Abstract

We demonstrate the use of photothermal deflection spectroscopy for detection and measurement of methane with very high spatial resolution. A high spatial resolution may be important for some applications, and other techniques in current use do not provide this resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of photothermal spectroscopy to methane detection. We have succeeded in detecting a signal even from a very weak combination-overtone band of methane in the visible region of the spectrum. If used in conjunction with a strongly absorbing fundamental band, the technique is capable of yielding high sensitivity along with very high spatial and temporal resolutions.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, U. Gustafsson, J. Sandsten, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous detection of methane, oxygen and water vapour utilising near-infrared diode lasers in conjunction with difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 853–857 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. See, for example, C. Fischer, M. W. Sigrist, Q. Yu, M. Seiter, “Photoacoustic monitoring of trace gases by use of a diode-based difference frequency laser source,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1609–1611 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. See, for example, J. A. Sell, ed., Photothermal Investigations of Solids and Fluids (Academic, N.Y., 1989).
  4. L. P. Giver, “Intensity measurements of the CH4 bands in the region 4350 Å to 10600 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 311–322 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Gupta, “The theory of photothermal effect in fluids,” in Photothermal Investigations in Solids and Fluids, J. A. Sell, ed. (Academic, New York, 1989), Chap. 3.
  6. A. Rose, R. Vyas, R. Gupta, “Pulsed photothermal deflection spectroscopy in a flowing medium: a quantitative investigation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4626–4643 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. R. Lide, H. V. Kehiaian, eds., CRC Handbook of Thermophysical and Thermochemical Data (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994).
  8. G. W. C. Kaye, T. H. Laby, eds., Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants and Some Mathematical Functions (Longman, New York, N.Y., 1982).
  9. U. Fink, D. C. Benner, K. A. Dick, “Band model analysis of laboratory methane absorption spectra from 4500 to 10500 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 447–457 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Li, R. Gupta, “Measurement of absolute minority species concentration and temperature in a flame by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy technique,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2226–2235 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. G. Lancaster, J. M. Dawes, “Methane detection with a narrow-band source at 3.4 µm based on a Nd:YAG pump laser and a combination of stimulated Raman scattering and difference frequency mixing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4041–4045 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. See, for example, P. Hess, C. B. Moore, “Vibrational energy-transfer in methane and methane-rare gas mixtures,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2339–2344 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2003

2001

2000

See, for example, U. Gustafsson, J. Sandsten, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous detection of methane, oxygen and water vapour utilising near-infrared diode lasers in conjunction with difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 853–857 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1986

1978

L. P. Giver, “Intensity measurements of the CH4 bands in the region 4350 Å to 10600 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 311–322 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

U. Fink, D. C. Benner, K. A. Dick, “Band model analysis of laboratory methane absorption spectra from 4500 to 10500 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 447–457 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

See, for example, P. Hess, C. B. Moore, “Vibrational energy-transfer in methane and methane-rare gas mixtures,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2339–2344 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

U. Fink, D. C. Benner, K. A. Dick, “Band model analysis of laboratory methane absorption spectra from 4500 to 10500 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 447–457 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J. M.

Dick, K. A.

U. Fink, D. C. Benner, K. A. Dick, “Band model analysis of laboratory methane absorption spectra from 4500 to 10500 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 447–457 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fink, U.

U. Fink, D. C. Benner, K. A. Dick, “Band model analysis of laboratory methane absorption spectra from 4500 to 10500 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 447–457 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, C.

Giver, L. P.

L. P. Giver, “Intensity measurements of the CH4 bands in the region 4350 Å to 10600 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 311–322 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

Gustafsson, U.

See, for example, U. Gustafsson, J. Sandsten, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous detection of methane, oxygen and water vapour utilising near-infrared diode lasers in conjunction with difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 853–857 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

See, for example, P. Hess, C. B. Moore, “Vibrational energy-transfer in methane and methane-rare gas mixtures,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2339–2344 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Li, Y.

Moore, C. B.

See, for example, P. Hess, C. B. Moore, “Vibrational energy-transfer in methane and methane-rare gas mixtures,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2339–2344 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

Sandsten, J.

See, for example, U. Gustafsson, J. Sandsten, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous detection of methane, oxygen and water vapour utilising near-infrared diode lasers in conjunction with difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 853–857 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seiter, M.

Sigrist, M. W.

Svanberg, S.

See, for example, U. Gustafsson, J. Sandsten, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous detection of methane, oxygen and water vapour utilising near-infrared diode lasers in conjunction with difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 853–857 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vyas, R.

Yu, Q.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

See, for example, U. Gustafsson, J. Sandsten, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous detection of methane, oxygen and water vapour utilising near-infrared diode lasers in conjunction with difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 853–857 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

See, for example, P. Hess, C. B. Moore, “Vibrational energy-transfer in methane and methane-rare gas mixtures,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2339–2344 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

U. Fink, D. C. Benner, K. A. Dick, “Band model analysis of laboratory methane absorption spectra from 4500 to 10500 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 447–457 (1977).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Giver, “Intensity measurements of the CH4 bands in the region 4350 Å to 10600 Å,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 311–322 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. Gupta, “The theory of photothermal effect in fluids,” in Photothermal Investigations in Solids and Fluids, J. A. Sell, ed. (Academic, New York, 1989), Chap. 3.

D. R. Lide, H. V. Kehiaian, eds., CRC Handbook of Thermophysical and Thermochemical Data (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994).

G. W. C. Kaye, T. H. Laby, eds., Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants and Some Mathematical Functions (Longman, New York, N.Y., 1982).

See, for example, J. A. Sell, ed., Photothermal Investigations of Solids and Fluids (Academic, N.Y., 1989).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the experimental arrangement. L1, L2, and L3 represent lenses, and SHG, PHS, and PD stand for second harmonic generator, prism harmonic separator, and photodetector, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical PTDS signal. Probe-beam deflection in microradians is plotted against time, measured from the instant of laser firing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PTDS signals from CH4 in a diffusion flame (thin curves) and in a premixed flame (thick curves). The measurement point in the premixed flame is shown in the inset. Both curves are averages over 500 pulses.

Equations (1)

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ϕx, t=-1n0dndT8αE02πρCp1sin θx-νxta2+8Dt3/2×exp-2x-νxt2/a2+8Dt,

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