Abstract

A novel optical sensor based on spectroscopic measurement of the plasmon absorption of a colloidal gold submonolayer immobilized upon a planar waveguide has been developed for label-free detection of biomolecular interactions at the sensor’s surface. We fabricated the sensor by locally modifying a 50-μm-thick glass plate with hemoglobin (Hb) and then self-assembling gold colloids from the aqueous solution onto the Hb-modified area of the glass plate. Polychromatic light from a xenon-arc lamp was launched into the thin-film glass plate by use of a broadband fiber-coupling method. With the use of a CCD detector to monitor the light beam emitted from an end face of the glass plate, the plasmon absorption spectrum of the colloidal gold submonolayer was determined to depend on the polarization states of the guided light and to change with the refractive index of the medium in contact with the colloids. In addition to simplicity of fabrication and the ease of use, the sensor yields a larger absorbance sensitivity than the normal transmission measurement.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Weisser, G. Nells, G. Wenz, S. Mittler-Neher, “Guest-host interactions with immobilized cyclodextrins,” Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 58–67 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Sjölander, C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2338–2345 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. E. Pearson, A. Gill, P. Vadgama, “Analytical aspects of biosensors,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37, 119–145 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. J. Whelan, T. Wohland, L. Neumann, B. Huang, B. K. Kobilka, R. N. Zare, “Analysis of biomolecular interactions using a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Anal. Chem. 74, 4570–4576 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Abanulo, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensor for electrochemically controlled surface reactions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6242–6245 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25, 372–374 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Nath, A. Chilkoti, “A colorimetric gold nanoparticle sensor to interrogate biomolecular interactions in real time on a surface,” Anal. Chem. 74, 504–509 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayer,” Anal. Chem. 67, 735–743 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. R. Brown, A. P. Fox, M. J. Natan, “Morphology-dependent electrochemistry of cytochrome c at Au colloid-modified SnO2 electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1154–1157 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Link, M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410–8426 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Lin, S. Liu, C. Lin, C. Chen, “Recognition of potassium in in water by 15-Crown-5 functionalized gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Chem. 74, 330–335 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Sastry, N. Lala, V. Patil, S. P. Chavan, A. G. Chittiboyina, “Optical absorption study of the bitin-avidin interaction on colloidal silver and gold particles,” Langmuir 14, 4138–4142 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, R. Whyman, “Synthesis of Thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 801–802 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Shi, X. Zhang, “Application of the biological conjugate between antibody and colloid Au nanoparticles as analytes to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 74, 96–99. (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Prism-coupled multimode waveguide refractometer,” Opt. Lett. 27, 689–691 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, T. Yoshida, H. Asano, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Optical waveguide spectrometer based on thin-film glass plates,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2001–2003 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “The use of sucrose to prepare gold nanoparticles by means of nucleation in solid phase and growth in liquid phase,” submitted to Chem. Mater.
  22. Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, K. Itoh, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “A study of molecular adsorption of bromothymol blue by optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Langmuir 19, 214–217 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, K. Itoh, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “A study of molecular adsorption of bromothymol blue by optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Langmuir 19, 214–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (7)

R. J. Whelan, T. Wohland, L. Neumann, B. Huang, B. K. Kobilka, R. N. Zare, “Analysis of biomolecular interactions using a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Anal. Chem. 74, 4570–4576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nath, A. Chilkoti, “A colorimetric gold nanoparticle sensor to interrogate biomolecular interactions in real time on a surface,” Anal. Chem. 74, 504–509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lin, S. Liu, C. Lin, C. Chen, “Recognition of potassium in in water by 15-Crown-5 functionalized gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Chem. 74, 330–335 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Shi, X. Zhang, “Application of the biological conjugate between antibody and colloid Au nanoparticles as analytes to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 74, 96–99. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Prism-coupled multimode waveguide refractometer,” Opt. Lett. 27, 689–691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, T. Yoshida, H. Asano, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Optical waveguide spectrometer based on thin-film glass plates,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2001–2003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

S. Link, M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Sastry, N. Lala, V. Patil, S. P. Chavan, A. G. Chittiboyina, “Optical absorption study of the bitin-avidin interaction on colloidal silver and gold particles,” Langmuir 14, 4138–4142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Weisser, G. Nells, G. Wenz, S. Mittler-Neher, “Guest-host interactions with immobilized cyclodextrins,” Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 58–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. R. Brown, A. P. Fox, M. J. Natan, “Morphology-dependent electrochemistry of cytochrome c at Au colloid-modified SnO2 electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1154–1157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayer,” Anal. Chem. 67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, R. Whyman, “Synthesis of Thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 801–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Sjölander, C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2338–2345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abanulo, J. C.

