Abstract

A remote-sensing campaign was performed in September 2001 at nighttime under clear-sky conditions before moonrise to assess the level of light pollution of urban and industrial origin. Two hyperspectral sensors, namely, the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer and the Visible Infrared Scanner-200, which provide spectral coverage from the visible to the thermal infrared, were flown over the Tuscany coast (Italy) on board a Casa 212 airplane. The acquired images were processed to produce radiometrically calibrated data, which were then analyzed and compared with ground-based spectral measurements. Calibrated data acquired at high spectral resolution (∼2.5 nm) showed a maximum scene brightness almost of the same order of magnitude as that observed during similar daytime measurements, whereas their average luminosity was 3 orders of magnitude lower. The measurement analysis confirmed that artificial illumination hinders astronomical observations and produces noticeable effects even at great distances from the sources of the illumination.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, “The first world atlas of the artificial night sky brightness,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 689–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Barducci, I. Pippi, “Analysis and rejection of systematic disturbances in hyperspectral remotely sensed images of the Earth,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1464–1477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, “The artificial night sky brightness mapped from DMSP satellite Operational Linescan System measurement,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 641–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, J. B. Dietz, T. Bland, P. C. Sutton, H. W. Kroehl, “Radiance calibration of DMSP-OLS low-light imaging data of human settlements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 77–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Isobe, H. Kosai, “Star watching observations to measure night sky brightness,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 139, 175–184 (1998).

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, V. H. Hobson, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, D. Cocero, “Satellite inventory of human settlements using nocturnal radiation emission: a contribution for the global toolchest,” Global Change Biol. 3, 387–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Sutton, D. Roberts, C. Elvidge, H. Meij, “A comparison of nighttime satellite imagery and population density for the continental United States,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 1303–1313 (1997).

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, “Mapping lights with nighttime data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 727–734 (1997).

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, D. C. Stutzer, C. D. Elvidge, “A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS ‘City Lights’ satellite data to map urban area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 361–370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, C. W. Davis, “Relation between satellite observed visible-near infrared emissions, population, economic activity and electric power consumption,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1373–1379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, C. D. Elvidge, T. Paul, E. Levine, M. V. Privalsky, V. Brown, “Using nighttime DMSP/OLS images of city lights to estimate the impact of urban land use on soil resources in the United States,” Remote Sens. Environ. 59, 105–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. R. Steinwand, “Mapping raster imagery into the interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3463–3472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

W. T. Sullivan, “A 10 km resolution image of the entire night-time Earth based on cloud-free satellite photographs in the 400–1100 nm band,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1–5 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

F. E. Volz, “Measurements of the skylight scattering function,” Appl. Opt. 26, 19, 4098–4105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. H. Garstang, “Model for artificial night-sky illumination,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 98, 364–375 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

R. Pike, “A simple computer model for the growth of light pollution,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 70, 116–126 (1976).

R. Berry, “Light pollution in southern Ontario,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 70, 97–115 (1976).

1973 (1)

M. F. Walker, “Light pollution in California and Arizona,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 85, 508–519 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Barducci, A.

A. Barducci, I. Pippi, “Analysis and rejection of systematic disturbances in hyperspectral remotely sensed images of the Earth,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1464–1477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Barducci, I. Pippi, “The airborne VIRS for monitoring of the environment,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites (EUROPTO ’97), H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 437–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Barducci, P. Marcoionni, I. Pippi, M. Poggesi, “Development of a solar spectro-irradiometer for the validation of remotely sensed hyperspectral images,” presented at the 21st Symposium of European Remote Sensing Laboratories, Marne-la-Vallée (Paris), 14–16 May 2001.

Baugh, K. E.

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, “The artificial night sky brightness mapped from DMSP satellite Operational Linescan System measurement,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 641–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, J. B. Dietz, T. Bland, P. C. Sutton, H. W. Kroehl, “Radiance calibration of DMSP-OLS low-light imaging data of human settlements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 77–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, “Mapping lights with nighttime data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 727–734 (1997).

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, C. W. Davis, “Relation between satellite observed visible-near infrared emissions, population, economic activity and electric power consumption,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1373–1379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, V. H. Hobson, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, D. Cocero, “Satellite inventory of human settlements using nocturnal radiation emission: a contribution for the global toolchest,” Global Change Biol. 3, 387–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berry, R.

R. Berry, “Light pollution in southern Ontario,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 70, 97–115 (1976).

Bland, T.

