Abstract

Astronomical measurements in the vacuum-UV spectral region (30–190 nm) require space instruments and techniques that are at the boundary between visible and x-ray techniques. In vacuum-UV polarimetry, transmission polarizers must be replaced by reflection polarizers because of the lack of transparent materials in the 30–105-nm range. The general features of a single reflection polarization analyzer for the vacuum UV are introduced and described, with particular emphasis on astrophysical applications. In particular, we discuss the trade-off conditions for optimum polarization and throughput of a single-reflection surface in the vacuum UV, introducing a quality factor parameter. The polarization performances of various reflecting materials are obtained with a reflecting vacuum-UV polarization analyzer laboratory model designed and built to measure the state of linear polarization. On the basis of a comparison of the quality factors, calcium fluoride is determined to be the best-performing material. Finally, we discuss the laboratory polarimetric characterizations of the material properties for astronomical application of the polarization analyzer.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  2. W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutami, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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2001

See, for example V. M. Nakariakov, L. Ofman, “Determination of the coronal magnetic field by coronal loop oscillations,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, L53–L56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. Ignace, J. P. Cassinelli, K. H. Nordsieck, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. II. Some theoretical results for resolved line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 520, 335–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Ignace, K. H. Nordsieck, J. P. Cassinelli, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. I. Theoretical results for integrated line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 486, 550–570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, H. Bushouse, A. L. Kinney, “Quasar Lyman edge regions in polarized light,” Astrophys. J. 450, 501–507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, A. Storrs, “Below the Lyman edge: ultraviolet polarimetry of quasars,” Astrophys. J. 503, 599–606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, B. Wende, “High-current hollow-cathode source as a radiant intensity standard in the 40–125-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 33, 68–74 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutami, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. D. Schmidt, S. C. West, J. Liebert, “The new magnetic white dwarf PG 1031 + 234—polarization and field structure at more than 500 million Gauss,” Astrophys. J. 309, 218–229 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Kim, K. Vedam, “Analytic solution of the pseudo-Brewster angle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3, 1772–1773 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. Danzmann, J. Fisher, M. Kühne, “A high current hollow cathode as a source of intense line radiation in the VUV,” J. Phys. D 18, 1299–1305 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982

V. Bommier, S. Sahal Bréchot, “The Hanle effect of the coronal Lα line of hydrogen: theoretical investigation,” Solar Phys. 78, 157–178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Daniel, “Monte Carlo study of highly polarized cool stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 111, 58–70 (1982).

1981

S. Sahal-Bréchot, “The Hanle effect applied to magnetic field diagnostics,” Space Sci. Rev. 29, 391–401 (1981).

1978

1966

1965

Allen, R. G.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C. M.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Antonucci, R. R. J.

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, H. Bushouse, A. L. Kinney, “Quasar Lyman edge regions in polarized light,” Astrophys. J. 450, 501–507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, A. Storrs, “Below the Lyman edge: ultraviolet polarimetry of quasars,” Astrophys. J. 503, 599–606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

Babler, B.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baglioni, R.

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1992).

Bjorkman, K. S.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bommier, V.

V. Bommier, S. Sahal Bréchot, “The Hanle effect of the coronal Lα line of hydrogen: theoretical investigation,” Solar Phys. 78, 157–178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bushouse, H.

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, H. Bushouse, A. L. Kinney, “Quasar Lyman edge regions in polarized light,” Astrophys. J. 450, 501–507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carnochan, D. J.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cassinelli, J. P.

R. Ignace, J. P. Cassinelli, K. H. Nordsieck, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. II. Some theoretical results for resolved line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 520, 335–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Ignace, K. H. Nordsieck, J. P. Cassinelli, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. I. Theoretical results for integrated line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 486, 550–570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chiuderi, C.

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

G. Corti, M. Romoli, E. Pace, C. Chiuderi, G. Noci, “Instrumentation for vacuum UV polarimetry at the University of Firenze’s XUVLab,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 280–285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, G. C.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Code, A. D.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Corti, G.

