Abstract

X-ray backlighting and microscopy systems for the 1–10-keV range based on spherically or toroidally bent crystals are discussed. These systems are ideal for use on the Sandia Z machine, a megajoule-class x-ray facility. Near-normal-incidence crystal microscopy systems have been shown to be more efficient than pinhole cameras with the same spatial resolution and magnification [Appl. Opt. 37, 1784 (1998)]. We show that high-resolution (≤10 μm) x-ray backlighting systems using bent crystals can be more efficient than analogous point-projection imaging systems. Examples of bent-crystal-backlighting results that demonstrate 10-μm resolution over a 20-mm field of view are presented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (3)

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, O. L. Landen, R. F. Adams, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, C. Wakefield, “X-ray imaging techniques on Z using the Z-Beamlet laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 657–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, C. Pawley, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, “X-ray crystal imagers for inertial confinement fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 530–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, T. W. Barbee, P. Celliers, L. B. DaSilva, S. G. Glendinning, B. A. Hammel, D. H. Kalantar, C. Brown, J. Seely, G. R. Bennett, W. Hsing, “High-energy x-ray microscopy techniques for laser-fusion plasma research at the National Ignition Facility,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1784–1795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, J. Sethian, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, G. Holland, “High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5253–5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “High-luminosity monochromatic x-ray backlighting using an incoherent plasma source to study extremely dense plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740–744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, D. A. Hammer, D. F. Acton, “Monochromatic x-ray backlighting for application to PBFA-Z,” AIP Conf. Proc. 409, 523–526 (1997).

1995 (2)

I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “Monochromatic x-ray probing of an ultradense plasma,” JETP Lett. 61, 638–644 (1995).

1991 (1)

E. Foerster, K. Gaebel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

1932 (1)

V. L. Hamos, “Roentgenspektroskopie und Abbildung mittels gekruemmter Kristallreflektoren,” Naturwissenschaften 20, 705–706 (1932).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

H. H. Johann, “Die Erzeugung lichtstarker Roentgenspektren mit Hilfe von Konkavkristallen,” Z. Phys. 69, 185–206 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Acton, D. F.

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, D. A. Hammer, D. F. Acton, “Monochromatic x-ray backlighting for application to PBFA-Z,” AIP Conf. Proc. 409, 523–526 (1997).

Adams, R. F.

G. R. Bennett, O. L. Landen, R. F. Adams, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, C. Wakefield, “X-ray imaging techniques on Z using the Z-Beamlet laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 657–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adams, R. G.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aglitskiy, Y.

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, C. Pawley, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, “X-ray crystal imagers for inertial confinement fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 530–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, J. Sethian, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, G. Holland, “High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5253–5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aragorn, R. A.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Azechi, H.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Back, C. A.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, J. E.

J. E. Bailey, Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque N.Mex. 87185 (personal communication).

Barbee, T. W.

Bennett, G. R.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, O. L. Landen, R. F. Adams, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, C. Wakefield, “X-ray imaging techniques on Z using the Z-Beamlet laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 657–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, T. W. Barbee, P. Celliers, L. B. DaSilva, S. G. Glendinning, B. A. Hammel, D. H. Kalantar, C. Brown, J. Seely, G. R. Bennett, W. Hsing, “High-energy x-ray microscopy techniques for laser-fusion plasma research at the National Ignition Facility,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1784–1795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bodner, S.

Breeze, S. F.

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Breeze, S. P.

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C.

Brown, C. M.

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, C. Pawley, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, “X-ray crystal imagers for inertial confinement fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 530–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, J. Sethian, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, G. Holland, “High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5253–5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Butzbach, R.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, K. Fujita, I. Niki, R. Butzbach, H. Nishimura, J. Funakura, M. Nakai, E. Foerster, K. Mima, “Time-resolved ten-channel monochromatic imaging of inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5865–5871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Celliers, P.

Chandler, G. A.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cocoran, P.

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Cuneo, M. E.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DaSilva, L. B.

Davis, J.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Decker, C.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deeney, C.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Delettrez, J.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Derzon, M. S.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dittmore, C. H.

Douglas, M. R.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Dyakin, V. A.

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “High-luminosity monochromatic x-ray backlighting using an incoherent plasma source to study extremely dense plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740–744 (1997).
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S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “Monochromatic x-ray probing of an ultradense plasma,” JETP Lett. 61, 638–644 (1995).

Faenov, A.