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, J. B. Dietz, T. Bland, P. C. Sutton, H. W. Kroehl, “Radiance calibration of DMSP-OLS low-light imaging data of human settlements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 77–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, V.

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, C. D. Elvidge, T. Paul, E. Levine, M. V. Privalsky, V. Brown, “Using nighttime DMSP/OLS images of city lights to estimate the impact of urban land use on soil resources in the United States,” Remote Sens. Environ. 59, 105–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cinzano, P.

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, “The first world atlas of the artificial night sky brightness,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 689–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, “The artificial night sky brightness mapped from DMSP satellite Operational Linescan System measurement,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 641–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cocero, D.

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, V. H. Hobson, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, D. Cocero, “Satellite inventory of human settlements using nocturnal radiation emission: a contribution for the global toolchest,” Global Change Biol. 3, 387–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. W.

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, C. W. Davis, “Relation between satellite observed visible-near infrared emissions, population, economic activity and electric power consumption,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1373–1379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, E. R.

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, C. W. Davis, “Relation between satellite observed visible-near infrared emissions, population, economic activity and electric power consumption,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1373–1379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, V. H. Hobson, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, D. Cocero, “Satellite inventory of human settlements using nocturnal radiation emission: a contribution for the global toolchest,” Global Change Biol. 3, 387–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, “Mapping lights with nighttime data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 727–734 (1997).

Dietz, J. B.

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, J. B. Dietz, T. Bland, P. C. Sutton, H. W. Kroehl, “Radiance calibration of DMSP-OLS low-light imaging data of human settlements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 77–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elvidge, C.

P. Sutton, D. Roberts, C. Elvidge, H. Meij, “A comparison of nighttime satellite imagery and population density for the continental United States,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 1303–1313 (1997).

Elvidge, C. D.

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, “The first world atlas of the artificial night sky brightness,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 689–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, “The artificial night sky brightness mapped from DMSP satellite Operational Linescan System measurement,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 641–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, J. B. Dietz, T. Bland, P. C. Sutton, H. W. Kroehl, “Radiance calibration of DMSP-OLS low-light imaging data of human settlements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 77–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, “Mapping lights with nighttime data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 727–734 (1997).

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, V. H. Hobson, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, D. Cocero, “Satellite inventory of human settlements using nocturnal radiation emission: a contribution for the global toolchest,” Global Change Biol. 3, 387–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, C. W. Davis, “Relation between satellite observed visible-near infrared emissions, population, economic activity and electric power consumption,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1373–1379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, C. D. Elvidge, T. Paul, E. Levine, M. V. Privalsky, V. Brown, “Using nighttime DMSP/OLS images of city lights to estimate the impact of urban land use on soil resources in the United States,” Remote Sens. Environ. 59, 105–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, D. C. Stutzer, C. D. Elvidge, “A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS ‘City Lights’ satellite data to map urban area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 361–370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Falchi, F.

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, “The first world atlas of the artificial night sky brightness,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 689–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, “The artificial night sky brightness mapped from DMSP satellite Operational Linescan System measurement,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 641–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foltz, C. B.

P. Massey, C. B. Foltz, “The spectrum of the night sky over Mount Hopkins and Kit Peak: changes after a decade,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific (to be published).

Garstang, R. H.

R. H. Garstang, “Model for artificial night-sky illumination,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 98, 364–375 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Haikala, L. K.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamamura, S.

S. Isobe, S. Hamamura, “Light energy loss and its application to estimating a global energy usage,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 237–245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanner, M. S.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, M. G.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, V. H.

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, V. H. Hobson, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, D. Cocero, “Satellite inventory of human settlements using nocturnal radiation emission: a contribution for the global toolchest,” Global Change Biol. 3, 387–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imhoff, M. L.

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, C. D. Elvidge, T. Paul, E. Levine, M. V. Privalsky, V. Brown, “Using nighttime DMSP/OLS images of city lights to estimate the impact of urban land use on soil resources in the United States,” Remote Sens. Environ. 59, 105–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, D. C. Stutzer, C. D. Elvidge, “A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS ‘City Lights’ satellite data to map urban area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 361–370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Isobe, S.

S. Isobe, H. Kosai, “Star watching observations to measure night sky brightness,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 139, 175–184 (1998).

S. Isobe, S. Hamamura, “Light energy loss and its application to estimating a global energy usage,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 237–245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, J. H.

Kaufman, Y. J.

Kihn, E. A.