Asano, H.

Bartholomew, D.

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, P. N.

Bethell, D.

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, R. Whyman, “Synthesis of Thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 801–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, K. R.

K. R. Brown, A. P. Fox, M. J. Natan, “Morphology-dependent electrochemistry of cytochrome c at Au colloid-modified SnO2 electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1154–1157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brust, M.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, R. Whyman, “Synthesis of Thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 801–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C. T.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chavan, S. P.

M. Sastry, N. Lala, V. Patil, S. P. Chavan, A. G. Chittiboyina, “Optical absorption study of the bitin-avidin interaction on colloidal silver and gold particles,” Langmuir 14, 4138–4142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

S. Lin, S. Liu, C. Lin, C. Chen, “Recognition of potassium in in water by 15-Crown-5 functionalized gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Chem. 74, 330–335 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilkoti, A.

N. Nath, A. Chilkoti, “A colorimetric gold nanoparticle sensor to interrogate biomolecular interactions in real time on a surface,” Anal. Chem. 74, 504–509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinowsky, T. M.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chittiboyina, A. G.

M. Sastry, N. Lala, V. Patil, S. P. Chavan, A. G. Chittiboyina, “Optical absorption study of the bitin-avidin interaction on colloidal silver and gold particles,” Langmuir 14, 4138–4142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dunlap, L.

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elkind, J.

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link, M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. P.

K. R. Brown, A. P. Fox, M. J. Natan, “Morphology-dependent electrochemistry of cytochrome c at Au colloid-modified SnO2 electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1154–1157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. G.

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayer,” Anal. Chem. 67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Furlong, C. E.

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, A.

J. E. Pearson, A. Gill, P. Vadgama, “Analytical aspects of biosensors,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37, 119–145 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grabar, K. C.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayer,” Anal. Chem. 67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guthrie, A. P.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hao, S.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

J. C. Abanulo, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensor for electrochemically controlled surface reactions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6242–6245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hommer, M. B.

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayer,” Anal. Chem. 67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B.

R. J. Whelan, T. Wohland, L. Neumann, B. Huang, B. K. Kobilka, R. N. Zare, “Analysis of biomolecular interactions using a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Anal. Chem. 74, 4570–4576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, K.

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, K. Itoh, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “A study of molecular adsorption of bromothymol blue by optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Langmuir 19, 214–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M. A.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, L. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, K. Itoh, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “A study of molecular adsorption of bromothymol blue by optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Langmuir 19, 214–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, T. Yoshida, H. Asano, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Optical waveguide spectrometer based on thin-film glass plates,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2001–2003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Prism-coupled multimode waveguide refractometer,” Opt. Lett. 27, 689–691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “The use of sucrose to prepare gold nanoparticles by means of nucleation in solid phase and growth in liquid phase,” submitted to Chem. Mater.

Kobayashi, T.

Kobilka, B. K.

R. J. Whelan, T. Wohland, L. Neumann, B. Huang, B. K. Kobilka, R. N. Zare, “Analysis of biomolecular interactions using a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Anal. Chem. 74, 4570–4576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lala, N.

M. Sastry, N. Lala, V. Patil, S. P. Chavan, A. G. Chittiboyina, “Optical absorption study of the bitin-avidin interaction on colloidal silver and gold particles,” Langmuir 14, 4138–4142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lavers, C. R.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

S. Lin, S. Liu, C. Lin, C. Chen, “Recognition of potassium in in water by 15-Crown-5 functionalized gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Chem. 74, 330–335 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, S. Liu, C. Lin, C. Chen, “Recognition of potassium in in water by 15-Crown-5 functionalized gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Chem. 74, 330–335 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, S.

S. Link, M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Lin, S. Liu, C. Lin, C. Chen, “Recognition of potassium in in water by 15-Crown-5 functionalized gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Chem. 74, 330–335 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mar, M. N.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, N.

