Abstract

We propose using ion-beam etching as an additional tool for the accurate control of the thickness of thin films during the manufacture of sensitive optical multilayer coatings. We use a dual ion-beam sputtering system in the deposition and etch modes. In the deposition mode both the assist and sputtering ion beams are used to produce dense films at deposition rates in the range of 0.1–0.3 nm/s. In the etch mode, only the assist ion beam is used to remove material at a rate of less than 0.1 nm/s. A very high precision in the layer thicknesses can be obtained by alternating between deposition and etch modes. We observed that etching did not significantly affect the surface quality and the uniformity of the coatings. We introduced etching into our current manufacturing process and demonstrated its potential for the fabrication of several optical multilayer systems with performances that are very sensitive to the thickness of their layers.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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Errata

Daniel Poitras, J. A. Dobrowolski, Tom Cassidy, and Simona Moisa, "Ion-beam etching for the precise manufacture of optical coatings: erratum," Appl. Opt. 42, 5749-5749 (2003)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-42-28-5749

References

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  1. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Modern computational methods for optical thin film systems,” Thin Solid Films 34, 313–321 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Dobrowolski, S. Browning, M. Jacobson, M. Nadal, “2001 Optical Society of America Topical Meeting on Optical Coatings: Manufacturing Problem,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1–14 (2002).
  4. W. C. Herrman, J. R. McNeil, “Ion beam milling as a diagnostic for optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1899–1901 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Bartella, P. H. Berning, B. Bovard, C. K. Carniglia, E. Casparis, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, R. Herrmann, F. C. Ho, M. R. Jacobson, R. E. Klinger, J. A. Leavitt, H.-G. Lotz, H. A. Macleod, M. J. Messerly, D. F. Mitchell, W.-D. Muenz, K. W. Nebesny, R. Pfefferkom, S. G. Saxe, D. Y. Song, P. Swab, R. M. Swenson, W. Thoeni, F. Van Milligen, S. Vincent, A. Waldorf, “Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2625–2646 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Poitras, J. A. Dobrowolski, T. Cassidy, C. Midwinter, C. T. McElroy, “Black layer coatings for the photolithographic manufacture of diffraction gratings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3306–3311 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical thin films at the National Research Council of Canada,” presented at the Meeting of the Optical Society of Japan, Okayama, Japan, 18–19 September 1998.
  8. B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Vergöhl, N. Malkome, T. Städler, T. Matthée, U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Zwinkels, “Basics of spectrophotometry,” presented at the Photometry, Radiometry, Colorimetry Lectures, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 9–12 April 2002.
  11. D. E. Morton, B. Johs, J. Hale, “Optical monitoring of thin films using ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 299–305.
  12. W. H. Knox, N. M. Pearson, K. D. Li, C. A. Hirlimann, “Interferometric measurements of femtosecond group delay in optical components,” Opt. Lett. 13, 574–576 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Guétré, “Asymmetrical dual-cavity filters: theory and application,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. MD3-1–MD3-3.
  14. D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Moisa, J. A. Dobrowolski, “The use of etching during the precise manufacture of optical multilayer coatings,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 262–265.

2002 (2)

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. Browning, M. Jacobson, M. Nadal, “2001 Optical Society of America Topical Meeting on Optical Coatings: Manufacturing Problem,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1–14 (2002).

D. Poitras, J. A. Dobrowolski, T. Cassidy, C. Midwinter, C. T. McElroy, “Black layer coatings for the photolithographic manufacture of diffraction gratings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3306–3311 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkome, T. Städler, T. Matthée, U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Modern computational methods for optical thin film systems,” Thin Solid Films 34, 313–321 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, T.

B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartella, J.

Berning, P. H.

Bovard, B.

Browning, S.

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. Browning, M. Jacobson, M. Nadal, “2001 Optical Society of America Topical Meeting on Optical Coatings: Manufacturing Problem,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1–14 (2002).

Carniglia, C. K.

Casparis, E.

