Abstract

We propose and demonstrate what is to our knowledge a novel technique of improving the spatial resolution of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system given a non-Gaussian light source spectrum. By using dispersive materials in the reference arm of the OCT system, the resultant dispersion variation led to a full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the interference fringe envelope smaller than the Fourier transform-limited value of a Gaussian spectral shape with the same spectral FWHM, at the expense of significant tails. The effects of the tails, which would blur the OCT images, were tremendously reduced with a retrieval algorithm. Simulation results and processed OCT scanning images have shown the capability of the proposed technique.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Pan, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1966–1968 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1355–1357 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1221–1223 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Kowalevicz, T. Ko, I. Hartl, J. G. Fujimoto, M. Pollnau, R. P. Salathé, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography using a superluminescent light source,” Opt. Express 10, 349–353 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, “Engineering and laboratory notes—Signal processing for improving field cross-correlation function in optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8137–8138 (1998).
  12. R. Tripathi, N. Nassif, J. S. Nelson, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, “Spectral shaping for non-Gaussian source spectra in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 406–408 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2975–2979 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 154, 179–185 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “Real-time, high velocity-resolution color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 34–36 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 98–100 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (4)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 154, 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, “Engineering and laboratory notes—Signal processing for improving field cross-correlation function in optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8137–8138 (1998).

1997 (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2975–2979 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkansky, M.

Baumgartner, A.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 154, 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Boisrobert, C. Y.

Boppart, S. A.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chudoba, C.

Danielson, B. L.

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, Z.

Drexler, W.

Duncan, M. D.

Fedder, G. K.

Fercher, A. F.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 154, 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fugimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Ghanta, R. K.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 154, 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “Real-time, high velocity-resolution color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 34–36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Ko, T.

Ko, T. H.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Kulkarni, M. D.

M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Pan, Y.

Park, B. H.

Pitris, C.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollnau, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

Reintjes, J.

Ren, H.

Rollins, A. M.

Russel, P. St. J.

Salathé, R. P.

Saxer, C. E.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, C. W.

M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, R.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Westphal, V.

Windeler, R. S.

Xie, H.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 154, 179–185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (9)

Y. Pan, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1966–1968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “Real-time, high velocity-resolution color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 34–36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Tripathi, N. Nassif, J. S. Nelson, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, “Spectral shaping for non-Gaussian source spectra in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 406–408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1355–1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fugimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A non-Gaussian spectrum (dashed curve) and a Gaussian spectrum (dotted curve) with the same FWHM; (b) the resultant interference fringe envelopes of the non-Gaussian (dashed curve) and Gaussian (dotted curve) cases. The solid curve depicts the result when a dispersion mismatch is included.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the free-space OCT system: BS, beam splitter; L1 and L2, lenses; RM, reflection mirror; BP filter, bandpass filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of the laser used for the OCT system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference fringe patterns of the OCT system in the cases: (a) without dispersion compensation, (b) and (c) with dispersion manipulation when four and eight glass slides are used, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Flow chart of the retrieval algorithm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation results of scanning a phantom structure: (a) assumed backscattered intensity distribution or phantom structure, (b) assumed interference fringe envelope, (c) measured intensity distribution of an OCT system with the interference fringe envelope function shown in (b), and (d) retrieved phantom structure after 100 iterations of the proposed algorithm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

One-dimensional backwardscattered intensity distribution of the OCT image of a glass slide before processing (dashed curve) and after processing (solid curve).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OCT images of onion cells of the cases: (a) before processing and (b) after processing.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δz=2 ln2πλ2Δλ.
Sω=S0 exp-ω-ω02Δω2.
Et=12π- Sωexpjφωexpjωtdω,=S0Δω2πexp-Δω2t24expjω0t.
Γτ=- E1tE2*t+τdt=S02Δω22πexp-Δω2τ28exp-jω0τ.
Δφω=aω2+bω,
Γτ=- E1tE2*t+τdt,=12π- |Sω|2 expjΔφωexp-jωτdω,=S02Δω2π2-jΔω2a1/2expα,
α=-Δω2τ-b+4jω024Δω22-jΔω2a-2ω02Δω2.
|Sω|2=2 exp-ω-ω02Δω12+exp-ω-ω06Δω26.
|Sω|2=exp-ω-ω02Δω32,
Iz=zizf Izfz-zdz.
Ii=j=1N Ijfi-jΔz,
ri=j=1NIjfi-jIi.

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