Abstract

Irradiation with intense ultraviolet laser pulses induced a large refractive-index change in 30GeO2—70SiO2 waveguide-grade thin films prepared by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, which contained a large amount of photoactive Ge2+ defects. The maximum index change in the as-deposited films by KrF and XeF excimer laser irradiation was estimated to be 1.2 × 10-3 and 0.28 × 10-3, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the photorefractivity of GeO2—SiO2 glasses is due to a Ge2+ defect in origin. The channel waveguide and the planar Bragg gratings were directly written in the photoactive Ge2+-enriched GeO2—SiO2 thin films by pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation with a Cr-metal-loaded-type waveguide structure.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 45–46 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, W. A. Reed, “High-pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber grating and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Svalgraad, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried single mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica film,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV-induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 95–96 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Forkine, W. Margulis, “Large increase in photosensitivity through massive hydroxyl formation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 302–304 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Mailis, A. Anderson, S. J. Barrington, W. S. Brocklesby, R. Greef, H. V. Rutt, R. W. Eason, N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, “Photosensitivity of lead germanate glass waveguides grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1751–1753 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. D. Simmons, G. I. Stegeman, B. G. Potter, J. H. Simmons, “Photosensitivity of solgel-derived germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 25–27 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of Bragg gratings in sputter-deposited GeO2sngbnd;SiO2 glasses by excimer-laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1360–1362 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 16–48 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, T. Fujiwara, “Photochemical reaction of Ge2+ in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-UV laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442–3446 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Murata, H. Kawazoe, “Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2: GeO2 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. M. Dianov, D. S. Stardubov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. A. Frolov, O. I. Medvedkov, “Refractive-index gratings written by near-ultraviolet radiation,” Opt. Lett., 22, 221–223 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 149–155 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, T. Fujiwara, “Photochemical reaction of Ge2+ in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-UV laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442–3446 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 149–155 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV-induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 95–96 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Svalgraad, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried single mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica film,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (4)

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 45–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, W. A. Reed, “High-pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber grating and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. D. Simmons, G. I. Stegeman, B. G. Potter, J. H. Simmons, “Photosensitivity of solgel-derived germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 25–27 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Murata, H. Kawazoe, “Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2: GeO2 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abe, Y.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Murata, H. Kawazoe, “Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2: GeO2 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ainslie, B. J.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV-induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 95–96 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 45–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

Anderson, A.

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 45–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, W. A. Reed, “High-pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber grating and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[Crossref]

Barrington, S. J.

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgraad, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried single mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica film,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[Crossref]

Brocklesby, W. S.

Campbell, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 45–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber grating and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[Crossref]

Eason, R. W.

Erdogan, T.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber grating and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[Crossref]

Forkine, M.

Frolov, A. A.

Fujiwara, T.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, T. Fujiwara, “Photochemical reaction of Ge2+ in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-UV laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442–3446 (2002).
[Crossref]

Greef, R.

Grivas, C.

Hosono, H.

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of Bragg gratings in sputter-deposited GeO2sngbnd;SiO2 glasses by excimer-laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1360–1362 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Murata, H. Kawazoe, “Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2: GeO2 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ichii, K.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, T. Fujiwara, “Photochemical reaction of Ge2+ in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-UV laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442–3446 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 45–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kawamoto, Y.

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 149–155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kawazoe, H.

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of Bragg gratings in sputter-deposited GeO2sngbnd;SiO2 glasses by excimer-laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1360–1362 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Murata, H. Kawazoe, “Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2: GeO2 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kinser, D. L.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Murata, H. Kawazoe, “Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2: GeO2 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kranz, K. S.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, W. A. Reed, “High-pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, W. A. Reed, “High-pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber grating and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mailis, S.

Margulis, W.

Maxwell, G. D.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV-induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 95–96 (1995).
[Crossref]

Medvedkov, O. I.

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber grating and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, W. A. Reed, “High-pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Murata, K.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Murata, H. Kawazoe, “Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2: GeO2 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, T. Fujiwara, “Photochemical reaction of Ge2+ in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-UV laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442–3446 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 149–155 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of Bragg gratings in sputter-deposited GeO2sngbnd;SiO2 glasses by excimer-laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1360–1362 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potter, B. G.

Poulsen, C. V.

M. Svalgraad, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried single mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica film,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, O.

M. Svalgraad, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried single mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica film,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[Crossref]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, W. A. Reed, “High-pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber grating and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rutt, H. V.

Shigemura, H.

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 149–155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J. H.

Simmons, K. D.

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 16–48 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stardubov, D. S.

Stegeman, G. I.

Svalgraad, M.

M. Svalgraad, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried single mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica film,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, T. Fujiwara, “Photochemical reaction of Ge2+ in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-UV laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442–3446 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 149–155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Uchino, T.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, T. Fujiwara, “Photochemical reaction of Ge2+ in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-UV laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442–3446 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vainos, N. A.

Vasiliev, S. A.

Walker, K. L.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, W. A. Reed, “High-pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Weeks, R. A.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Murata, H. Kawazoe, “Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2: GeO2 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 45–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, H.

Yoko, T.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, T. Fujiwara, “Photochemical reaction of Ge2+ in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-UV laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442–3446 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 149–155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber grating and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. Svalgraad, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried single mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica film,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV-induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 95–96 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 45–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, W. A. Reed, “High-pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, T. Fujiwara, “Photochemical reaction of Ge2+ in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-UV laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442–3446 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 16–48 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 149–155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Murata, H. Kawazoe, “Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2: GeO2 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical absorption spectra of (a) p-CVD 30GeO2—70SiO2 film and (b) the core region of the fiber preform of 15GeO2—85SiO2. [Spectrum (b) is magnified 1000 times.]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL spectra of p-CVD films before and after excimer laser irradiations of 3 kJ/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV-laser-induced refractive-index changes in the p-CVD film. Irradiation sources are KrF and XeF excimer lasers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the Cr-loaded waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light-guiding profiles observed from the top of the channel waveguide. (a) Cr-unloaded and (b) Cr-loaded waveguides written by a KrF excimer laser. An Ar+ laser light was launched from the left side of the figure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near-field pattern of outgoing beam from the KrF-laser-exposed Cr-loaded waveguide and its intensity profiles. Inset shows the near-field pattern of the Cr-unloaded waveguide.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission spectrum of the directly written Bragg grating in the KrF-laser-exposed Cr-loaded waveguide.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Proposed Structural Models of Ge-Related Defects

Equations (2)

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N.A.=sin θmax,
sin θmax=2Δn,

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