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, V. H. Hobson, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, D. Cocero, “Satellite inventory of human settlements using nocturnal radiation emission: a contribution for the global toolchest,” Global Change Biol. 3, 387–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, C. W. Davis, “Relation between satellite observed visible-near infrared emissions, population, economic activity and electric power consumption,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1373–1379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, “Mapping lights with nighttime data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 727–734 (1997).

Kosai, H.

S. Isobe, H. Kosai, “Star watching observations to measure night sky brightness,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 139, 175–184 (1998).

Kroehl, H. W.

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, J. B. Dietz, T. Bland, P. C. Sutton, H. W. Kroehl, “Radiance calibration of DMSP-OLS low-light imaging data of human settlements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 77–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, “Mapping lights with nighttime data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 727–734 (1997).

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, C. W. Davis, “Relation between satellite observed visible-near infrared emissions, population, economic activity and electric power consumption,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1373–1379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, V. H. Hobson, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, D. Cocero, “Satellite inventory of human settlements using nocturnal radiation emission: a contribution for the global toolchest,” Global Change Biol. 3, 387–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, W. T.

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, C. D. Elvidge, T. Paul, E. Levine, M. V. Privalsky, V. Brown, “Using nighttime DMSP/OLS images of city lights to estimate the impact of urban land use on soil resources in the United States,” Remote Sens. Environ. 59, 105–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, D. C. Stutzer, C. D. Elvidge, “A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS ‘City Lights’ satellite data to map urban area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 361–370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leinert, Ch.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levasseur-Regourd, A.-Ch.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levine, E.

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, C. D. Elvidge, T. Paul, E. Levine, M. V. Privalsky, V. Brown, “Using nighttime DMSP/OLS images of city lights to estimate the impact of urban land use on soil resources in the United States,” Remote Sens. Environ. 59, 105–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mann, I.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marcoionni, P.

A. Barducci, P. Marcoionni, I. Pippi, M. Poggesi, “Development of a solar spectro-irradiometer for the validation of remotely sensed hyperspectral images,” presented at the 21st Symposium of European Remote Sensing Laboratories, Marne-la-Vallée (Paris), 14–16 May 2001.

Massey, P.

P. Massey, C. B. Foltz, “The spectrum of the night sky over Mount Hopkins and Kit Peak: changes after a decade,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific (to be published).

Mattila, K.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meij, H.

P. Sutton, D. Roberts, C. Elvidge, H. Meij, “A comparison of nighttime satellite imagery and population density for the continental United States,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 1303–1313 (1997).

Mekler, Y.

Paul, T.

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, C. D. Elvidge, T. Paul, E. Levine, M. V. Privalsky, V. Brown, “Using nighttime DMSP/OLS images of city lights to estimate the impact of urban land use on soil resources in the United States,” Remote Sens. Environ. 59, 105–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pike, R.

R. Pike, “A simple computer model for the growth of light pollution,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 70, 116–126 (1976).

Pippi, I.

A. Barducci, I. Pippi, “Analysis and rejection of systematic disturbances in hyperspectral remotely sensed images of the Earth,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1464–1477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Barducci, I. Pippi, “The airborne VIRS for monitoring of the environment,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites (EUROPTO ’97), H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 437–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Barducci, P. Marcoionni, I. Pippi, M. Poggesi, “Development of a solar spectro-irradiometer for the validation of remotely sensed hyperspectral images,” presented at the 21st Symposium of European Remote Sensing Laboratories, Marne-la-Vallée (Paris), 14–16 May 2001.

Poggesi, M.

A. Barducci, P. Marcoionni, I. Pippi, M. Poggesi, “Development of a solar spectro-irradiometer for the validation of remotely sensed hyperspectral images,” presented at the 21st Symposium of European Remote Sensing Laboratories, Marne-la-Vallée (Paris), 14–16 May 2001.

Privalsky, M. V.

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, C. D. Elvidge, T. Paul, E. Levine, M. V. Privalsky, V. Brown, “Using nighttime DMSP/OLS images of city lights to estimate the impact of urban land use on soil resources in the United States,” Remote Sens. Environ. 59, 105–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reach, W. T.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D.

P. Sutton, D. Roberts, C. Elvidge, H. Meij, “A comparison of nighttime satellite imagery and population density for the continental United States,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 1303–1313 (1997).

Sclosser, W.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Staude, H. J.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steinwand, D. R.

D. R. Steinwand, “Mapping raster imagery into the interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3463–3472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stutzer, D. C.

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, D. C. Stutzer, C. D. Elvidge, “A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS ‘City Lights’ satellite data to map urban area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 361–370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, W. T.

