The titanium suboxides TiO, Ti2O3, and Ti3O5 are widely used to produce films of titanium dioxide by reactive evaporation. If they are evaporated in high vacuum, however, they yield absorbing TiOx films with a transmission color varying between blue and gray. We investigated the specific properties of these TiOx films. TiO, Ti2O3, Ti3O5, and titanium metal were evaporated in high vacuum upon glass substrates at 25° and 250 °C. Differences in chemical composition, transmission and reflection, color, stress, and abrasion resistance of these films, depending on the starting material and the substrate temperature, were evaluated.
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