Abstract

An ion-beam deposition system has been used to fabricate Mo-Si multilayer coatings for masks and imaging optics to be used for extreme-ultraviolet lithography. In addition to high reflectivity and excellent profile control, ion-beam deposition has the capability to smooth rough substrates. For example, we achieved reflectivity of 66.8% on a substrate with 0.39-nm roughness. Smoothing can be further enhanced with a second ion source directed at the multilayer coating. The smoothing capabilities relax the requirement on the finish of the mirror and the mask substrates and could dramatically reduce the cost of these components. Thickness profile control is in the ±0.01% range, and the figure error added to the mirror substrate by errors in the multilayer thickness is less than 0.1 nm. Peak reflectivities obtained on smooth substrates are 67.5–68.6%.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903–2909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Paret, P. Boher, R. Geyl, B. Vidal, M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, E. Quesnel, J. Robic, “Characterization of optics and masks for the EUV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 145–155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. B. Mirkarimi, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. L. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirror,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 4074–4081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. G. Stearns, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, M. A. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1617–1625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. A. Kearney, C. E. Moore, S. I. Tan, S. P. Vernon, R. A. Levesque, “Mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography: ion beam sputter deposition of low defect density Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2452–2454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

W. M. Tong, R. S. Williams, “Kinetics of surface growth: phenomenology, scaling, and mechanisms of smoothening and roughening,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 401–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30 000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–424 (1993); updated at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, “Smoothing of interfaces in ultrathin Mo/Si multilayers by ion-bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 228, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “A stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kasner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Cheng, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings: comparison of ion etching and ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 251–260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. Spiller, “Enhancement of the reflectivity of multilayer x-ray mirrors by ion polishing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 609–613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

Alameda, J.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

P. P. Naulleau, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, M. A. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1617–1625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S.

E. M. Gullikson, J. Taylor, K. Blaedel, S. Baker, C. Larson, “EUV scattering from mask substrate roughness,” presented at the 1st International EUV Lithography Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 14–15 October 2002, available at http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/euvl/meetings.htm .

E. Spiller, S. Baker, E. Parra, C. Tarrio, “Smoothing of mirror substrates by thin film deposition,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. McDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 143–153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. L.

P. B. Mirkarimi, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. L. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Bijkerk, F.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903–2909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blaedel, K.

E. M. Gullikson, J. Taylor, K. Blaedel, S. Baker, C. Larson, “EUV scattering from mask substrate roughness,” presented at the 1st International EUV Lithography Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 14–15 October 2002, available at http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/euvl/meetings.htm .

Boher, P.

V. Paret, P. Boher, R. Geyl, B. Vidal, M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, E. Quesnel, J. Robic, “Characterization of optics and masks for the EUV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 145–155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

P. P. Naulleau, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braun, S.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirror,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 4074–4081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Statistical and signal processing concepts in surface metrology,” in Optical Manufacturing Testing and Aspheric Optics, G. M. Sanger, ed., Proc. SPIE645, 107–115 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Clift, W. M.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, C.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30 000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–424 (1993); updated at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

Dietsch, R.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dohring, T.

A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, “Smoothing of interfaces in ultrathin Mo/Si multilayers by ion-bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 228, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Döhring, T.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, F.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903–2909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feigl, T.

T. Feigl, S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, “Damage resistant and low-stress Si-based multilayer mirrors,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. Tichenor, J. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 121–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Folta, J. A.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frank,

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaines, D. P.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, J. H. Underwood, “Nonspecular scattering from multilayer mirrors at normal incidence,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 412–419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geyl, R.

V. Paret, P. Boher, R. Geyl, B. Vidal, M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, E. Quesnel, J. Robic, “Characterization of optics and masks for the EUV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 145–155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goerts, P. C.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grabner, R. F.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

P. P. Naulleau, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
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R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
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E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the advanced light source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
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E. M. Gullikson, J. Taylor, K. Blaedel, S. Baker, C. Larson, “EUV scattering from mask substrate roughness,” presented at the 1st International EUV Lithography Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 14–15 October 2002, available at http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/euvl/meetings.htm .