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, K. Itoh, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “A study of molecular adsorption of bromothymol blue by optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Langmuir 19, 214–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Prism-coupled multimode waveguide refractometer,” Opt. Lett. 27, 689–691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, T. Yoshida, H. Asano, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Optical waveguide spectrometer based on thin-film glass plates,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2001–2003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “The use of sucrose to prepare gold nanoparticles by means of nucleation in solid phase and growth in liquid phase,” submitted to Chem. Mater.

Melendz, J.

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittler-Neher, S.

M. Weisser, G. Nells, G. Wenz, S. Mittler-Neher, “Guest-host interactions with immobilized cyclodextrins,” Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 58–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Musick, M. D.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Naimushin, A. N.

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natan, M. J.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Brown, A. P. Fox, M. J. Natan, “Morphology-dependent electrochemistry of cytochrome c at Au colloid-modified SnO2 electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1154–1157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayer,” Anal. Chem. 67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nath, N.

N. Nath, A. Chilkoti, “A colorimetric gold nanoparticle sensor to interrogate biomolecular interactions in real time on a surface,” Anal. Chem. 74, 504–509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nells, G.

M. Weisser, G. Nells, G. Wenz, S. Mittler-Neher, “Guest-host interactions with immobilized cyclodextrins,” Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 58–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, L.

R. J. Whelan, T. Wohland, L. Neumann, B. Huang, B. K. Kobilka, R. N. Zare, “Analysis of biomolecular interactions using a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Anal. Chem. 74, 4570–4576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, D. K.

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Dwyer, K.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Patil, V.

M. Sastry, N. Lala, V. Patil, S. P. Chavan, A. G. Chittiboyina, “Optical absorption study of the bitin-avidin interaction on colloidal silver and gold particles,” Langmuir 14, 4138–4142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. E.

J. E. Pearson, A. Gill, P. Vadgama, “Analytical aspects of biosensors,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37, 119–145 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, Z.

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, K. Itoh, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “A study of molecular adsorption of bromothymol blue by optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Langmuir 19, 214–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, T. Yoshida, H. Asano, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Optical waveguide spectrometer based on thin-film glass plates,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2001–2003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Prism-coupled multimode waveguide refractometer,” Opt. Lett. 27, 689–691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “The use of sucrose to prepare gold nanoparticles by means of nucleation in solid phase and growth in liquid phase,” submitted to Chem. Mater.

Santos, J.

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, K. Itoh, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “A study of molecular adsorption of bromothymol blue by optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Langmuir 19, 214–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Prism-coupled multimode waveguide refractometer,” Opt. Lett. 27, 689–691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sastry, M.

M. Sastry, N. Lala, V. Patil, S. P. Chavan, A. G. Chittiboyina, “Optical absorption study of the bitin-avidin interaction on colloidal silver and gold particles,” Langmuir 14, 4138–4142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schiffrin, D. J.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, R. Whyman, “Synthesis of Thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 801–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Shi, X. Zhang, “Application of the biological conjugate between antibody and colloid Au nanoparticles as analytes to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 74, 96–99. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjölander, S.

S. Sjölander, C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2338–2345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. C.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soelberg, S. D.

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takatsu, A.

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, K. Itoh, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “A study of molecular adsorption of bromothymol blue by optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Langmuir 19, 214–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Prism-coupled multimode waveguide refractometer,” Opt. Lett. 27, 689–691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, T. Yoshida, H. Asano, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “Optical waveguide spectrometer based on thin-film glass plates,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2001–2003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “The use of sucrose to prepare gold nanoparticles by means of nucleation in solid phase and growth in liquid phase,” submitted to Chem. Mater.

Urbaniczky, C.

S. Sjölander, C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2338–2345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vadgama, P.

J. E. Pearson, A. Gill, P. Vadgama, “Analytical aspects of biosensors,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37, 119–145 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, M.

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, R. Whyman, “Synthesis of Thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 801–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walter, D. G.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weisser, M.

M. Weisser, G. Nells, G. Wenz, S. Mittler-Neher, “Guest-host interactions with immobilized cyclodextrins,” Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 58–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wenz, G.

M. Weisser, G. Nells, G. Wenz, S. Mittler-Neher, “Guest-host interactions with immobilized cyclodextrins,” Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 58–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Whelan, R. J.

R. J. Whelan, T. Wohland, L. Neumann, B. Huang, B. K. Kobilka, R. N. Zare, “Analysis of biomolecular interactions using a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Anal. Chem. 74, 4570–4576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whyman, R.