S. Fineschi, L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, M. Romoli, E. Pace, G. Corti, G. Noci, “Polarimetry of the UV solar corona with ASCE,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 147–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Corti, M. Romoli, E. Pace, C. Chiuderi, G. Noci, “Instrumentation for vacuum UV polarimetry at the University of Firenze’s XUVLab,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 280–285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Corti, “Il polarimetro UV di ASCE,” Ph.D. dissertation (Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy, 2001).

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

Cranmer, S.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cyr, C. St.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, J. Y.

J. Y. Daniel, “Monte Carlo study of highly polarized cool stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 111, 58–70 (1982).

Danzmann, K.

K. Danzmann, J. Fisher, M. Kühne, “A high current hollow cathode as a source of intense line radiation in the VUV,” J. Phys. D 18, 1299–1305 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Davila, J.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R.

Di Franco, S.

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

Fineschi, S.

S. Fineschi, L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, M. Romoli, E. Pace, G. Corti, G. Noci, “Polarimetry of the UV solar corona with ASCE,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 147–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, J.

K. Danzmann, J. Fisher, M. Kühne, “A high current hollow cathode as a source of intense line radiation in the VUV,” J. Phys. D 18, 1299–1305 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, R. R.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fukutami, H.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutami, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, L. D.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fineschi, L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, M. Romoli, E. Pace, G. Corti, G. Noci, “Polarimetry of the UV solar corona with ASCE,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 147–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaupp, A.

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Golub, L.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, R. W.

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, A. Storrs, “Below the Lyman edge: ultraviolet polarimetry of quasars,” Astrophys. J. 503, 599–606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, H. Bushouse, A. L. Kinney, “Quasar Lyman edge regions in polarized light,” Astrophys. J. 450, 501–507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, R. N.

Harris, W. M.

H. K. Nordsieck, W. M. Harris, “Ultraviolet astronomical polarimetry: some results and prospects,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 124–133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hollandt, J.

Howard, R.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

Ignace, R.

R. Ignace, J. P. Cassinelli, K. H. Nordsieck, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. II. Some theoretical results for resolved line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 520, 335–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Ignace, K. H. Nordsieck, J. P. Cassinelli, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. I. Theoretical results for integrated line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 486, 550–570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kandaka, N.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutami, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

S. Y. Kim, K. Vedam, “Analytic solution of the pseudo-Brewster angle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3, 1772–1773 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kinney, A. L.

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, H. Bushouse, A. L. Kinney, “Quasar Lyman edge regions in polarized light,” Astrophys. J. 450, 501–507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, J. L.

S. Fineschi, L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, M. Romoli, E. Pace, G. Corti, G. Noci, “Polarimetry of the UV solar corona with ASCE,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 147–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koide, T.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutami, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koratkar, A.

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, A. Storrs, “Below the Lyman edge: ultraviolet polarimetry of quasars,” Astrophys. J. 503, 599–606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, H. Bushouse, A. L. Kinney, “Quasar Lyman edge regions in polarized light,” Astrophys. J. 450, 501–507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kühne, M.

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, B. Wende, “High-current hollow-cathode source as a radiant intensity standard in the 40–125-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 33, 68–74 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Danzmann, J. Fisher, M. Kühne, “A high current hollow cathode as a source of intense line radiation in the VUV,” J. Phys. D 18, 1299–1305 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Landini, M.

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

Liebert, J.

G. D. Schmidt, S. C. West, J. Liebert, “The new magnetic white dwarf PG 1031 + 234—polarization and field structure at more than 500 million Gauss,” Astrophys. J. 309, 218–229 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Magalhaes, A. M.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marcucci, G.

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

Martin, P. G.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mast, M.

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McNally, D.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McRae, R. A.

Meade, M. R.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, D. H.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakariakov, V. M.

See, for example V. M. Nakariakov, L. Ofman, “Determination of the coronal magnetic field by coronal loop oscillations,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, L53–L56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naletto, G.

