Abstract

A visible and near-IR spectral study is presented for a translucent smooth polymer sheet in which dopant particles are clear polymer with a refractive index close to that of the clear polymer host. Diffuse, specular, and total reflectance and transmittance and absorptance as a function of sheet thickness and dopant levels approach ideal behavior for lighting applications. A fourth optical parameter, side loss S T, is introduced to fully account for the measured data. This covers radiation that is trapped by total internal reflection (TIR) and travels sideways sufficiently far, including to the sheet’s edges, to miss detection on exit. S T has a strong spectral character, whereas total T and R spectra closely follow the spectrally flat wavelength dependence of the undoped clear sheet. Three distinct regimes are identified for the behavior with wavelength of the specular and diffuse components and are linked to rear surface TIR and side loss.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. E. Vargas, “Diffuse radiation intensity propagating through a particulate slab,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1362–1372 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. B. Smith, A. Earp, J. Franklin, G. McCredie, “Novel high performance scattering materials for use in energy saving light fittings and skylights based on polymer pigmented with polymer,” in Solar and Switching Materials, C. M. Lampert, C.-G. Granqvist, K. L. Lewis, eds., Proc. SPIE4458, 10–18 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Deller, G. B. Smith, J. Franklin, E. Joseph, “The integration of forward light transport and lateral illumination of polymer optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the Australian Institute of Physics 15th Biannual National Congress (Australian Institute of Physics, Melbourne, 2002), pp. 307–309.
  4. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).
  5. C. M. Sorensen, D. J. Fischbach, “Patterns in Mie scattering,” Opt. Commun. 173, 145–153 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Woollam, WVASE32 ellipsometer software (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., Lincoln, Neb., 2001).
  7. N. Lekishivili, L. Nadareishvili, G. Zaikov, L. Khananashivili, “Polymers and polymeric materials for fiber and gradient optics,” in New Concepts in Polymer Science, J. S. Vygodsky, S. A. Samsonya, eds. (VSP, BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2002).

2000 (1)

C. M. Sorensen, D. J. Fischbach, “Patterns in Mie scattering,” Opt. Commun. 173, 145–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Deller, C.

C. Deller, G. B. Smith, J. Franklin, E. Joseph, “The integration of forward light transport and lateral illumination of polymer optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the Australian Institute of Physics 15th Biannual National Congress (Australian Institute of Physics, Melbourne, 2002), pp. 307–309.

Earp, A.

G. B. Smith, A. Earp, J. Franklin, G. McCredie, “Novel high performance scattering materials for use in energy saving light fittings and skylights based on polymer pigmented with polymer,” in Solar and Switching Materials, C. M. Lampert, C.-G. Granqvist, K. L. Lewis, eds., Proc. SPIE4458, 10–18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischbach, D. J.

C. M. Sorensen, D. J. Fischbach, “Patterns in Mie scattering,” Opt. Commun. 173, 145–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, J.

C. Deller, G. B. Smith, J. Franklin, E. Joseph, “The integration of forward light transport and lateral illumination of polymer optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the Australian Institute of Physics 15th Biannual National Congress (Australian Institute of Physics, Melbourne, 2002), pp. 307–309.

G. B. Smith, A. Earp, J. Franklin, G. McCredie, “Novel high performance scattering materials for use in energy saving light fittings and skylights based on polymer pigmented with polymer,” in Solar and Switching Materials, C. M. Lampert, C.-G. Granqvist, K. L. Lewis, eds., Proc. SPIE4458, 10–18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, E.

C. Deller, G. B. Smith, J. Franklin, E. Joseph, “The integration of forward light transport and lateral illumination of polymer optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the Australian Institute of Physics 15th Biannual National Congress (Australian Institute of Physics, Melbourne, 2002), pp. 307–309.

Khananashivili, L.

N. Lekishivili, L. Nadareishvili, G. Zaikov, L. Khananashivili, “Polymers and polymeric materials for fiber and gradient optics,” in New Concepts in Polymer Science, J. S. Vygodsky, S. A. Samsonya, eds. (VSP, BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2002).

Lekishivili, N.

N. Lekishivili, L. Nadareishvili, G. Zaikov, L. Khananashivili, “Polymers and polymeric materials for fiber and gradient optics,” in New Concepts in Polymer Science, J. S. Vygodsky, S. A. Samsonya, eds. (VSP, BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2002).

McCredie, G.

G. B. Smith, A. Earp, J. Franklin, G. McCredie, “Novel high performance scattering materials for use in energy saving light fittings and skylights based on polymer pigmented with polymer,” in Solar and Switching Materials, C. M. Lampert, C.-G. Granqvist, K. L. Lewis, eds., Proc. SPIE4458, 10–18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nadareishvili, L.