E. M. Gullikson, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, J. H. Underwood, “Nonspecular scattering from multilayer mirrors at normal incidence,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 412–419 (1997).
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S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 9–15 (2001).
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E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
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Heidemann, B.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
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Heidemann, K. F.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
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Heinzmann, U.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, “Smoothing of interfaces in ultrathin Mo/Si multilayers by ion-bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 228, 154–157 (1993).
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Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30 000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–424 (1993); updated at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

Hertz, H. M.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903–2909 (2002).
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Hettrick, M. C.

Higers, K.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
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Holz, T.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 9–15 (2001).
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Hudyma, R. M.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
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Johansson, G. A.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903–2909 (2002).
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Kaiser, N.

T. Feigl, S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, “Damage resistant and low-stress Si-based multilayer mirrors,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. Tichenor, J. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 121–126 (2001).
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Kasner, M. E.

Kaufmann, B.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, B. B.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the advanced light source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, P. A.

P. A. Kearney, C. E. Moore, S. I. Tan, S. P. Vernon, R. A. Levesque, “Mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography: ion beam sputter deposition of low defect density Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2452–2454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kessels, M. J.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
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Kleineberg, U.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, “Smoothing of interfaces in ultrathin Mo/Si multilayers by ion-bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 228, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kloidt, A.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
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A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, “Smoothing of interfaces in ultrathin Mo/Si multilayers by ion-bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 228, 154–157 (1993).
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Krumrey, M. K.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmann, T.

T. Feigl, S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, “Damage resistant and low-stress Si-based multilayer mirrors,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. Tichenor, J. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 121–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larson, C.

E. M. Gullikson, J. Taylor, K. Blaedel, S. Baker, C. Larson, “EUV scattering from mask substrate roughness,” presented at the 1st International EUV Lithography Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 14–15 October 2002, available at http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/euvl/meetings.htm .

Leson, A.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirror,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 4074–4081 (2001).
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Levesque, R. A.

P. A. Kearney, C. E. Moore, S. I. Tan, S. P. Vernon, R. A. Levesque, “Mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography: ion beam sputter deposition of low defect density Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2452–2454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
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E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mai, H.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirror,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 4074–4081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 9–15 (2001).
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Mertin, M.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
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Mirkarimi, P. B.

P. B. Mirkarimi, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. L. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
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P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, M. A. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1617–1625 (2000).
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Montcalm, C.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. E.

P. A. Kearney, C. E. Moore, S. I. Tan, S. P. Vernon, R. A. Levesque, “Mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography: ion beam sputter deposition of low defect density Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2452–2454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moss, M.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirror,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 4074–4081 (2001).
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Mrowka, S.

T. W. Barbee, S. Mrowka, M. C. Hettrick, “Molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 883–886 (1985).
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R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the advanced light source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muellender, S.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
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Mullender, S.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Müller, P.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
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Naulleau, P. P.

P. P. Naulleau, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
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Oestreich, S.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
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Paret, V.

V. Paret, P. Boher, R. Geyl, B. Vidal, M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, E. Quesnel, J. Robic, “Characterization of optics and masks for the EUV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 145–155 (2002).
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Parra, E.

E. Spiller, S. Baker, E. Parra, C. Tarrio, “Smoothing of mirror substrates by thin film deposition,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. McDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 143–153 (1999).
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Propper, M.

A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, “Smoothing of interfaces in ultrathin Mo/Si multilayers by ion-bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 228, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pröpper, M.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
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Puik, E. J.

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings: comparison of ion etching and ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 251–260 (1991).
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Putero-Vuaroqueaux, M.

V. Paret, P. Boher, R. Geyl, B. Vidal, M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, E. Quesnel, J. Robic, “Characterization of optics and masks for the EUV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 145–155 (2002).
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Quesnel, E.

V. Paret, P. Boher, R. Geyl, B. Vidal, M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, E. Quesnel, J. Robic, “Characterization of optics and masks for the EUV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 145–155 (2002).
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Rahn, S.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
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Robic, J.

V. Paret, P. Boher, R. Geyl, B. Vidal, M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, E. Quesnel, J. Robic, “Characterization of optics and masks for the EUV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 145–155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

Schmidt, M. A.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmiedekamp, B.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmiedeskamp, B.