W. T. Sullivan, “A 10 km resolution image of the entire night-time Earth based on cloud-free satellite photographs in the 400–1100 nm band,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1–5 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, P.

P. Sutton, D. Roberts, C. Elvidge, H. Meij, “A comparison of nighttime satellite imagery and population density for the continental United States,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 1303–1313 (1997).

Sutton, P. C.

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, J. B. Dietz, T. Bland, P. C. Sutton, H. W. Kroehl, “Radiance calibration of DMSP-OLS low-light imaging data of human settlements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 77–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toller, G. N.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

F. E. Volz, “Measurements of the skylight scattering function,” Appl. Opt. 26, 19, 4098–4105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Walker, M. F.

M. F. Walker, “Light pollution in California and Arizona,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 85, 508–519 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Weiland, J. L.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, J. L.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Witt, A. N.

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

Ch. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-Ch. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Sclosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. (1)

S. Isobe, H. Kosai, “Star watching observations to measure night sky brightness,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 139, 175–184 (1998).

Global Change Biol. (1)

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, V. H. Hobson, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, D. Cocero, “Satellite inventory of human settlements using nocturnal radiation emission: a contribution for the global toolchest,” Global Change Biol. 3, 387–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (3)

D. R. Steinwand, “Mapping raster imagery into the interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3463–3472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Sullivan, “A 10 km resolution image of the entire night-time Earth based on cloud-free satellite photographs in the 400–1100 nm band,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1–5 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, C. W. Davis, “Relation between satellite observed visible-near infrared emissions, population, economic activity and electric power consumption,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1373–1379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. (2)

R. Berry, “Light pollution in southern Ontario,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 70, 97–115 (1976).

R. Pike, “A simple computer model for the growth of light pollution,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 70, 116–126 (1976).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, “The first world atlas of the artificial night sky brightness,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 689–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Cinzano, F. Falchi, C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, “The artificial night sky brightness mapped from DMSP satellite Operational Linescan System measurement,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 641–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. (2)

P. Sutton, D. Roberts, C. Elvidge, H. Meij, “A comparison of nighttime satellite imagery and population density for the continental United States,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 1303–1313 (1997).

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, E. R. Davis, “Mapping lights with nighttime data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 727–734 (1997).

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

M. F. Walker, “Light pollution in California and Arizona,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 85, 508–519 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Garstang, “Model for artificial night-sky illumination,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 98, 364–375 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (3)

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, C. D. Elvidge, T. Paul, E. Levine, M. V. Privalsky, V. Brown, “Using nighttime DMSP/OLS images of city lights to estimate the impact of urban land use on soil resources in the United States,” Remote Sens. Environ. 59, 105–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Elvidge, K. E. Baugh, J. B. Dietz, T. Bland, P. C. Sutton, H. W. Kroehl, “Radiance calibration of DMSP-OLS low-light imaging data of human settlements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 77–88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Imhoff, W. T. Lawrence, D. C. Stutzer, C. D. Elvidge, “A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS ‘City Lights’ satellite data to map urban area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 361–370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. Isobe, S. Hamamura, “Light energy loss and its application to estimating a global energy usage,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 237–245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Barducci, P. Marcoionni, I. Pippi, M. Poggesi, “Development of a solar spectro-irradiometer for the validation of remotely sensed hyperspectral images,” presented at the 21st Symposium of European Remote Sensing Laboratories, Marne-la-Vallée (Paris), 14–16 May 2001.

A. Barducci, I. Pippi, “The airborne VIRS for monitoring of the environment,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites (EUROPTO ’97), H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 437–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Radiometro Multispettrale VIRS 200, Officine Galileo, VIRS handbook (Officine Galileo, Florence, Italy, 1994).

P. Massey, C. B. Foltz, “The spectrum of the night sky over Mount Hopkins and Kit Peak: changes after a decade,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific (to be published).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrum of a city lamp emitting yellow-orange light. The measurement was made at nighttime with a portable spectrophotometer operating in the range 300–950 nm. The source is probably a high-pressure sodium lamp, whose lines are easily recognized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of a city lamp emitting white-yellow light. The measurement was made at nighttime with a portable spectrophotometer operating in the range 300–950 nm. Typical mercury spectral lines can be seen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of a city lamp emitting quasi-white light. The measurement was made at nighttime with a portable spectrophotometer operating in the range 300–950 nm. Some spectral lines of mercury can be seen; however, the main spectral features are due to other elements, probably neon, krypton, or helium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Map of the aerial survey performed over the northern Tuscany coast. Two small towns, Livorno and Viareggio, were imaged.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MIVIS image acquired over Livorno on 19 September 2001 at nighttime. We obtained this false color composite by mapping the 8th channel (580.0 nm) as red, the 6th channel (540.0 nm), as green, and the 100th channel (11450.0 nm) as blue. The image data (radiometrically calibrated) were flat-field calibrated and corrected for the dark signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

