Abstract

An optical arrangement for constructing wavelength-tunable spectral filters is presented that makes use of a set of dispersive polarization rotations to select wavelengths. A filter in the arrangement is initially mechanically tunable, requires no achromatic retarder, and can be further electrically tunable, switchable, or both, depending on the elements selected. Test measurements and results are presented and described. Modified arrangements with additional retarder(s) or liquid-crystal polarization rotator(s) are suggested and discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. W. Evans, “The birefringent filter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 229–242 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Dollfus, F. Colson, D. Crussaire, F. Launary, “A monochromator for solar quantitative imagery: the instrument FPSS,” Astron. Astrophys. 151, 235–253 (1985).
  3. D. Bonaccini, F. Stauffer, “High resolution solar bidimensional spectroscopy with a Universal Birefringent Filter in tandem with a Fabry-Perot interferometer: tests and experimental results,” Astron. Astrophys. 229, 272–278 (1990).
  4. C. Bendlin, R. Volkmer, F. Kneer, “A new instrument for high resolution, two-dimensional solar spectroscopy,” Astron. Astrophys. 257, 817–823 (1992).
  5. G. Salucci, L. Bertello, F. Cavallini, G. Ceppatelli, A. Righini, “The height dependence of intensity and velocity structure in the solar photosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 285, 322–332 (1994).
  6. L. J. November, L. M. Wikins, “Liquid crystal polarimeter: a solid state imager for solar vector magnetic fields,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1659–1668 (1995).
  7. D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).
  8. H. R. Morris, C. C. Hoyt, P. J. Treado, “Imaging spectrometers for fluorescence and raman microscopy: acousto-optic and liquid crystal tunable filters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 857–866 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Lansford, G. Bearman, S. E. Fraser, “Resolution of multiple green fluorescent protein color variant and dyes using two-photon microscopy and imaging spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 311–318 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Kimura, M. Saruwatari, K. Otsuka, “Birefringent branching filters for wideband optical FDM communications,” Appl. Opt. 12, 373–379 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Wright, C. M. Crandall, P. Miller, “Active filters enable color imaging,” Laser Focus World 5, 85–90 (1996).
  12. G. D. Sharp, S. E. Gilman, K. M. Johnson, “Progress in field-sequential color shutter technology,” in Projection Displays III, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3013, 107–111 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. S. M. Rees, J. Staromlynska, M. P. Gillyon, J. R. Davy, “Final design and testing of the laser airborne depth sounder filter,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1204–1213 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Lyot, “Optical apparatus with wide field using interference of polarized light,” C. R Acad. Sci. 197, 1593 (1933).
  15. B. Lyot, “Slitless spectrophotometer,” U.S. patent2,718,170 (20September1955).
  16. A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, “Tunable birefringent filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 815–823 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combination of birefringent plates. II. An achromatic quarter-wave plate,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. A 41, 137–144 (1955).
  18. J. M. Beckers, “Achromatic linear retarders,” Appl. Opt. 10, 973–975 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Hariharan, “Achromatic and apochromatic halfwave and quarterwave retarders,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3335–3337 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. F. Lotspeich, R. R. Stephens, D. M. Henderson, “Electro-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 20, 830–836 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. J. Gunning, “Electro-optically tuned spectral filters: a review,” Opt. Eng. 20, 837–845 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Kopp, “Tunable birefringent filters using liquid crystal variable retarders,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement II, D. B. Chenault, H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE2265, 193–201 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. M. Johnson, G. D. Sharp, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal tunable filters and color generator,” U.S. patent5,132,826 (21July1992).
  24. G. D. Sharp, K. M. Johnson, “Split-element liquid crystal tunable optical filters,” U.S. patent6,091,462 (18July2000).
  25. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1988).
  26. D. S. Kliger, J. W. Lewis, C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).
  27. B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 6.
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. J. Koester, “Achromatic combination of half-wave plates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 405–409 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Electro-Optics Technology, Inc., Traverse City, Michigan 49686 ( http://www.eotech.com/) .

2001 (1)

R. Lansford, G. Bearman, S. E. Fraser, “Resolution of multiple green fluorescent protein color variant and dyes using two-photon microscopy and imaging spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 311–318 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

1997 (1)

S. S. M. Rees, J. Staromlynska, M. P. Gillyon, J. R. Davy, “Final design and testing of the laser airborne depth sounder filter,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1204–1213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

H. Wright, C. M. Crandall, P. Miller, “Active filters enable color imaging,” Laser Focus World 5, 85–90 (1996).

P. Hariharan, “Achromatic and apochromatic halfwave and quarterwave retarders,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3335–3337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. J. November, L. M. Wikins, “Liquid crystal polarimeter: a solid state imager for solar vector magnetic fields,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1659–1668 (1995).