A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, “Smoothing of interfaces in ultrathin Mo/Si multilayers by ion-bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 228, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, D. S.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, R.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirror,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 4074–4081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sperry, V.

P. B. Mirkarimi, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. L. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
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E. Spiller, “Enhancement of the reflectivity of multilayer x-ray mirrors by ion polishing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 609–613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, S. Baker, E. Parra, C. Tarrio, “Smoothing of mirror substrates by thin film deposition,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. McDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 143–153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E. A.

P. B. Mirkarimi, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. L. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

P. B. Mirkarimi, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. L. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “A stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kasner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Cheng, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gullikson, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, J. H. Underwood, “Nonspecular scattering from multilayer mirrors at normal incidence,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 412–419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stock, H. J.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, “Smoothing of interfaces in ultrathin Mo/Si multilayers by ion-bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 228, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stuik, R.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, P. Z.

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Statistical and signal processing concepts in surface metrology,” in Optical Manufacturing Testing and Aspheric Optics, G. M. Sanger, ed., Proc. SPIE645, 107–115 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. I.

P. A. Kearney, C. E. Moore, S. I. Tan, S. P. Vernon, R. A. Levesque, “Mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography: ion beam sputter deposition of low defect density Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2452–2454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tappe, T.

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tarrio, C.

E. Spiller, S. Baker, E. Parra, C. Tarrio, “Smoothing of mirror substrates by thin film deposition,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. McDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 143–153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

E. M. Gullikson, J. Taylor, K. Blaedel, S. Baker, C. Larson, “EUV scattering from mask substrate roughness,” presented at the 1st International EUV Lithography Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 14–15 October 2002, available at http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/euvl/meetings.htm .

Taylor, J. S.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tong, W. M.

W. M. Tong, R. S. Williams, “Kinetics of surface growth: phenomenology, scaling, and mechanisms of smoothening and roughening,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 401–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, J. H. Underwood, “Nonspecular scattering from multilayer mirrors at normal incidence,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 412–419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van der Wiel, M. J.

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings: comparison of ion etching and ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 251–260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Verhoeven, J.

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings: comparison of ion etching and ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 251–260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

P. A. Kearney, C. E. Moore, S. I. Tan, S. P. Vernon, R. A. Levesque, “Mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography: ion beam sputter deposition of low defect density Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2452–2454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kasner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Cheng, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vidal, B.

V. Paret, P. Boher, R. Geyl, B. Vidal, M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, E. Quesnel, J. Robic, “Characterization of optics and masks for the EUV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 145–155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Viliardos, M. A.

Wall, M. A.

Walton, C. C.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. S.

W. M. Tong, R. S. Williams, “Kinetics of surface growth: phenomenology, scaling, and mechanisms of smoothening and roughening,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 401–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A. E.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S. A.

T. Feigl, S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, “Damage resistant and low-stress Si-based multilayer mirrors,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. Tichenor, J. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 121–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeijlemaker, H.

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings: comparison of ion etching and ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 251–260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.

W. M. Tong, R. S. Williams, “Kinetics of surface growth: phenomenology, scaling, and mechanisms of smoothening and roughening,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 401–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. G. Stearns, “A stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings: comparison of ion etching and ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 251–260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30 000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–424 (1993); updated at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. B. Mirkarimi, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. L. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

P. A. Kearney, C. E. Moore, S. I. Tan, S. P. Vernon, R. A. Levesque, “Mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography: ion beam sputter deposition of low defect density Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2452–2454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirror,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 4074–4081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 9–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Paret, P. Boher, R. Geyl, B. Vidal, M. Putero-Vuaroqueaux, E. Quesnel, J. Robic, “Characterization of optics and masks for the EUV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 145–155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. P. Naulleau, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

E. Spiller, “Enhancement of the reflectivity of multilayer x-ray mirrors by ion polishing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 609–613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedekamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Pröpper, S. Rahn, K. Higers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electrom-beam deposited Mo/S multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903–2909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Physica B

D. G. Stearns, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, “Smoothing of interfaces in ultrathin Mo/Si multilayers by ion-bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 228, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Feigl, S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, “Damage resistant and low-stress Si-based multilayer mirrors,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems II, D. Tichenor, J. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 121–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Statistical and signal processing concepts in surface metrology,” in Optical Manufacturing Testing and Aspheric Optics, G. M. Sanger, ed., Proc. SPIE645, 107–115 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the advanced light source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, J. Taylor, K. Blaedel, S. Baker, C. Larson, “EUV scattering from mask substrate roughness,” presented at the 1st International EUV Lithography Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 14–15 October 2002, available at http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/euvl/meetings.htm .