A. Faenov, VNIIFTRI Institute, Moscow Region, 141570, Russia, and S. Pikuz, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 117924, Russia (personal communication, 2002).

Faenov, A. Y.

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
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S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “High-luminosity monochromatic x-ray backlighting using an incoherent plasma source to study extremely dense plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740–744 (1997).
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S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “Monochromatic x-ray probing of an ultradense plasma,” JETP Lett. 61, 638–644 (1995).

Fehl, D. L.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, U.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, J. Sethian, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, G. Holland, “High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5253–5261 (1998).
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Foerster, E.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
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I. Uschmann, K. Fujita, I. Niki, R. Butzbach, H. Nishimura, J. Funakura, M. Nakai, E. Foerster, K. Mima, “Time-resolved ten-channel monochromatic imaging of inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5865–5871 (2000).
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G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Foerster, K. Gaebel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, K. Fujita, I. Niki, R. Butzbach, H. Nishimura, J. Funakura, M. Nakai, E. Foerster, K. Mima, “Time-resolved ten-channel monochromatic imaging of inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5865–5871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, F. G.

Funakura, J.

Gaebel, K.

E. Foerster, K. Gaebel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, K.

Gilliland, T. L.

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glendinning, S. G.

Golovkin, I.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. M.

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grun, J.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hammel, B. A.

Hammer, D. A.

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “High-luminosity monochromatic x-ray backlighting using an incoherent plasma source to study extremely dense plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740–744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, D. A. Hammer, D. F. Acton, “Monochromatic x-ray backlighting for application to PBFA-Z,” AIP Conf. Proc. 409, 523–526 (1997).

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “Monochromatic x-ray probing of an ultradense plasma,” JETP Lett. 61, 638–644 (1995).

Hammer, J. H.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
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Hamos, V. L.

V. L. Hamos, “Roentgenspektroskopie und Abbildung mittels gekruemmter Kristallreflektoren,” Naturwissenschaften 20, 705–706 (1932).
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Hanson, D. L.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

Hebron, D. E.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heinisch, J.

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

Hoelzer, G.

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G.

Hsing, W.

Hsing, W. W.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, M. J.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Idzorek, G. C.

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jobe, D. O.

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Johann, H. H.

H. H. Johann, “Die Erzeugung lichtstarker Roentgenspektren mit Hilfe von Konkavkristallen,” Z. Phys. 69, 185–206 (1931).
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Kalantar, D. H.

Kato, Y.

I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kita, T.

Klein, L.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J. A.

Laming, J. M.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Landen, O. L.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
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G. R. Bennett, O. L. Landen, R. F. Adams, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, C. Wakefield, “X-ray imaging techniques on Z using the Z-Beamlet laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 657–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, T. W. Barbee, P. Celliers, L. B. DaSilva, S. G. Glendinning, B. A. Hammel, D. H. Kalantar, C. Brown, J. Seely, G. R. Bennett, W. Hsing, “High-energy x-ray microscopy techniques for laser-fusion plasma research at the National Ignition Facility,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1784–1795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. W.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leeper, R. J.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lehecka, T.

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, C. Pawley, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, “X-ray crystal imagers for inertial confinement fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 530–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, J. Sethian, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, G. Holland, “High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5253–5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Long, F.

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Louis, S.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, R.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T. H.

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Matzen, M. K.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

McDaniel, D. H.

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

McGurn, J. S.

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

McKenney, J. L.

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. C.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

Miyanaga, N.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mock, R. C.

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mostrom, M.

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Nakai, M.

Nakai, S.

I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nash, T. J.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Niki, I.

Nishimura, H.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, K. Fujita, I. Niki, R. Butzbach, H. Nishimura, J. Funakura, M. Nakai, E. Foerster, K. Mima, “Time-resolved ten-channel monochromatic imaging of inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5865–5871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Obenschain, S.

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, C. Pawley, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, “X-ray crystal imagers for inertial confinement fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 530–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, J. Sethian, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, G. Holland, “High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5253–5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ochi, Y.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olson, R. E.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, M. A.

Pawley, C.

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, C. Pawley, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, “X-ray crystal imagers for inertial confinement fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 530–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, J. Sethian, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, G. Holland, “High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5253–5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, D. L.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Pikuz, S. A.

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, D. A. Hammer, D. F. Acton, “Monochromatic x-ray backlighting for application to PBFA-Z,” AIP Conf. Proc. 409, 523–526 (1997).