VIRS 200 image acquired over Livorno on 19 September 2001 at nighttime. We obtained this false color composite by mapping the 15th channel (586.25 nm) as red, the 13th channel (578.75 nm) as green, and the 9th channel (546.25 nm) as blue. The image data were flat-field calibrated and corrected for the dark signal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) VIRS 200 radiometrically calibrated image of a peripheral area of northern Livorno acquired on 19 September 2001 at nighttime. We obtained this image by summing the radiometrically calibrated radiances collected at the 8th (543.75 nm), the 12th (576.25 nm), and the 14th (583.75 nm) spectral channels. (b) Spectrum of a powerful source (not reliably identified yet) outlined in the image by a white square.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) VIRS 200 radiometrically calibrated image of a peripheral area of northern Livorno acquired on 19 September 2001 at nighttime. We obtained this image by summing the radiometrically calibrated radiances collected at the 8th (543.75 nm), the 12th (576.25 nm), and the 14th (583.75 nm) spectral channels. (b) Spectrum of a powerful source (probably a low-pressure mercury lamp) outlined in the image by a white square.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectra of various urban lights extracted from the VIRS 200 image after processing for dark-signal subtraction, flat-field calibration, and transformation to radiance units. (a) Emission from a powerful source, recognized as a high-pressure sodium lamp. (b) spectral emission from a high-pressure sodium source probably mixed with a smaller mercury component. It is not clear whether this spectrum results from mixing of two independent sources located close to each other or whether it is from a single lamp with a nonstandard gas fill. (c) Low-intensity city light whose source is probably a sodium lamp. (d) Emission from low-intensity city light whose source was probably a mercury lamp.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectra of various city lights extracted from the VIRS 200 image after processing for dark-signal subtraction, flat-field calibration, and transformation to radiance units. (a) Strong spectral emission from a continuous source, probably a halogen lamp. (b) Spectrum of a faint city light that has not been identified, which contains contributions mercury spectral lines. (c) Spectrum of an unidentified bright source, which contains mercury spectral lines. This spectrum seems to be of the same type as that shown in Fig. 3 that was observed during the in situ campaign.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Gray-scale VIRS-200 image acquired at the north of the town of Viareggio over a ground area free from light sources. The data were processed to remove the dark signal, flat-field calibrated, and transformed to radiance units. This image was filtered up to a 3σg threshold to mitigate the effects of false signals caused by noise. The weak diffuse signal shown in this image cannot be explained as a residual effect of noise; probably it represents stray light. This image was stretched to enhance the low-level part of the signal, which is evident in this picture.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Upwelling radiance (stray light) measured with the VIRS 200 over a ground area that was free from light sources. The data were processed to remove the dark signal (filtered up to 3σg), flat-field calibrated, and transformed to radiance units. The stray-light spectrum averaged over a 30 × 30 pixel windows in the center of the scene in Fig. 11 is shown.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Colorcomposite of the VIRS-200 image (input data) obtained by mapping of the 8th channel (543.75 nm) as blue, the 12th channel (576.25 nm) as green, and the 14th channel (583.75 nm) as red. We used this VIRS 200 calibrated image as a map of ground-emitted radiance and integrated it with a response function to estimate the radiance that a ground-based observer would measure on looking at nighttime in the zenith direction.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Gray-scale image of simulated downwelling radiance (stray light) computed with the VIRS-200 calibrated image of Fig. 13 used as a map of ground-emitted radiance. We integrated the VIRS-200 signal with a response function to estimate the radiance that a ground-based observer would measure on looking at nighttime in the zenith direction.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Stray-light spectrum extracted from the center of the simulated image of Fig. 14. This spectrum should be compared with that of Fig. 12.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Technical Characteristics of the MIVIS and VIRS-200 Instruments

Tables Icon

Table 2 VIRS Spectral Channel Selection

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Lx, y= eξ,ηfx, y; ξ, ηdξdη,
H tan=Θ/2D/2,
gx, y, λ=ix, y, λ*HλSx, λ+g0x, y, λ,
fx, y, ξ, η=aλUx-ξ2+y-η2+h2+Vx-ξ2+y-η2+h21/2×exp-kλx-ξ2+y-η2+h21/2,

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