Digital Instruments, 112 Robin Hill Road, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93117.

E. M. Gullikson, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, J. H. Underwood, “Nonspecular scattering from multilayer mirrors at normal incidence,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 412–419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, S. Baker, E. Parra, C. Tarrio, “Smoothing of mirror substrates by thin film deposition,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. McDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 143–153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Veeco Instruments, Inc., Terminal Drive, Plainview, N.Y. 11801.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Muellender, M. Mertin, D. S. Schmitz, Frank, G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisc, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. 94720, and P. Mirkarimiand, E. Spiller, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94551, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates (to be submitted to Appl. Opt.).

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. Mrowka, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool with 70-nm resolution,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisc, ed. Proc. SPIE4343, 51–59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Research Electro-Optics, 1855 South 57th Court, Boulder, Colo. 80501.

Thin Film Analysys, Inc., 5150 Shadow Estate, San Jose, Calif. 95135.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of replication factors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of the ion-beam deposition system. As many as four targets can be selected, and the target fixture can be rotated about a vertical axis to select incidence angles from the primary source from 31°–61°. The substrate rotates about the center of the substrate holder and can be tilted to any angle. It is therefore possible to deposit and etch at any incidence angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thickness profiles for three target and substrate angles. The circles, for a target angle of 32°, correspond to the geometry with which we have specular reflection of ions from the target to the center of the substrate. We can increase the deposition rate at the outside by tilting target or substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Etch profile for the assist gun for normal-incidence etching.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured (filled circles) and calculated (solid curve) near-normal-incidence (5°) reflectivity for a 50-period Mo-Si multilayer deposited upon a Si wafer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Roughness of top surface and R max of Mo-Si multilayer mirrors for λ = 13.4 nm with 50 periods as a function of the amount of Si that is removed from each Si during ion polishing. Etch voltage: circles, 150 V; squares, 200 V; triangles, 250 V.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ar concentration versus thickness of the coating that has been etched by the assist gun in each Si layer. It is assumed that all Ar is uniformly distributed in the Si layers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two-dimensional power spectrum of the roughness of two Mo-Si multilayer coatings of 50 periods deposited without ion polishing (top curve) and with ion polishing at 150 V that removed 0.74 nm from each Si layer (bottom curve).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Peak reflectivity of Mo-Si multilayer coatings on substrates of different roughnesses produced by ion-beam deposition (IBD) with ion energies of 600 and 800 V without additional polishing. Data for magnetron deposition are from Ref. 29.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Power spectrum of the surface before (solid curves) and after (dashed curves) multilayer coating for the samples of Fig. 9 with 600-eV ion energy. The dotted curves were calculated from Eq. (6).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Surface of a grating pattern produced by electron-beam lithography before (left) and after (right) coating with a 50-period Mo-Si multilayer by ion polishing.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Power spectrum of the grating facets before (solid curve) and after (dashed curve) coating with the calculated curve after smoothing (shown dotted).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Normalized thickness profiles for a spherical mirror coated without (circles) and with (squares) ion polishing in the ion-beam deposition system. The solid curves are the goal; the added height error d is the rms deviation from the goal multiplied by the total multilayer thickness of 348 nm.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PSD2f=Ωd, f=fx2+fy2,
σ2=4Ωdfmax2.
wif=hif+aifwi-1f,
aif=exp-νidiqsn,
PSD2qs; d=Ω 1-exp-2νdqsn2νqsn.
PSDtot=PSDfilm+a2PSDsub,
σ2=2π f1f2PSDfdf.

Metrics