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, R. Whyman, “Synthesis of Thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 801–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

J. C. Abanulo, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensor for electrochemically controlled surface reactions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6242–6245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wohland, T.

R. J. Whelan, T. Wohland, L. Neumann, B. Huang, B. K. Kobilka, R. N. Zare, “Analysis of biomolecular interactions using a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Anal. Chem. 74, 4570–4576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, I.

Yee, S. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

Yu, B.

C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Shi, X. Zhang, “Application of the biological conjugate between antibody and colloid Au nanoparticles as analytes to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 74, 96–99. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zare, R. N.

R. J. Whelan, T. Wohland, L. Neumann, B. Huang, B. K. Kobilka, R. N. Zare, “Analysis of biomolecular interactions using a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Anal. Chem. 74, 4570–4576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Shi, X. Zhang, “Application of the biological conjugate between antibody and colloid Au nanoparticles as analytes to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 74, 96–99. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Shi, X. Zhang, “Application of the biological conjugate between antibody and colloid Au nanoparticles as analytes to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 74, 96–99. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Shi, X. Zhang, “Application of the biological conjugate between antibody and colloid Au nanoparticles as analytes to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 74, 96–99. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (6)

S. Sjölander, C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2338–2345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Whelan, T. Wohland, L. Neumann, B. Huang, B. K. Kobilka, R. N. Zare, “Analysis of biomolecular interactions using a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Anal. Chem. 74, 4570–4576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nath, A. Chilkoti, “A colorimetric gold nanoparticle sensor to interrogate biomolecular interactions in real time on a surface,” Anal. Chem. 74, 504–509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayer,” Anal. Chem. 67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Shi, X. Zhang, “Application of the biological conjugate between antibody and colloid Au nanoparticles as analytes to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 74, 96–99. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lin, S. Liu, C. Lin, C. Chen, “Recognition of potassium in in water by 15-Crown-5 functionalized gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Chem. 74, 330–335 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Clin. Biochem. (1)

J. E. Pearson, A. Gill, P. Vadgama, “Analytical aspects of biosensors,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37, 119–145 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. K. Nguyen, L. Dunlap, D. Bartholomew, J. Elkind, J. Melendz, C. E. Furlong, “Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 573–584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

K. R. Brown, A. P. Fox, M. J. Natan, “Morphology-dependent electrochemistry of cytochrome c at Au colloid-modified SnO2 electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1154–1157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 1148–1153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1)

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, R. Whyman, “Synthesis of Thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 801–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O’Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

S. Link, M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (3)

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. Santos, K. Itoh, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “A study of molecular adsorption of bromothymol blue by optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Langmuir 19, 214–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sastry, N. Lala, V. Patil, S. P. Chavan, A. G. Chittiboyina, “Optical absorption study of the bitin-avidin interaction on colloidal silver and gold particles,” Langmuir 14, 4138–4142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

M. Weisser, G. Nells, G. Wenz, S. Mittler-Neher, “Guest-host interactions with immobilized cyclodextrins,” Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 58–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, A. Takatsu, K. Kato, “The use of sucrose to prepare gold nanoparticles by means of nucleation in solid phase and growth in liquid phase,” submitted to Chem. Mater.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a fiber-coupled multimode waveguide spectrometer: 1, 50-μm-thick glass plate; 2, silicone rubber cell; 3, glycerol drop; 4, glass fiber; 5, silicone rubber strip; 6, slide glass supporter; 7, output light beam to be detected.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TEM image of colloidal gold particles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a–c, Transmission spectra of the thin-film glass plate and d, e, absorption spectra of the Hb adlayer (a, with water in the cell; b, d, with 5 μM of aqueous Hb solution in the cell; c, e, with the water-covered Hb adlayer).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TE-polarized absorption spectra obtained during self-assembly of gold colloids onto the Hb-modified glass plate. Inset, absorbance maximum at 547 nm versus self-assembly time (the time at which the gold hydrosol that was introduced into the cell was taken to be zero).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TE- and TM-polarized absorption spectra of the colloidal gold submonolayer (a) just before and (b) after the gold hydrosol in the cell was replaced with deionized water. Spectra were normalized to their peak absorbances.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TE- and TM-polarized spectral responses of the sensor to refractive-index change. The medium in the cell was changed from air(1) to water and then to air(2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Spectral response of the sensor to Hb adsorption at different times and (b) dependence of the absorbance at 561 nm on adsorption time as well as on absorbance at 407 nm.

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