N. Lekishivili, L. Nadareishvili, G. Zaikov, L. Khananashivili, “Polymers and polymeric materials for fiber and gradient optics,” in New Concepts in Polymer Science, J. S. Vygodsky, S. A. Samsonya, eds. (VSP, BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2002).

Smith, G. B.

C. Deller, G. B. Smith, J. Franklin, E. Joseph, “The integration of forward light transport and lateral illumination of polymer optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the Australian Institute of Physics 15th Biannual National Congress (Australian Institute of Physics, Melbourne, 2002), pp. 307–309.

G. B. Smith, A. Earp, J. Franklin, G. McCredie, “Novel high performance scattering materials for use in energy saving light fittings and skylights based on polymer pigmented with polymer,” in Solar and Switching Materials, C. M. Lampert, C.-G. Granqvist, K. L. Lewis, eds., Proc. SPIE4458, 10–18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, C. M.

C. M. Sorensen, D. J. Fischbach, “Patterns in Mie scattering,” Opt. Commun. 173, 145–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Vargas, W. E.

Woollam, J. A.

J. A. Woollam, WVASE32 ellipsometer software (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., Lincoln, Neb., 2001).

Zaikov, G.

N. Lekishivili, L. Nadareishvili, G. Zaikov, L. Khananashivili, “Polymers and polymeric materials for fiber and gradient optics,” in New Concepts in Polymer Science, J. S. Vygodsky, S. A. Samsonya, eds. (VSP, BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. M. Sorensen, D. J. Fischbach, “Patterns in Mie scattering,” Opt. Commun. 173, 145–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. A. Woollam, WVASE32 ellipsometer software (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., Lincoln, Neb., 2001).

N. Lekishivili, L. Nadareishvili, G. Zaikov, L. Khananashivili, “Polymers and polymeric materials for fiber and gradient optics,” in New Concepts in Polymer Science, J. S. Vygodsky, S. A. Samsonya, eds. (VSP, BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2002).

G. B. Smith, A. Earp, J. Franklin, G. McCredie, “Novel high performance scattering materials for use in energy saving light fittings and skylights based on polymer pigmented with polymer,” in Solar and Switching Materials, C. M. Lampert, C.-G. Granqvist, K. L. Lewis, eds., Proc. SPIE4458, 10–18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Deller, G. B. Smith, J. Franklin, E. Joseph, “The integration of forward light transport and lateral illumination of polymer optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the Australian Institute of Physics 15th Biannual National Congress (Australian Institute of Physics, Melbourne, 2002), pp. 307–309.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Definition of different parameters when a single ray enters a sphere. The deviation angle is heavily magnified compared with that in the materials discussed in this paper. (b) Schematic of rays traversing a clear sheet doped with clear spheres including one ray that is totally internally reflected.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) View of a doped sheet obliquely illuminated with a narrow beam. Both rays that transmit and exit after a single pass and those that make up the side-loss component can be seen. (b) Schematic of some different categories of ray paths in TRIMM-doped systems according to their contribution to measured components.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of the sample illumination at the entrance port of the integrating sphere. Different parts of the beam will be detected differently because the mean path length to the port edge varies. Any light that misses the port gives rise to effective side loss because of the strongly forward-scattering nature of the sample studies here; the loss at the transmittance port is more crucial.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hemispherical total (Tt), diffuse (Td), and specular (Ts) transmittance spectral components for sample N80 from 300 to 1400 nm: (a) 1 and 2 mm thick, (b) 3 and 4 mm thick.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Hemispherical total (Tt), diffuse (Td), and specular (Ts) transmittance spectral components for sample N73 from 300 to 1400 nm: (a) 1 and 2 mm thick, (b) 3 and 4 mm thick.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hemispherical total (Tt), diffuse (Td), and specular (Ts) transmittance spectral components for sample N77 from 300 to 1400 nm: (a) 1 and 2 mm thick, (b) 3 and 4 mm thick.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hemispherical total (Rt), diffuse (Rd), and specular (Rs) reflectance spectral components for sample N80 from 300 to 1000 nm: (a) 1 and 2 mm thick, (b) 3 and 4 mm thick.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Side-loss S T (λ) spectra from 300 to 1000 nm at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-mm thickness for sample classes: (a) N80, (b) N73, (c) N77.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Hemispherical total, diffuse, and specular transmittance at 520 nm as a function of thickness: (a) N80, (b) N73, (c) N77.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Hemispherical total, diffuse, and specular reflectance and side loss at 520 nm as a function of thickness: (a) N80, (b) N73, (c) N77.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Side loss as a function of thickness for each sample type.

Equations (3)

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δ=2sin-1h/R-sin-1h/R1+μ,
iδ=i011+δ2/4μ22.
A=1-T-R-ST

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