Abstract

We report on the development of an optical-fiber-based diagnostic tool that is sensitive to single-scattering events close to the fiber-optic probe tip. By using a single fiber to deliver and detect white light we optimized the detection probability of singly scattered photons from small depths. The sampling depth of this delivery-and-collection fiber was investigated by use of a tissue phantom. We found that for our phantom 90% of the single-scattering signal in the delivery-and-collection fiber originated from less than 200 μm from the fiber tip. The contribution of multiply scattered light from a greater depth to the signal was measured with an additional collection fiber. Several tissue phantoms demonstrated our fiber-optic probe’s sensitivity to light scattering from superficial layers of tissue and thereby its potential to detect superficial precancerous epithelial lesions.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Naruke, R. Tsuchiya, H. Kondo, H. Asamura, H. Nakayama, “Implications of staging in lung cancer,” Chest 112, 242S–248S (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. J. Venmans, T. J. van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Outcome of bronchial carcinoma in situ,” Chest 117, 1572–1576 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, S. L. Robbins, Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).
  4. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  9. M. Canpolat, J. R. Mourant, “Particle size analysis of turbid media with a single optical fiber in contact with the medium to deliver and detect white light,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3792–3799 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4507–4514 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Canpolat, J. R. Mourant, “Particle size analysis of turbid media with a single optical fiber in contact with the medium to deliver and detect white light,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3792–3799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. J. Venmans, T. J. van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Outcome of bronchial carcinoma in situ,” Chest 117, 1572–1576 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Naruke, R. Tsuchiya, H. Kondo, H. Asamura, H. Nakayama, “Implications of staging in lung cancer,” Chest 112, 242S–248S (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aida, T.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asamura, H.

T. Naruke, R. Tsuchiya, H. Kondo, H. Asamura, H. Nakayama, “Implications of staging in lung cancer,” Chest 112, 242S–248S (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Canpolat, M.

Carpenter, S.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cotran, R. S.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, S. L. Robbins, Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

Crawford, J. M.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crum, C. P.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, A.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, H.

T. Naruke, R. Tsuchiya, H. Kondo, H. Asamura, H. Nakayama, “Implications of staging in lung cancer,” Chest 112, 242S–248S (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, V.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, S. L. Robbins, Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moes, C. J. M.

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Canpolat, J. R. Mourant, “Particle size analysis of turbid media with a single optical fiber in contact with the medium to deliver and detect white light,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3792–3799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M. G.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, H.

T. Naruke, R. Tsuchiya, H. Kondo, H. Asamura, H. Nakayama, “Implications of staging in lung cancer,” Chest 112, 242S–248S (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naruke, T.

T. Naruke, R. Tsuchiya, H. Kondo, H. Asamura, H. Nakayama, “Implications of staging in lung cancer,” Chest 112, 242S–248S (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Postmus, P. E.

B. J. Venmans, T. J. van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Outcome of bronchial carcinoma in situ,” Chest 117, 1572–1576 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, S. L.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, S. L. Robbins, Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

Seiler, M.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheets, E. E.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shields, S. J.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, E. F.

B. J. Venmans, T. J. van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Outcome of bronchial carcinoma in situ,” Chest 117, 1572–1576 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutedja, T. G.

B. J. Venmans, T. J. van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Outcome of bronchial carcinoma in situ,” Chest 117, 1572–1576 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuchiya, R.

T. Naruke, R. Tsuchiya, H. Kondo, H. Asamura, H. Nakayama, “Implications of staging in lung cancer,” Chest 112, 242S–248S (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Boxem, T. J.

B. J. Venmans, T. J. van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Outcome of bronchial carcinoma in situ,” Chest 117, 1572–1576 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

van Gemert, M. J. C.

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van Marle, J.

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van Staveren, H. J.

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Venmans, B. J.

B. J. Venmans, T. J. van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Outcome of bronchial carcinoma in situ,” Chest 117, 1572–1576 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zonios, G.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

M. Canpolat, J. R. Mourant, “Particle size analysis of turbid media with a single optical fiber in contact with the medium to deliver and detect white light,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3792–3799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chest

T. Naruke, R. Tsuchiya, H. Kondo, H. Asamura, H. Nakayama, “Implications of staging in lung cancer,” Chest 112, 242S–248S (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Venmans, T. J. van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Outcome of bronchial carcinoma in situ,” Chest 117, 1572–1576 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119, 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, S. L. Robbins, Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Signals I dc (from the delivery-and-collection fiber, solid curve) and J col (from the collection fiber, dashed curve) with the probe placed in a container with an aqueous suspension of 9.4-μm polystyrene spheres. (b) The same signals plotted versus wave number. (c) The power spectrum from (b) with the horizontal axis calculated according to the refractive-index specifications of the supplier (n = 1.6).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Delivery-and-collection fiber signals I dc for suspensions of (a) 4.5-μm polystyrene spheres, (b) 9.4-μm polystyrene spheres, and (c) a mixture of 9.4- and 4.5-μm polystyrene spheres in equal amounts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power spectra of the delivery-and-collection fiber signals I dc for suspensions of (a) 4.5-μm polystyrene spheres, (b) 9.4-μm polystyrene spheres, and (c) a mixture of 9.4- and 4.5-μm polystyrene spheres in equal amounts.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Area under the FTSSS peak for both signals I dc (filled circles) and J col (open squares) for various distances of the probe tip from the bottom of the container, plotted on a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Power spectrum of the signals I dc (filled circles, solid curve) and J col (open squares, dotted curve) for a two-layer phantom (bottom layer: suspension of 9.4-μm particles, top layer: suspension of 4.5-μm particles) with the probe at a large distance (>1 mm) from the bottom layer. (b) Power spectrum of the signals I dc and J col for the same two-layer phantom with the probe at a small distance (<150 μm) from the bottom layer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Signals I dc (solid curve), J col (dashed curve) and the resulting shallow single-scattering coefficient Rssshal (dotted curve) for a two-layer phantom (bottom layer: Intralipid-20% and Evans Blue, top layer: water). (b) Signals I dc and J col and the resulting superficial single-scattering coefficient Rssshal for the same two-layer phantom with 4.5-μm polystyrene spheres added to the top layer.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=Rn+Rssshal+Rssdeep+RmsTmasterL,
J=Rms+RssdeepTslaveL,
In=RnTmasterL.
JWS2=cTslaveL.
IWS2-In=cTmasterL,
Rms+Rssdeep=c JJWS2, Rssshal+Rssdeep+Rms=c I-InIWS2-In.
Rssshal=cI-InIWS2-In-JJWS2=cIdc-Jcol,

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