Cassidy, T.

D. Poitras, J. A. Dobrowolski, T. Cassidy, C. Midwinter, C. T. McElroy, “Black layer coatings for the photolithographic manufacture of diffraction gratings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3306–3311 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Guétré, “Asymmetrical dual-cavity filters: theory and application,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. MD3-1–MD3-3.

D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Moisa, J. A. Dobrowolski, “The use of etching during the precise manufacture of optical multilayer coatings,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 262–265.

Clarke, G.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, G. A.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. Browning, M. Jacobson, M. Nadal, “2001 Optical Society of America Topical Meeting on Optical Coatings: Manufacturing Problem,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1–14 (2002).

D. Poitras, J. A. Dobrowolski, T. Cassidy, C. Midwinter, C. T. McElroy, “Black layer coatings for the photolithographic manufacture of diffraction gratings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3306–3311 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Bartella, P. H. Berning, B. Bovard, C. K. Carniglia, E. Casparis, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, R. Herrmann, F. C. Ho, M. R. Jacobson, R. E. Klinger, J. A. Leavitt, H.-G. Lotz, H. A. Macleod, M. J. Messerly, D. F. Mitchell, W.-D. Muenz, K. W. Nebesny, R. Pfefferkom, S. G. Saxe, D. Y. Song, P. Swab, R. M. Swenson, W. Thoeni, F. Van Milligen, S. Vincent, A. Waldorf, “Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2625–2646 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Modern computational methods for optical thin film systems,” Thin Solid Films 34, 313–321 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical thin films at the National Research Council of Canada,” presented at the Meeting of the Optical Society of Japan, Okayama, Japan, 18–19 September 1998.

D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Moisa, J. A. Dobrowolski, “The use of etching during the precise manufacture of optical multilayer coatings,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 262–265.

Gibson, U. J.

Guétré, S.

D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Guétré, “Asymmetrical dual-cavity filters: theory and application,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. MD3-1–MD3-3.

Hale, J.

D. E. Morton, B. Johs, J. Hale, “Optical monitoring of thin films using ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 299–305.

Herrman, W. C.

Herrmann, R.

Hirlimann, C. A.

Ho, F. C.

Howe, L.

B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, M.

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. Browning, M. Jacobson, M. Nadal, “2001 Optical Society of America Topical Meeting on Optical Coatings: Manufacturing Problem,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1–14 (2002).

Jacobson, M. R.

Johs, B.

D. E. Morton, B. Johs, J. Hale, “Optical monitoring of thin films using ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 299–305.

Kikuchi, K.

B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, R. E.

Knox, W. H.

Leavitt, J. A.

Li, K. D.

Lotz, H.-G.

Macleod, H. A.

Malkome, N.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkome, T. Städler, T. Matthée, U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, A.

B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matthée, T.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkome, T. Städler, T. Matthée, U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

McNeil, J. R.

Messerly, M. J.

Midwinter, C.

Mitchell, D. F.

Moisa, S.

D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Moisa, J. A. Dobrowolski, “The use of etching during the precise manufacture of optical multilayer coatings,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 262–265.

Morton, D. E.

D. E. Morton, B. Johs, J. Hale, “Optical monitoring of thin films using ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 299–305.

Muenz, W.-D.

Nadal, M.

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. Browning, M. Jacobson, M. Nadal, “2001 Optical Society of America Topical Meeting on Optical Coatings: Manufacturing Problem,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1–14 (2002).

Nebesny, K. W.

Osborne, N.

B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, N. M.

Pfefferkom, R.

Poitras, D.

D. Poitras, J. A. Dobrowolski, T. Cassidy, C. Midwinter, C. T. McElroy, “Black layer coatings for the photolithographic manufacture of diffraction gratings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3306–3311 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Guétré, “Asymmetrical dual-cavity filters: theory and application,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. MD3-1–MD3-3.

D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Moisa, J. A. Dobrowolski, “The use of etching during the precise manufacture of optical multilayer coatings,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 262–265.