1994 (2)

G. Salucci, L. Bertello, F. Cavallini, G. Ceppatelli, A. Righini, “The height dependence of intensity and velocity structure in the solar photosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 285, 322–332 (1994).

H. R. Morris, C. C. Hoyt, P. J. Treado, “Imaging spectrometers for fluorescence and raman microscopy: acousto-optic and liquid crystal tunable filters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 857–866 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Bendlin, R. Volkmer, F. Kneer, “A new instrument for high resolution, two-dimensional solar spectroscopy,” Astron. Astrophys. 257, 817–823 (1992).

1990 (1)

D. Bonaccini, F. Stauffer, “High resolution solar bidimensional spectroscopy with a Universal Birefringent Filter in tandem with a Fabry-Perot interferometer: tests and experimental results,” Astron. Astrophys. 229, 272–278 (1990).

1985 (1)

A. Dollfus, F. Colson, D. Crussaire, F. Launary, “A monochromator for solar quantitative imagery: the instrument FPSS,” Astron. Astrophys. 151, 235–253 (1985).

1981 (3)

A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, “Tunable birefringent filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 815–823 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Lotspeich, R. R. Stephens, D. M. Henderson, “Electro-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 20, 830–836 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Gunning, “Electro-optically tuned spectral filters: a review,” Opt. Eng. 20, 837–845 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

1959 (1)

1955 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combination of birefringent plates. II. An achromatic quarter-wave plate,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. A 41, 137–144 (1955).

1949 (1)

1933 (1)

B. Lyot, “Optical apparatus with wide field using interference of polarized light,” C. R Acad. Sci. 197, 1593 (1933).

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1988).

Balasubramaniam, K. S.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1988).

Bearman, G.

R. Lansford, G. Bearman, S. E. Fraser, “Resolution of multiple green fluorescent protein color variant and dyes using two-photon microscopy and imaging spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 311–318 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckers, J. M.

Bendlin, C.

C. Bendlin, R. Volkmer, F. Kneer, “A new instrument for high resolution, two-dimensional solar spectroscopy,” Astron. Astrophys. 257, 817–823 (1992).

Bertello, L.

G. Salucci, L. Bertello, F. Cavallini, G. Ceppatelli, A. Righini, “The height dependence of intensity and velocity structure in the solar photosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 285, 322–332 (1994).

Bonaccini, D.

D. Bonaccini, F. Stauffer, “High resolution solar bidimensional spectroscopy with a Universal Birefringent Filter in tandem with a Fabry-Perot interferometer: tests and experimental results,” Astron. Astrophys. 229, 272–278 (1990).

Cavallini, F.

G. Salucci, L. Bertello, F. Cavallini, G. Ceppatelli, A. Righini, “The height dependence of intensity and velocity structure in the solar photosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 285, 322–332 (1994).

Ceppatelli, G.

G. Salucci, L. Bertello, F. Cavallini, G. Ceppatelli, A. Righini, “The height dependence of intensity and velocity structure in the solar photosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 285, 322–332 (1994).

Colson, F.

A. Dollfus, F. Colson, D. Crussaire, F. Launary, “A monochromator for solar quantitative imagery: the instrument FPSS,” Astron. Astrophys. 151, 235–253 (1985).

Confer, M.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Coulter, R.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Craig, D.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Crandall, C. M.

H. Wright, C. M. Crandall, P. Miller, “Active filters enable color imaging,” Laser Focus World 5, 85–90 (1996).

Crussaire, D.

A. Dollfus, F. Colson, D. Crussaire, F. Launary, “A monochromator for solar quantitative imagery: the instrument FPSS,” Astron. Astrophys. 151, 235–253 (1985).

Davy, J. R.

S. S. M. Rees, J. Staromlynska, M. P. Gillyon, J. R. Davy, “Final design and testing of the laser airborne depth sounder filter,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1204–1213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dollfus, A.

A. Dollfus, F. Colson, D. Crussaire, F. Launary, “A monochromator for solar quantitative imagery: the instrument FPSS,” Astron. Astrophys. 151, 235–253 (1985).

Dunn, R.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Evans, J. W.

Fraser, S. E.

R. Lansford, G. Bearman, S. E. Fraser, “Resolution of multiple green fluorescent protein color variant and dyes using two-photon microscopy and imaging spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 311–318 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillyon, M. P.

S. S. M. Rees, J. Staromlynska, M. P. Gillyon, J. R. Davy, “Final design and testing of the laser airborne depth sounder filter,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1204–1213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gilman, S. E.

