Abstract

We propose an enhanced three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging system using multiple display devices. Experimental results with double devices prove the improvement in the image depth for a given image quality. We present experiments on an enhanced 3D integral imaging system using double display devices, in which two 3D subimages that cover different depth ranges are separately generated in each device, and then they are combined with a beam splitter to reconstruct the whole 3D image with an enhanced depth of view. In a similar manner, the double-device system can also be used to obtain a wider viewing angle by combining two images with different viewing angle ranges. We discuss the possibility of 3D integral imaging systems using multiple display devices as extensions of the system with double display devices.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1971).
  2. H. J. Caulfield, ed., Handbook of Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1979).
  3. T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” Comptes-Rendus, 146, 446–451 (1908).
  5. C. B. Burckhardt, “Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 71–76 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Davies, M. McCormick, L. Yang, “3D imaging systems: a new development,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4520–4528 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. McCormick, “Integral 3D image for broadcast,” Proc. of the Second International Display Workshop (ITE, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 77–80.
  8. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1598–1603 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, I. Yuyama, “Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059–2065 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1072–1077 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Liu, S. Pastoor, K. Seifert, J. Hurtienne, “3D PC: toward novel forms of human-computer interaction,” Proc. SPIE CR76, 250–281 (2000).
  12. H. Arimoto, B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional imaging with computed reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 157–159 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of 3D integral imaging by use of non-stationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324–326 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Javidi, F. Okano, eds., Three Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, Berlin, 2002).
  16. B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4660, San Jose, Calif., 146–154 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Javidi, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, “Enhanced 3D color integral imaging using multiple display devices,” Proc. of IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting (San Diego, Calif., 2001), 491–492 (2001).
  19. B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display using integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481–1482 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195, San Jose, Calif. (2001).
  21. B. Lee, S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, “Theoretical analysis for three-dimensional integral imaging systems with double devices,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4856–4865 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

2000

J. Liu, S. Pastoor, K. Seifert, J. Hurtienne, “3D PC: toward novel forms of human-computer interaction,” Proc. SPIE CR76, 250–281 (2000).

1999

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1072–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1988

1980

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1968

1908

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” Comptes-Rendus, 146, 446–451 (1908).

Arai, J.

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1072–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1598–1603 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arimoto, H.

Burckhardt, C. B.

Davies, N.

Hoshino, H.

Hurtienne, J.

J. Liu, S. Pastoor, K. Seifert, J. Hurtienne, “3D PC: toward novel forms of human-computer interaction,” Proc. SPIE CR76, 250–281 (2000).

Isono, H.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Jung, S.

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display using integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4660, San Jose, Calif., 146–154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195, San Jose, Calif. (2001).

Lee, B.

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, “Theoretical analysis for three-dimensional integral imaging systems with double devices,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4856–4865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display using integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, “Enhanced 3D color integral imaging using multiple display devices,” Proc. of IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting (San Diego, Calif., 2001), 491–492 (2001).

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4660, San Jose, Calif., 146–154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195, San Jose, Calif. (2001).

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” Comptes-Rendus, 146, 446–451 (1908).

Liu, J.

J. Liu, S. Pastoor, K. Seifert, J. Hurtienne, “3D PC: toward novel forms of human-computer interaction,” Proc. SPIE CR76, 250–281 (2000).

McCormick, M.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, L. Yang, “3D imaging systems: a new development,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4520–4528 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. McCormick, “Integral 3D image for broadcast,” Proc. of the Second International Display Workshop (ITE, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 77–80.

Min, S.-W.

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, “Theoretical analysis for three-dimensional integral imaging systems with double devices,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4856–4865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display using integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, “Enhanced 3D color integral imaging using multiple display devices,” Proc. of IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting (San Diego, Calif., 2001), 491–492 (2001).

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4660, San Jose, Calif., 146–154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195, San Jose, Calif. (2001).

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1971).

Park, J.-H.

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display using integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4660, San Jose, Calif., 146–154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195, San Jose, Calif. (2001).

Pastoor, S.

J. Liu, S. Pastoor, K. Seifert, J. Hurtienne, “3D PC: toward novel forms of human-computer interaction,” Proc. SPIE CR76, 250–281 (2000).

Seifert, K.

J. Liu, S. Pastoor, K. Seifert, J. Hurtienne, “3D PC: toward novel forms of human-computer interaction,” Proc. SPIE CR76, 250–281 (2000).

Yang, L.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt.

Comptes-Rendus

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” Comptes-Rendus, 146, 446–451 (1908).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1072–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Liu, S. Pastoor, K. Seifert, J. Hurtienne, “3D PC: toward novel forms of human-computer interaction,” Proc. SPIE CR76, 250–281 (2000).

Other

B. Javidi, F. Okano, eds., Three Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, Berlin, 2002).

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4660, San Jose, Calif., 146–154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, “Enhanced 3D color integral imaging using multiple display devices,” Proc. of IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting (San Diego, Calif., 2001), 491–492 (2001).

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference Photonics West, Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195, San Jose, Calif. (2001).

M. McCormick, “Integral 3D image for broadcast,” Proc. of the Second International Display Workshop (ITE, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 77–80.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1971).

H. J. Caulfield, ed., Handbook of Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1979).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The integral imaging (II) system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single integral imaging system: images of S located at 20 mm, N located at 30 mm, U located at 40 mm, U located at 50 mm, C located at 60 mm, O located at 70 mm, N located at 80 mm, and N located at 90 mm in front of the lens array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D images displayed by a single-integral imaging system: (a) focused on 1st S, (b) focused on 4th U, (c) focused on 8th N, (d) captured using the long working-distance camera.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Enhanced integral imaging (II) system with a double-display device.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D images displayed by double-display device integral imaging system: (a) focused on 1st S, (b) focused on 4th U, (c) focused on 8th N, (d) captured with the long working-distance camera.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometry for ray analysis of integral imaging.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Simulation result with a single-display device integral imaging system, (b) simulation result with a double-display device integral imaging system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation for several lens arrays: (a) When the size of the elemental lens is 0.4 mm, (b) when the size of the elemental lens is 1 mm, (c) when the size of the elemental lens is 2 mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The viewing angle and parallax of the reconstructed images.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Enhanced integral-imaging system for a wide viewing angle, (b) image of U in the right edge obtained by system 1 (without system 2), (c) image of U obtained by system 1 and system 2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Proposed setup with multiple display devices: (a) Real integral imaging, (b) virtual integral imaging, (c) real integral imaging, (d) virtual integral imaging.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S=bϕL,
hξ, η; u, v=hξ-ũ, η-v˜ =1λ2gL-b-- Px, y×expj πλ1g+1L-b-1f×x2+y2exp-j 2πλL-b×ξ-ũx+η-v˜ydxdy,
ũ=Mu, v˜=Mv,
M=-L-bg,
IPξ, η=-- |hξ-ũ, η-v˜|2IEũ, v˜dũdv˜,
IPξ, ηexp-4.08 ϕ2L2λ2L2L-b2+b2ϕ4ξ2+η2,
S=0.82λ2L2L-b2+b2ϕ41/2ϕL.
S=0.82bϕL.
ψ=2 arctanϕ2g.
ψ=2 arctanϕL-f2fL.

Metrics