Holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) is presently the only method that can measure at high resolution all three components of the velocity in a finite volume. In systems that are based on recording one hologram, velocity components parallel to the hologram can be measured throughout the sample volume, but elongation of the particle traces in the depth direction severely limits the accuracy of the velocity component that is perpendicular to the hologram. Previous studies overcame this limitation by simultaneously recording two orthogonal holograms, which inherently required four windows and two recording systems. This paper introduces a technique that maintains the advantages of recording two orthogonal views, but requires only one window and one recording system. Furthermore, it enables a quadruple increase in the spatial resolution. This method is based on placing a mirror in the test section that reflects the object beam at an angle of 45°. Particles located in the volume in which the incident and reflected beams from the mirror overlap are illuminated twice in perpendicular directions. Both views are recorded on the same hologram. Off-axis holography with conjugate reconstruction and high-pass filtering is used for recording and analyzing the holograms. Calibration tests show that two views reduce the uncertainty in the three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of the particle centroids to within a few microns. The velocity is still determined plane-by-plane by use of two-dimensional particle image velocimetry procedures, but the images are filtered to trim the elongated traces based on the 3-D location of the particle. Consequently, the spatial resolution is quadrupled. Sample data containing more than 200 particles/mm3 are used for calculating the 3-D velocity distributions with interrogation volumes of 220 × 154 × 250 μm, and vector spacing of 110 × 77 × 250 μm. Uncertainty in velocity is addressed by examining how well the data satisfies the continuity equation. The results show significant improvements compared with previous procedures. Limitations of the technique are also discussed.
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