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “High-luminosity monochromatic x-ray backlighting using an incoherent plasma source to study extremely dense plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740–744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “Monochromatic x-ray probing of an ultradense plasma,” JETP Lett. 61, 638–644 (1995).

Pikuz, T. A.

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “High-luminosity monochromatic x-ray backlighting using an incoherent plasma source to study extremely dense plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740–744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “Monochromatic x-ray probing of an ultradense plasma,” JETP Lett. 61, 638–644 (1995).

Porter, J. L.

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, O. L. Landen, R. F. Adams, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, C. Wakefield, “X-ray imaging techniques on Z using the Z-Beamlet laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 657–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

D. C. Rovang, W. W. Simpson, L. E. Ruggles, J. L. Porter, “An electromagnetic fast shutter system for debris mitigation on Z,” in Digest of Technical Papers, 13th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, 17–22 June 2001, Las Vegas, Nev. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, New York, 2001), p. 274.

Rambo, P.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Romanova, V. M.

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “High-luminosity monochromatic x-ray backlighting using an incoherent plasma source to study extremely dense plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740–744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “Monochromatic x-ray probing of an ultradense plasma,” JETP Lett. 61, 638–644 (1995).

Rovang, D. C.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Rovang, W. W. Simpson, L. E. Ruggles, J. L. Porter, “An electromagnetic fast shutter system for debris mitigation on Z,” in Digest of Technical Papers, 13th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, 17–22 June 2001, Las Vegas, Nev. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, New York, 2001), p. 274.

Ruggles, L. E.

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, O. L. Landen, R. F. Adams, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, C. Wakefield, “X-ray imaging techniques on Z using the Z-Beamlet laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 657–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Rovang, W. W. Simpson, L. E. Ruggles, J. L. Porter, “An electromagnetic fast shutter system for debris mitigation on Z,” in Digest of Technical Papers, 13th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, 17–22 June 2001, Las Vegas, Nev. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, New York, 2001), p. 274.

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Sanford, T. W. L.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Seamen, J. F.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Seamen, J. J.

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J.

Sethian, J.

Shelkovenko, T. A.

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “High-luminosity monochromatic x-ray backlighting using an incoherent plasma source to study extremely dense plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740–744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, D. A. Hammer, D. F. Acton, “Monochromatic x-ray backlighting for application to PBFA-Z,” AIP Conf. Proc. 409, 523–526 (1997).

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “Monochromatic x-ray probing of an ultradense plasma,” JETP Lett. 61, 638–644 (1995).

Shirga, H.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shoup, R. W.

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Simpson, W. W.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, O. L. Landen, R. F. Adams, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, C. Wakefield, “X-ray imaging techniques on Z using the Z-Beamlet laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 657–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Rovang, W. W. Simpson, L. E. Ruggles, J. L. Porter, “An electromagnetic fast shutter system for debris mitigation on Z,” in Digest of Technical Papers, 13th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, 17–22 June 2001, Las Vegas, Nev. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, New York, 2001), p. 274.

Sinars, D. B.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, I.

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Smith, I. C.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Speas, S. C.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spielman, R. B.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Stone, G. F.

Struve, K. W.

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Stygar, W. A.

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Suter, L. J.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tester, M. A.

Torres, J. A.

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

Uejio, J. Y.

Uschmann, I.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, K. Fujita, I. Niki, R. Butzbach, H. Nishimura, J. Funakura, M. Nakai, E. Foerster, K. Mima, “Time-resolved ten-channel monochromatic imaging of inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5865–5871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Foerster, K. Gaebel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vargas, M.

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vesey, R. A.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagoner, T.

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wakefield, C.

G. R. Bennett, O. L. Landen, R. F. Adams, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, C. Wakefield, “X-ray imaging techniques on Z using the Z-Beamlet laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 657–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, R.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wehrhan, O.

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, D. F.

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wuest, C.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zagar, D. M.

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, D. A. Hammer, D. F. Acton, “Monochromatic x-ray backlighting for application to PBFA-Z,” AIP Conf. Proc. 409, 523–526 (1997).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

JETP Lett. (1)

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “Monochromatic x-ray probing of an ultradense plasma,” JETP Lett. 61, 638–644 (1995).

