The optical masks prepared by using a LCLV liquid-crystal light valve are first proposed for light-induced photorefractive waveguides in photorefractive materials. Employing this technique, various waveguide structures can be fabricated, e.g., Y- or multiple-branches waveguides, fiber-like waveguides, and Mach–Zehnder-like switches, and even whole optical circuits may be formed. A Y-branches waveguide and a fiber-like waveguide were demonstrated in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal. Several technical problems, such as intensities, resolutions, writing speed, and so on, were also discussed in detail. Using a LCLV with a fast response and a writing beam with a high intensity, the waveguide structures may be changed in real time.
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