, R. P. Salathe, “Air-turbine driven optical low-coherence reflectometry at 28.6-kHz scan repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 154, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Widiyatmoko, B.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Exp. 3, 219–229 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Lindgren, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, A. Haas, M. Nussberger, M. L. Schmatz, W. Bachtold, “-78-dB shot-noise limited optical low-coherence reflectometry at 42-m/s scan speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1613–1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–864 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, R. P. Salathe, “Air-turbine driven optical low-coherence reflectometry at 28.6-kHz scan repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 154, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Delachenal, R. Walti, R. Gianotti, S. Christov, P. Wagner, R. P. Salathe, U. Durr, G. Ulbers, “Robust and rapid optical low-coherence reflectometer using a polygon mirror,” Opt. Commun. 162, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Exp. 3, 219–229 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds., Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a Fourier-domain delay line with a polygonal mirror array. Although a 20-sided polygon is used in this study, a 6-sided array is illustrated for clarity. FC, fiber collimator; DPM, double-pass mirror; M1, steering mirror; G1, grating; L1, achromatic lens. R is the inner radius of the mirror array, θ is the scan angle, f is the focal length of the achromat, and x 0 is the offset of the pivot point of the mirror array from the optical axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the fast OCT system used for testing the performance of the Fourier-domain polygonal mirror delay line. The signal is converted with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and subsequently processed with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and digital signal processor (DSP) before display on the host computer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polygonal scanner angle versus sample arm mirror position. A best-fit line is shown to illustrate the linearity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferogram obtained from a mirror surface while axial scanning at 4 kHz with the polygonal delay line. The associated spectrum is plotted in the lower panel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OCT images acquired with the polygonal delay line at 8 frames/s and 500 × 500 pixels. Images (a) and (b) were cropped for illustration. (a) Raw image of coverslip surface. (b) Image of coverslip surface after correction for mirror offsets. (c) Image acquired from the dorsal side of a X. laevis tadpole, after correction.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

image sizefΔλd,
lpθ=4x0 tan θ-R1-sec θ4x0θ+2Rθ2,
lgθ4x0θ+2Rθ2-4fλ0θd,
fmod=1λ0lpt4ωλ0x0+Rθ,

Metrics