Abstract

An improvement of Fourier synthesis optics for hard x-ray imaging is described, and the basic performance of the new optics is confirmed through numerical simulations. The original concept of the Fourier synthesis imager utilizes nonposition-sensitive hard x-ray detectors coupled to individual bigrid modulation collimators. The improved concept employs a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (such as a CdTe strip detector) instead of the second grid layer of each bigrid modulation collimator. This improves the imaging performance in several respects over the original design. One performance improvement is a two-fold increase in the average transmission, from 1/4 to 1/2. The second merit is that both the sine and cosine components can be derived from a single grid-detector module, and hence the number of imaging modules can be halved. Furthermore, it provides information along the depth direction simultaneously. This in turn enables a three-dimensional imaging hard x-ray microscope for medical diagnostics, incorporating radioactive tracers. A conceptual design of such a microscope is presented, designed to provide a field of view of 4 mm and a spatial resolution of 400 μm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. A. Nugent, “Coded aperture imaging: a Fourier space analysis,” Appl. Opt. 26, 563–569 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Makishima, S. Miyamoto, T. Murakami, J. Nishimura, M. Oda, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tawara, “Modulation collimator as an imaging device,” in New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. Van Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 277–289.
  3. A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, A. V. Rode, K. Gabel, M. C. Richardson, R. Strack, W. Siegmund, “X-ray focusing with lobster-eye optics: a comparison of theory with experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4420–4425 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “Lobster-Eye x-ray optics: a rapid evaluation of the image distribution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 632–642 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).
  7. Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).
  8. C. C. Gaither, E. J. Schmahl, C. J. Crannell, B. R. Dennis, F. L. Lang, L. E. Orwig, C. N. Hartman, G. J. Hurford, “Quantitative characterization of the x-ray imaging capability of rotating modulation collimators with laser light,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6714–6726 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Takahashi, S. Watanabe, “Recent progress on CdTe and CdZnTe detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48, 950–959 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).
  13. M. Oda, “High-resolution x-ray collimator with broad field of view for astronomical use,” Appl. Opt. 4, L143 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Oda, Tokyo Joho University, 1200-2 Wakaba-ku, Chiba, Chiba 265-8501, Japan (personal communication, 1995).

2001 (2)

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Takahashi, S. Watanabe, “Recent progress on CdTe and CdZnTe detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48, 950–959 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

1992 (2)

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

1991 (1)

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1968 (1)

H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Oda, “High-resolution x-ray collimator with broad field of view for astronomical use,” Appl. Opt. 4, L143 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Acton, L. W.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Barbier, L. M.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barthelmy, S. D.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, L. M.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, R. D.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Bradt, H.

H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bruner, M. E.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Crannell, C. J.

Culhane, J. L.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Dennis, B. R.

Dotani, T.

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, Y.

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

Gabel, K.

Gaither, C. C.

Garmire, G.

H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gehrels, N. A.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gostilo, V.

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gursky, H.

H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, C. N.

Hiei, E.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Hirayama, T.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Hudson, H. S.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Hurford, G. J.

Inda, M.

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, V.

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kai, K.

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kamae, T.

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

Kokubun, M.

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

Kostenko, S.

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, T.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Krizmanic, J. F.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurczynski, P.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lang, F. L.

Lemen, J. R.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Lisjutin, I.

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Loupilov, A.

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Makishima, K.

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Makishima, S. Miyamoto, T. Murakami, J. Nishimura, M. Oda, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tawara, “Modulation collimator as an imaging device,” in New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. Van Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 277–289.

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

Masuda, S.

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, K.

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

Miyamoto, S.

K. Makishima, S. Miyamoto, T. Murakami, J. Nishimura, M. Oda, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tawara, “Modulation collimator as an imaging device,” in New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. Van Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 277–289.

Murakami, T.

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Makishima, S. Miyamoto, T. Murakami, J. Nishimura, M. Oda, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tawara, “Modulation collimator as an imaging device,” in New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. Van Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 277–289.

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

Nakajima, H.

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, K.

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

Nenonen, S.

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, J.

K. Makishima, S. Miyamoto, T. Murakami, J. Nishimura, M. Oda, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tawara, “Modulation collimator as an imaging device,” in New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. Van Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 277–289.

Nugent, K. A.

Oda, M.

H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. Oda, “High-resolution x-ray collimator with broad field of view for astronomical use,” Appl. Opt. 4, L143 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. Oda, Tokyo Joho University, 1200-2 Wakaba-ku, Chiba, Chiba 265-8501, Japan (personal communication, 1995).

K. Makishima, S. Miyamoto, T. Murakami, J. Nishimura, M. Oda, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tawara, “Modulation collimator as an imaging device,” in New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. Van Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 277–289.

Ogawara, Y.

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Makishima, S. Miyamoto, T. Murakami, J. Nishimura, M. Oda, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tawara, “Modulation collimator as an imaging device,” in New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. Van Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 277–289.

Orwig, L. E.

Palmer, D. M.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, A. M.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A. G.

Richardson, M. C.

Rode, A. V.

Sakao, T.