G. D. Sharp, S. E. Gilman, K. M. Johnson, “Progress in field-sequential color shutter technology,” in Projection Displays III, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3013, 107–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, S.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Gullixson, C.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Gunning, W. J.

W. J. Gunning, “Electro-optically tuned spectral filters: a review,” Opt. Eng. 20, 837–845 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Haas, B.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, “Achromatic and apochromatic halfwave and quarterwave retarders,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3335–3337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, D. M.

J. F. Lotspeich, R. R. Stephens, D. M. Henderson, “Electro-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 20, 830–836 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Henry, T.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Hoyt, C. C.

Hull, W.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Johnson, K. M.

G. D. Sharp, S. E. Gilman, K. M. Johnson, “Progress in field-sequential color shutter technology,” in Projection Displays III, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3013, 107–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Sharp, K. M. Johnson, “Split-element liquid crystal tunable optical filters,” U.S. patent6,091,462 (18July2000).

K. M. Johnson, G. D. Sharp, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal tunable filters and color generator,” U.S. patent5,132,826 (21July1992).

Jones, H.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Kaufman, M.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Keller, C.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Kimura, T.

Kliger, D. S.

D. S. Kliger, J. W. Lewis, C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

Kneer, F.

C. Bendlin, R. Volkmer, F. Kneer, “A new instrument for high resolution, two-dimensional solar spectroscopy,” Astron. Astrophys. 257, 817–823 (1992).

Koester, C. J.

Kopp, G.

G. Kopp, “Tunable birefringent filters using liquid crystal variable retarders,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement II, D. B. Chenault, H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE2265, 193–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lansford, R.

R. Lansford, G. Bearman, S. E. Fraser, “Resolution of multiple green fluorescent protein color variant and dyes using two-photon microscopy and imaging spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 311–318 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Launary, F.

A. Dollfus, F. Colson, D. Crussaire, F. Launary, “A monochromator for solar quantitative imagery: the instrument FPSS,” Astron. Astrophys. 151, 235–253 (1985).

Lewis, J. W.

D. S. Kliger, J. W. Lewis, C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

Lotspeich, J. F.

J. F. Lotspeich, R. R. Stephens, D. M. Henderson, “Electro-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 20, 830–836 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lyot, B.

B. Lyot, “Optical apparatus with wide field using interference of polarized light,” C. R Acad. Sci. 197, 1593 (1933).

B. Lyot, “Slitless spectrophotometer,” U.S. patent2,718,170 (20September1955).

McGraw, R.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Miller, P.

H. Wright, C. M. Crandall, P. Miller, “Active filters enable color imaging,” Laser Focus World 5, 85–90 (1996).

Morris, H. R.

Neidig, D.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

November, L. J.

L. J. November, L. M. Wikins, “Liquid crystal polarimeter: a solid state imager for solar vector magnetic fields,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1659–1668 (1995).

Otsuka, K.

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combination of birefringent plates. II. An achromatic quarter-wave plate,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. A 41, 137–144 (1955).

Randall, C. E.

D. S. Kliger, J. W. Lewis, C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

Rees, S. S. M.

S. S. M. Rees, J. Staromlynska, M. P. Gillyon, J. R. Davy, “Final design and testing of the laser airborne depth sounder filter,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1204–1213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rentschler, R.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Righini, A.

G. Salucci, L. Bertello, F. Cavallini, G. Ceppatelli, A. Righini, “The height dependence of intensity and velocity structure in the solar photosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 285, 322–332 (1994).

Rosenberg, W. J.

A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, “Tunable birefringent filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 815–823 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

Salucci, G.

G. Salucci, L. Bertello, F. Cavallini, G. Ceppatelli, A. Righini, “The height dependence of intensity and velocity structure in the solar photosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 285, 322–332 (1994).

Saruwatari, M.

Schimming, R.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Sharp, G. D.

G. D. Sharp, S. E. Gilman, K. M. Johnson, “Progress in field-sequential color shutter technology,” in Projection Displays III, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3013, 107–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Johnson, G. D. Sharp, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal tunable filters and color generator,” U.S. patent5,132,826 (21July1992).

G. D. Sharp, K. M. Johnson, “Split-element liquid crystal tunable optical filters,” U.S. patent6,091,462 (18July2000).

Smaga, B.

D. Neidig, P. Wiborg, M. Confer, B. Haas, R. Dunn, K. S. Balasubramaniam, C. Gullixson, D. Craig, M. Kaufman, W. Hull, R. McGraw, T. Henry, R. Rentschler, C. Keller, H. Jones, R. Coulter, S. Gregory, R. Schimming, B. Smaga, “The USAF improved solar observing optical network (ISOON) and its impact on solar synoptic data bases,” Synopt. Solar Phys. 140, 519–528 (1998).

