Abstract

Values for the coefficients of absorption (a) and attenuation (c) obtained from AC-9 measurements in coccolithophore blooms do not provide satisfactory inputs for radiance transfer models. We have therefore modified the standard AC-9 scattering correction algorithm by including an extra term, F(λ, λr), which allows for possible wavelength dependence in the scattering phase function. We estimated the magnitude of F(λ, λr), which is unity in the standard algorithm, by adjusting the absorption and scattering values in Hydrolight radiance transfer calculations until the depth profiles of downward irradiance (Ed) and upward radiance (Lu) matched those measured in situ. The modified algorithm was tested with data from a phytoplankton bloom dominated by the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, which occurred in the western English Channel in May 2001. In this paper, we only have sufficient data to adequately constrain the radiance transfer model in one wave band centered on 488 nm. A single value of F(λ, λr) = 1.4 was found to produce satisfactory agreement between modeled and observed profiles at four widely spaced stations within the bloom. Measurements of the ratio of backscattering (bb) to total scattering (b) showed significant wavelength dependence at these stations.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. M. Holligan, J. E. Robertson, “Significance of ocean carbonate budgets for the global carbon cycle,” Global Change Biol. 2, 85–95 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. M. Holligan, M. Viollier, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagnephilippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental-shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. Holligan, D. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. R. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo modeling of the performance of a reflective tube absorption meter,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6463–6468 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, S. B. Groom, P. E. Land, T. Tyrrell, “Optical modelling and measurements of a coccolithophore bloom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7679–7688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

P. M. Holligan, J. E. Robertson, “Significance of ocean carbonate budgets for the global carbon cycle,” Global Change Biol. 2, 85–95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. Holligan, D. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

1983

P. M. Holligan, M. Viollier, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagnephilippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental-shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. Holligan, D. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Camus, P.

P. M. Holligan, M. Viollier, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagnephilippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental-shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Champagnephilippe, M.

P. M. Holligan, M. Viollier, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagnephilippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental-shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Du, T.

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, E.

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. Holligan, D. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forand, J. L.

G. R. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G. R.

G. R. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Groom, S. B.

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, S. B. Groom, P. E. Land, T. Tyrrell, “Optical modelling and measurements of a coccolithophore bloom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7679–7688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harbour, D.

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. Holligan, D. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harbour, D. S.

P. M. Holligan, M. Viollier, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagnephilippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental-shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Holligan, P.

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. Holligan, D. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holligan, P. M.

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Holligan, J. E. Robertson, “Significance of ocean carbonate budgets for the global carbon cycle,” Global Change Biol. 2, 85–95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Holligan, M. Viollier, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagnephilippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental-shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kilpatrick, K. A.

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. Holligan, D. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Land, P. E.

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, S. B. Groom, P. E. Land, T. Tyrrell, “Optical modelling and measurements of a coccolithophore bloom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7679–7688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. M.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G. F.

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, S. B. Groom, P. E. Land, T. Tyrrell, “Optical modelling and measurements of a coccolithophore bloom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7679–7688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

Robertson, J. E.

P. M. Holligan, J. E. Robertson, “Significance of ocean carbonate budgets for the global carbon cycle,” Global Change Biol. 2, 85–95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, T. J.

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, S. B. Groom, P. E. Land, T. Tyrrell, “Optical modelling and measurements of a coccolithophore bloom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7679–7688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C. C.

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tyrrell, T.

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, S. B. Groom, P. E. Land, T. Tyrrell, “Optical modelling and measurements of a coccolithophore bloom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7679–7688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viollier, M.

P. M. Holligan, M. Viollier, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagnephilippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental-shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Global Change Biol.

P. M. Holligan, J. E. Robertson, “Significance of ocean carbonate budgets for the global carbon cycle,” Global Change Biol. 2, 85–95 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Oceans

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. Holligan, D. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. M. Holligan, M. Viollier, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagnephilippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental-shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Profiles of modeled and measured (a) Ed and (b) Lu for station 12. The model uses standard AC-9 IOPs and shows systematic underestimates of both radiometric parameters with depth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plots of modeled versus measured (a) Ed and (b) Lu for a range of values of F(λ, λr) for station 12. For this station a value of F(λ, λr) = 1.4 provides the best match between modeled and measured radiometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Standard percentage error between modeled and measured values of Ed and Lu, averaged over all depths in the surface layer of station 12, is minimal at F(λ, λr) = 1.4 for both Lu and Ed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Depth profiles of standard [F(λ, λr) = 1.0] and modified [F(λ, λr) = 1.4] (a) AC-9 absorption at 488 nm, (b) AC-9 scattering at 488 nm, and (c) backscattering ratio in the blue (Hydroscat-2 bb at 470 nm and AC-9 b at 488 nm). Changing the value of F(λ, λr) in the scattering correction for AC-9 absorption also has an impact on the AC-9 scattering coefficient and thus also affects the value of backscattering ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots of modeled versus measured (a) Ed and (b) Lu for four stations inside a coccolithophore bloom. Modeled radiometry comes from Hydrolight simulations performed with use of AC-9 data that had been corrected with a value of F(λ, λr) = 1.4 in all cases.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Backscattering ratio in the blue is systematically higher than backscattering ratio in the red for four stations in coccolithophore-rich waters. Blue backscattering ratios are based upon Hydroscat-2 readings at 470 nm and AC-9 scattering values at 488 nm corrected with F(λ, λr) = 1.4.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

kaλ=2π θcaπ β˜ψ, λsinψdψ,
kcλ=2π 0θcc β˜ψ, λsinψdψ.
anλ=aiλ-aiλrciλ-aiλciλr-aiλr×kaλ1-kaλ-kcλkaλr1-kaλr-kcλr,
anλ=aiλ-aiλrciλ-aiλciλr-aiλr Fλ, λr,
Fλ, λr=kaλ1-kaλ-kcλkaλr1-kaλr-kcλr.
=n |xin-xmod/xin|×100n,

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