Laser Part. Beams (1)

E. Foerster, K. Gaebel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Naturwissenschaften (1)

V. L. Hamos, “Roentgenspektroskopie und Abbildung mittels gekruemmter Kristallreflektoren,” Naturwissenschaften 20, 705–706 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

R. B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G. A. Chandler, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, S. P. Breeze, J. S. McGurn, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, T. L. Gilliland, D. O. Jobe, J. L. McKenney, R. C. Mock, M. Vargas, T. Wagoner, D. L. Peterson, “Tungsten wire-array z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, S. Louis, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, H. Nishimura, H. Shirga, N. Miyanaga, H. Azechi, R. Butzbach, I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, J. Delettrez, J. Koch, R. W. Lee, L. Klein, “Spectroscopic determination of dynamic plasma gradients in implosion cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045002-1–045002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, R. G. Adams, R. A. Aragorn, J. H. Hammer, D. L. Hanson, M. J. Hurst, P. Rambo, D. C. Rovang, L. E. Ruggles, I. C. Smith, W. W. Simpson, D. B. Sinars, S. C. Speas, D. F. Wenger, “Symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in a double-z-pinch-driven Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 245002-1–245002-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double z-pinch Hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004-1–215004-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003-1–275003-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

G. Hoelzer, O. Wehrhan, J. Heinisch, E. Foerster, T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, T. A. Shelkovenko, “Flat and spherically bent muscovite (mica) crystals for x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 57, 301–309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion (1)

M. K. Matzen, C. Deeney, R. J. Leeper, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, G. A. Chandler, M. S. Derzon, M. R. Douglas, D. L. Fehl, D. E. Hebron, T. J. Nash, R. E. Olson, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, D. L. Peterson, “Fast z-pinches as dense plasma, intense x-ray sources for plasma physics and fusion applications,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A175–A184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

I. Uschmann, E. Foerster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Bennett, O. L. Landen, R. F. Adams, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, C. Wakefield, “X-ray imaging techniques on Z using the Z-Beamlet laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 657–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pikuz, T. A. Shelkovenko, V. M. Romanova, D. A. Hammer, A. Y. Faenov, V. A. Dyakin, T. A. Pikuz, “High-luminosity monochromatic x-ray backlighting using an incoherent plasma source to study extremely dense plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740–744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, S. Obenschain, C. Pawley, C. M. Brown, J. Seely, “X-ray crystal imagers for inertial confinement fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 530–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

H. H. Johann, “Die Erzeugung lichtstarker Roentgenspektren mit Hilfe von Konkavkristallen,” Z. Phys. 69, 185–206 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. B. Spielman, S. F. Breeze, C. Deeney, M. R. Douglas, F. Long, T. H. Martin, M. K. Matzen, D. H. McDaniel, J. S. McGurn, T. J. Nash, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, T. W. L. Sanford, J. F. Seamen, W. A. Stygar, J. A. Torres, D. M. Zagar, D. O. Jobe, D. L. Peterson, R. W. Shoup, K. W. Struve, M. Mostrom, P. Cocoran, I. Smith, “PBFA-Z: a 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Prague, Czech Republic 1996, K. Jungwirth, J. Ullschmied, eds. (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1996) Vol. 1, pp. 150–153 (1996).

A. Faenov, VNIIFTRI Institute, Moscow Region, 141570, Russia, and S. Pikuz, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 117924, Russia (personal communication, 2002).

J. A. Koch, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94551 (personal communication).

ZEMAX Optical Design Program, Focus Software Inc., P.O. Box 18228, Tucson, AZ, 85731.

D. C. Rovang, W. W. Simpson, L. E. Ruggles, J. L. Porter, “An electromagnetic fast shutter system for debris mitigation on Z,” in Digest of Technical Papers, 13th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, 17–22 June 2001, Las Vegas, Nev. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, New York, 2001), p. 274.