Ranger, M.

B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richter, U.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkome, T. Städler, T. Matthée, U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saxe, S. G.

Song, D. Y.

Song, Y.

B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Städler, T.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkome, T. Städler, T. Matthée, U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, B. T.

B. T. Sullivan, G. A. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “High-rate automated deposition system for the manufacture of complex multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swab, P.

Swenson, R. M.

Thoeni, W.

Van Milligen, F.

Vergöhl, M.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkome, T. Städler, T. Matthée, U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, S.

Waldorf, A.

Zwinkels, J. C.

J. C. Zwinkels, “Basics of spectrophotometry,” presented at the Photometry, Radiometry, Colorimetry Lectures, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 9–12 April 2002.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Thin Solid Films (2)

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Modern computational methods for optical thin film systems,” Thin Solid Films 34, 313–321 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkome, T. Städler, T. Matthée, U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex optical multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum 54, 647–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Guétré, “Asymmetrical dual-cavity filters: theory and application,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. MD3-1–MD3-3.

D. Poitras, T. Cassidy, S. Moisa, J. A. Dobrowolski, “The use of etching during the precise manufacture of optical multilayer coatings,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 262–265.

J. C. Zwinkels, “Basics of spectrophotometry,” presented at the Photometry, Radiometry, Colorimetry Lectures, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 9–12 April 2002.

D. E. Morton, B. Johs, J. Hale, “Optical monitoring of thin films using ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 299–305.

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical thin films at the National Research Council of Canada,” presented at the Meeting of the Optical Society of Japan, Okayama, Japan, 18–19 September 1998.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical solution to the Bow Lake problem. (a) Refractive-index profile. (b) Target curves and calculated performance representing the silhouette of the Rocky Mountains (T target) and their reflection in Bow Lake (R target) near Banff. For clarity, only 1/5 of the target points are shown in the graph. (c) Expected degradation in the performance when random errors of less than ±0.8 nm (black area) or less than ±0.3 nm (gray area) are introduced in the thickness of the layers. (d) Measured performance of the corresponding manufactured solution submitted for the Bow Lake problem. [Measurements were done at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Gaithersburg, Maryland) and at Optical Data Associates (Tucson, Arizona).]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the dual ion-beam sputtering deposition process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rate of ion-beam etching and deposition of SiO2 and Ta2O5 films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface roughness (rms) values estimated by an AFM for three different ion-beam-etched Ta2O5 films and for an uncoated quartz surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of ion-beam etching on the uniformity of Fabry-Perot filters deposited on a 2″ × 4″ glass substrate, as measured by the position of the transmission peak. (a) Peak position as a function of the longitudinal position on the sample. (b), (c) Variation in the peak position at different locations on two Fabry-Perot filters from which 5 and 30 nm of material was removed by ion-beam etching.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Black-layer coating. (a) Refractive-index profile of the system. (b) Calculated transmittance of the monitoring glass after deposition of the last layer without and with a ±5-nm thickness error. (c) Calculated performance of the completed black-layer coating without and with a ±5-nm error in the thickness of the last SiO2 layer. (d) Measured performances of black-layer coatings fabricated without and with the use of ion-beam etching.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normal-incidence beam splitter. (a) Refractive-index profile. (b) Calculated performance and effect of random thickness errors of less than ±0.3 nm in all the layers. (c) Measured transmittance of three coatings produced without etching and without reoptimization, without etching but with reoptimization, and with etching but without reoptimization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Filter with a transmittance that corresponds to the silhouette of a temple in Kyoto. (a) Refractive-index profile of the filter. (b) Target transmittance as a function of wavelength. (c) Calculated transmittance of the system shown in (a) above. (d) Measured transmittance of two filters fabricated without and with ion-beam etching. The thickness of the remaining layers were reoptimized in both instances.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Normal-Incidence Beam Splitter: Nominal and Measured Metric Thickness Valuesa

Metrics