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, E. J.

Siegmund, W.

Sipila, H.

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spada, G.

H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sreekantan, B. Y.

H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Stahle, C. M.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strack, R.

Strong, K. T.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, S. Watanabe, “Recent progress on CdTe and CdZnTe detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48, 950–959 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

Tashiro, M.

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

Tawara, Y.

K. Makishima, S. Miyamoto, T. Murakami, J. Nishimura, M. Oda, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tawara, “Modulation collimator as an imaging device,” in New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. Van Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 277–289.

Teegarden, B. J.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuneta, S.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Tueller, J.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, Y.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Valpas, K.

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

T. Takahashi, S. Watanabe, “Recent progress on CdTe and CdZnTe detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48, 950–959 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Yaji, K.

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

Yamaoka, K.

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

Yoshimori, M.

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

T. Takahashi, S. Watanabe, “Recent progress on CdTe and CdZnTe detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48, 950–959 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

V. Gostilo, V. Ivanov, S. Kostenko, I. Lisjutin, A. Loupilov, S. Nenonen, H. Sipila, K. Valpas, “Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. (2)

T. Kosugi, T. Sakao, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, K. Yaji, K. Matsushita, “The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard YOHKOH—Its performance and some initial results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L45–L49 (1992).

Y. Ogawara, L. W. Acton, R. D. Bentley, M. E. Bruner, J. L. Culhane, E. Hiei, T. Hirayama, H. S. Hudson, T. Kosugi, J. R. Lemen, K. T. Strong, S. Tsuneta, Y. Uchida, T. Watanabe, M. Yoshimori, “The status of YOHKOH in orbit—an introduction to the initial scientific results,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 44, L41–L44 (1992).

Sol. Phys. (1)

T. Kosugi, S. Masuda, K. Makishima, M. Inda, T. Murakami, T. Dotani, Y. Ogawara, T. Sakao, K. Kai, H. Nakajima, “The hard X-ray telescope (HXT) for the Solar-A mission,” Sol. Phys. 136, 17–36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

H. Bradt, G. Garmire, M. Oda, G. Spada, B. Y. Sreekantan, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky, “The Modulation Collimator in X-ray Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 8, 471 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Oda, Tokyo Joho University, 1200-2 Wakaba-ku, Chiba, Chiba 265-8501, Japan (personal communication, 1995).

K. Makishima, Y. Fukazawa, T. Kamae, M. Kokubun, T. Murakami, K. Nakazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, K. YamaokaThe HXD Team, “The HXD-II on Astro-E2: Another challenge to the hard x-ray sky,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.251: New Century of X-ray Astronomy564–565 (2001).

K. Makishima, S. Miyamoto, T. Murakami, J. Nishimura, M. Oda, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tawara, “Modulation collimator as an imaging device,” in New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. Van Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 277–289.

A. M. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, P. Kurczynski, L. M. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, N. A. Gehrels, J. F. Krizmanic, C. M. Stahle, J. Tueller, B. J. Teegarden, “Position resolution performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of a bigrid modulation collimator. The transmissivity of the grid pair changes according to the incidence angle of the x-rays.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional view of a bigrid modulation microscope. The pitches of the top and bottom grids are in a fixed proportion. The proportion is 1:2 (left) and 3:4 (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Basic configuration of a module of the microscope with one-dimensional detectors. The x-rays emitted from P 1 or P 2 pass through the modulation grid of length L and cast its shadow on the detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(left) Shadow cast on the detector by a grid with wave number k = 1, 3, 7, and 10, from top to bottom. (right) Fourier amplitudes of the left images.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(left) Reconstructed image when a point source at the center of the field of view is viewed by the Fourier-synthesis telescope described in Section 3. (right) Its azimuthally averaged point spread function.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reconstructed image of the characters “21”.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 5, but the Poisson noise is included. From top to bottom, (signal)/(background) = 50/50 (5.0 σ), 25/50 (2.9 σ), and 5/50 (0.67 σ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sampling on the uv plane. The conventional configuration (left) and an improved one (right).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reconstructed image of a Chinese character “shinobi” by use of the conventional sampling (left) and the improved sampling (right) on the uv plane. The bottom panel shows a source image.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reconstructed images when two point sources are viewed by the Fourier-synthesis microscope described in Section 5.B. One source is located on the optical axis at a distance of H = 10 cm, while the other is offset from the optical axis by ∼L/5 and placed at H = 20 cm. Panels (a) through (d) show the synthesized images by “adjusting” the focus at H = 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Changes of the peak height of the reconstructed source image for a point source at H = 10 cm, as the focus is changed in the process of reconstruction.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PgkLkk=1, 2,, N,
αHD
FH+DDL=1+αL
Δx=FN=1+αLN.
LmD+HH=Lm±1D+HH.
ΔH1+αHN.
Δx:ΔHL:H.
Wk=H+DH Pgk=1+1αLk.
Pd<WN2=1+1αPgN2=1+1αL2N.
Pd<Δx2α.
0.1 mmPd<Δx2α=0.2 mmα,

Metrics