J. E. Bailey, Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque N.Mex. 87185 (personal communication).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram depicting a generic pinhole-camera system. (b) Schematic diagram depicting a generic x-ray microscopy system using a spherically or toroidally bent crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram depicting a generic point-projection backlighting system. (b) Schematic diagram depicting the meridional plane of a generic x-ray backlighting system using a spherically or toroidally bent crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustrating how the size of the x-ray source in a bent-crystal backlighting scheme can limit the spectral bandpass of the system to less than the width of the line used for imaging. If the x-ray source is on the Rowland circle, its width (Δx) determines the spectral bandpass used for imaging (Δλ1). Moving the source off the Rowland circle can effectively increase the spectral bandpass of the system as shown to Δλ2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross section of the Z machine, showing the final stages of the pulsed-power feeds that deliver current to the wire-array load. The machine is cylindrically symmetric about the marked centerline. The blast shield used to confine debris is also shown. The pulsed-power hardware restricts the area available for diagnostics in the horizontal plane to a 125-cm radius. As a result, most diagnostics are mounted in one of nine viewing lines of sight (LOS) located at a 12° angle. (b) Expanded cross-section view of the region near the wire array, showing the return-current canister, the power feeds, and the location of 20- and 12-mm-diameter wire arrays. The example shown is a raised load, placing the mid-height of the wire array at the height of the backlighter detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Backlit image of a 33.5-μm-wide Ni mesh captured on Kodak RAR 2497 film. The 1.865-keV crystal backlighter listed in Table 1 was used with an x-ray source size of 800 μm. (b) Film-density lineout across a single piece of the mesh indicates a spatial resolution of about 10 μm. This spatial resolution was obtained across the entire 20 mm by 4.3 mm FOV of the backlighter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

By use of the ZEMAX ray-tracing program,22 the FOV for the Si Heα system was estimated. The circles inside the canister indicate the positions of 20- and 12-mm-diameter arrays. Note that if the return-current canister was not present, almost the entire 20-mm wire array could be viewed simultaneously.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Three-dimensional view of the hardware for the Si Heα backlighting system. A CCD camera is used to align the focal spot of the laser beam to a target foil (not shown) mounted on the sloped face of the W shielding block. For reference, the 250-mm-diameter Rowland circle is shown superimposed on the hardware. (b) Second view of the hardware, showing the detector system. The crystal focuses the source x rays through an aperture in one of two W shielding blocks. The second block is used to eliminate the direct line of sight between the return-current canister and the aperture. A fast-closing shutter is mounted in the detector housing to prevent particulate debris from reaching the film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Backlit image of a 20-mm-diameter, 10-mm-tall, 300-wire array on the Sandia Z machine. The dark regions correspond to x-ray transmission. The image was taken at 83% of the total implosion time of the array, when ∼5 MA of current was passing through the array. The wires in the array are still at a radius of 10 mm at this time. (b) Expanded view of the tangential edge of the wire array. (c) Expanded view of the central FOV of the array. Since the focal position of the crystal backlighter is a plane passing through r = 0, the wires in this FOV are approximately ±10 mm out of focus and thus have different magnifications. The top of the wire array is rotated 1.6° clockwise with respect to the bottom, creating the angle between the near and far wires. (d) Vertical film-density lineout over the visible axial structure at the edge of the wire array, revealing an azimuthally correlated instability with a period of ∼70 μm. (e) Horizontal film-density lineout across selected wires indicates that the wires have expanded from their initial 7.4-μm diameter.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Several X-Ray Backlighting Systemsa Relevant to Sandia’s Z Machine and the Z-Beamlet Laser

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Results for Point-Projection Backlighting Systems with Parameters Comparable to the Bent-Crystal Backlighting Systems Presented in Table 1

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Selected X-Ray Microscopy Systems Relevant to Sandia’s Z Machinea

Tables Icon

Table 4 Calculated Results for Pinhole-Camera Systems at Four Selected Wavelengthsa

Tables Icon

Table 5 Summary of Numerical Ray-Tracing Simulations of the Si Heα Backlighter from Table 1 a

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nλ=2d sin θ,
IB0=ηΩM2,
Ω=π/4D2p2.
σ2σgeom2+σdiff2=M+1DM2+2.44λpD2,
pmax=Mσ24.88λM+1.
FOV=2pDs,
Rm sin θ>p>Rm2sin θ,
1p+1qm=2Rm sin θ,
1p+1qs=2 sin θRs,
Mm=q-R sin θR sin θ-p,
Ms=qp.
p=R sin θM+12M.
σ=LsM+11-sin2 θM.
FOV=2pΔλλtan θ.
Ω=π/4Δx2p2,
σ=ΔxM-1M.
y=R sin θ-p.
Ω=π/4Δx2y2,
L=Δxpy.
FOV=Lcrystalyp+y,
ηD2Δx2,
η=RintΔλline/λtan θ,
L<Lline=Δλline/λRp tan θR sin θ-p,
ηline=LLline=Δλ/λΔλline/λ,
η=RintηlineΔλline/λtan θ.
ΔλλΔxR tan θ.
η=RintΔλline/λ2 tan2 θΔxR.
IB0=RintΔλline/λ2 tan2 θπ/4Δx3p+yy2M2.

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