Abstract

The titanium suboxides TiO, Ti2O3, and Ti3O5 are widely used to produce films of titanium dioxide by reactive evaporation. If they are evaporated in high vacuum, however, they yield absorbing TiOx films with a transmission color varying between blue and gray. We investigated the specific properties of these TiOx films. TiO, Ti2O3, Ti3O5, and titanium metal were evaporated in high vacuum upon glass substrates at 25° and 250 °C. Differences in chemical composition, transmission and reflection, color, stress, and abrasion resistance of these films, depending on the starting material and the substrate temperature, were evaluated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Chiao, B. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Repeatability of the composition of titanium oxide films produced by evaporation of Ti2O3,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5284–5290 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Ritter, “Deposition of oxide films by reactive evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225–226 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium-oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Aoki, S. Ogura, “In-situ stress and spectral characteristics of optical TiO2 thin films from various starting materials,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 207–209.
  10. T. Aoki, “Study of thin film starting material with ‘in situ’ stress and ‘in situ’ optical measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1999; in Japanese).

1999

H. Selhofer, “Titanium oxides for optical-interference coatings,” Vac. Thin Films 2, 15–19 (1999).

1998

1976

1966

E. Ritter, “Deposition of oxide films by reactive evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225–226 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1952

G. Hass, “Preparation, properties and optical applications of thin films of titanium dioxide,” Vacuum 11, 331–345 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, “Study of thin film starting material with ‘in situ’ stress and ‘in situ’ optical measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1999; in Japanese).

T. Aoki, S. Ogura, “In-situ stress and spectral characteristics of optical TiO2 thin films from various starting materials,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 207–209.

Bovard, B.

Chiao, S.

Dennis, N. T. M.

N. T. M. Dennis, T. A. Heppel, Vacuum System Design (Chapman Hall, London, 1968), pp. 41–42.

Hass, G.

G. Hass, “Preparation, properties and optical applications of thin films of titanium dioxide,” Vacuum 11, 331–345 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Heppel, T. A.

N. T. M. Dennis, T. A. Heppel, Vacuum System Design (Chapman Hall, London, 1968), pp. 41–42.

Macleod, H. A.

O’Hanlon, J. F.

J. F. O’Hanlon, User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology (Wiley, New York, 1980), p. 211.

Ogura, S.

T. Aoki, S. Ogura, “In-situ stress and spectral characteristics of optical TiO2 thin films from various starting materials,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 207–209.

Paesold, G.

Pulker, H. K.

Ritter, E.

Selhofer, H.

H. Selhofer, “Titanium oxides for optical-interference coatings,” Vac. Thin Films 2, 15–19 (1999).

Appl. Opt.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

E. Ritter, “Deposition of oxide films by reactive evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225–226 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Vac. Thin Films

H. Selhofer, “Titanium oxides for optical-interference coatings,” Vac. Thin Films 2, 15–19 (1999).

Vacuum

G. Hass, “Preparation, properties and optical applications of thin films of titanium dioxide,” Vacuum 11, 331–345 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. F. O’Hanlon, User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology (Wiley, New York, 1980), p. 211.

N. T. M. Dennis, T. A. Heppel, Vacuum System Design (Chapman Hall, London, 1968), pp. 41–42.

H. Bollinger, W. Teubner, eds., Industrielle Vakuumtechnik (VEB, Leipzig, 1980), p. 225.

T. Aoki, S. Ogura, “In-situ stress and spectral characteristics of optical TiO2 thin films from various starting materials,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 207–209.

T. Aoki, “Study of thin film starting material with ‘in situ’ stress and ‘in situ’ optical measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1999; in Japanese).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical transmission curves for films prepared by evaporation of Ti, TiO, Ti2O3, and Ti3O5 at a substrate temperature of 25 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical transmission curves for films prepared by evaporation of Ti, TiO, Ti2O3, and Ti3O5 at a substrate temperature of 250 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical reflection curves for films prepared by evaporation of Ti, TiO, Ti2O3, and Ti3O5 at a substrate temperature of 25 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical reflection curves for films prepared by evaporation of Ti, TiO, Ti2O3, and Ti3O5 at a substrate temperature of 250 °C.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Deposition Parametersa

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Table 2 Chemical Composition of TiOx Films Depending on Starting Material and Substrate Temperature as Determined by RBS

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Table 3 Film Stress [MPa] of TiOx Films Depending on Starting Material and Substrate Temperature, Measured Several Weeks after Deposition

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