Staromlynska, J.

S. S. M. Rees, J. Staromlynska, M. P. Gillyon, J. R. Davy, “Final design and testing of the laser airborne depth sounder filter,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1204–1213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stauffer, F.

D. Bonaccini, F. Stauffer, “High resolution solar bidimensional spectroscopy with a Universal Birefringent Filter in tandem with a Fabry-Perot interferometer: tests and experimental results,” Astron. Astrophys. 229, 272–278 (1990).

Stephens, R. R.

J. F. Lotspeich, R. R. Stephens, D. M. Henderson, “Electro-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 20, 830–836 (1981).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the basic optical arrangement of a new n-stage (n = 1, 2, 3, …) filter, with each stage comprising a dispersive polarization rotator: pl1, pl2, …, pl n+1, linear polarizers; r1, r2, …, r n , polarization rotators.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated round-trip transmission T nr(λ) and (b) forward transmission T n(λ) versus wavelength of light λ for single-stage, two-stage, and three-stage one-direction filters (n = 1, 2, 3 respectively) with Faraday rotators in accordance with the arrangement in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission profiles T 2(λ) of a two-stage polarizer-rotating spectral filter constructed according to the arrangement of Fig. 1 for n = 2 for tuning angle ψ = 0°, ψ = 15° [Fig. 3(a)], ψ = 30°, ψ = 45° [Fig. 3(b)], and ψ = 60°, ψ = 75° [Fig. 3(c)] versus light wavelength λ: ψ azimuth angle of the intermediate polarizer relative to the entrance polarizer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic description of an n-stage spectral filter further developed based on the arrangement of Fig. 1, with each stage comprising a quartz optical rotator in combination with a half-wave retarder or an equivalent LC electrically rotatable retarder: pl1, pl2, …, pl n+1, linear polarizers; r1, r2, …, r n , polarization rotators; h1, h2, …, h n , half-wave retarders.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated tuned transmission profiles T 2(λ) of a two-stage polarizer-fixed spectral filter with two zero-order wave plates according to the arrangement of Fig. 4 for n = 2 for tuning angles φ = 0°, φ = 30°, and φ = 60° versus wavelength of light λ: orientation angle of the half-wave plate in the first stage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic description of an n-stage spectral filter further developed based on the arrangement of Fig. 1, with each stage comprising a quartz optical rotator in combination with a twisted-nematic LC polarization rotator: pl1, pl2, …, pl n+1, linear polarizers; r1, r2, …, r n , quartz polarization rotators; lc1, lc2, …, lc n , twisted-nematic LC polarization rotators.

Equations (12)

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M=10000cos 2ρsin 2ρ00-sin 2ρcos 2ρ00001,
J=cos ρsin ρ-sin ρcos ρ
T1λ=cos2Pi+1-Pi+ρiλ.
Tnλ=cos2ρ1λ+ψcos2 2ρ1λ+ψcos2 4ρ1λ+ψcos2 2n-1ρ1λ+ψ=sin22nρ1λ+ψ4n sin2ρ1λ+ψ
Tnλ=sin2ρ1λ+ψcos2 2ρ1λ+ψcos2 4ρ1λ+ψcos2 2n-1ρ1λ+ψ=tan2ρ1λ+ψsin22nρ1λ+ψ4n sin2ρ1λ+ψ.
Tnλ=cos2 ρ1λcos2 2ρ1λcos2 4ρ1λcos2 2n-1ρ1λψ=0°,
sin2 ρ1λcos2 2ρ1λcos2 4ρ1λcos2 2n-1ρ1λψ=90°.
Tnλ =cos245°+ρ1λcos2 245°+ρ1λ cos2×4ρ1 λcos2 2n-1ρ1λ,
Tnrλ=cos245°+ρ1λcos2 45°-ρ1λ cos2 245°+ρ1λ cos2 245°-ρ1λcos4 4ρ1λcos4 8ρ1λ  cos4 2n-1ρ1λ
Tnreflλ=cos4ρ1λ+ψcos4 2ρ1λ+ψcos4 4ρ1λ+ψcos4 2n-1ρ1λ+ψ.
Tnλ=cos2ρ1λ+2φ1cos2 2ρ1λ+2φ1cos2 4ρ1λ+2φ1cos2 2n-1ρ1λ+2φ1.
Tnλ=cos2ρ1λ+ρlc1+ψcos2 2ρ1λ+ρlc1+ψcos2 2n-1ρ1λ+ρlc1+ψ,unswitchedcos2ρ1λ+ψcos2 2ρ1λ+ψcos2 2n-1ρ1λ+ψswitched.

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