G. Naletto, E. Pace, L. Placentino, G. Tondello, “Fluorescence of metachrome in the far and vacuum ultraviolet spectral region,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds., Proc. SPIE2519, 31–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nandy, K.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nicolosi, P.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noci, G.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

S. Fineschi, L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, M. Romoli, E. Pace, G. Corti, G. Noci, “Polarimetry of the UV solar corona with ASCE,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 147–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Corti, M. Romoli, E. Pace, C. Chiuderi, G. Noci, “Instrumentation for vacuum UV polarimetry at the University of Firenze’s XUVLab,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 280–285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nordsieck, H. K.

H. K. Nordsieck, W. M. Harris, “Ultraviolet astronomical polarimetry: some results and prospects,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 124–133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nordsieck, K. H.

R. Ignace, J. P. Cassinelli, K. H. Nordsieck, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. II. Some theoretical results for resolved line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 520, 335–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Ignace, K. H. Nordsieck, J. P. Cassinelli, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. I. Theoretical results for integrated line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 486, 550–570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ofman, L.

See, for example V. M. Nakariakov, L. Ofman, “Determination of the coronal magnetic field by coronal loop oscillations,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, L53–L56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pace, E.

G. Naletto, E. Pace, L. Placentino, G. Tondello, “Fluorescence of metachrome in the far and vacuum ultraviolet spectral region,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds., Proc. SPIE2519, 31–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Fineschi, L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, M. Romoli, E. Pace, G. Corti, G. Noci, “Polarimetry of the UV solar corona with ASCE,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 147–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

G. Corti, M. Romoli, E. Pace, C. Chiuderi, G. Noci, “Instrumentation for vacuum UV polarimetry at the University of Firenze’s XUVLab,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 280–285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Placentino, L.

G. Naletto, E. Pace, L. Placentino, G. Tondello, “Fluorescence of metachrome in the far and vacuum ultraviolet spectral region,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds., Proc. SPIE2519, 31–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, J.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. K.

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1992).

Romoli, M.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Corti, M. Romoli, E. Pace, C. Chiuderi, G. Noci, “Instrumentation for vacuum UV polarimetry at the University of Firenze’s XUVLab,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 280–285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fineschi, L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, M. Romoli, E. Pace, G. Corti, G. Noci, “Polarimetry of the UV solar corona with ASCE,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 147–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

Sahal Bréchot, S.

V. Bommier, S. Sahal Bréchot, “The Hanle effect of the coronal Lα line of hydrogen: theoretical investigation,” Solar Phys. 78, 157–178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sahal-Bréchot, S.

S. Sahal-Bréchot, “The Hanle effect applied to magnetic field diagnostics,” Space Sci. Rev. 29, 391–401 (1981).

Schmidt, G. D.

G. D. Schmidt, S. C. West, J. Liebert, “The new magnetic white dwarf PG 1031 + 234—polarization and field structure at more than 500 million Gauss,” Astrophys. J. 309, 218–229 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shidara, T.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutami, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. L.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Socker, D.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Somerville, W. B.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sozzi, M.

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

Storrs, A.

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, A. Storrs, “Below the Lyman edge: ultraviolet polarimetry of quasars,” Astrophys. J. 503, 599–606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strachan, L.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

G. Naletto, E. Pace, L. Placentino, G. Tondello, “Fluorescence of metachrome in the far and vacuum ultraviolet spectral region,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds., Proc. SPIE2519, 31–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vedam, K.

S. Y. Kim, K. Vedam, “Analytic solution of the pseudo-Brewster angle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3, 1772–1773 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. R.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wende, B.

West, S. C.

G. D. Schmidt, S. C. West, J. Liebert, “The new magnetic white dwarf PG 1031 + 234—polarization and field structure at more than 500 million Gauss,” Astrophys. J. 309, 218–229 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, B. A.

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whittet, D. C. B.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, M. J.

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, K.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutami, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yuri, M.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutami, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

See, for example V. M. Nakariakov, L. Ofman, “Determination of the coronal magnetic field by coronal loop oscillations,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, L53–L56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Daniel, “Monte Carlo study of highly polarized cool stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 111, 58–70 (1982).

Astrophys. J.

G. D. Schmidt, S. C. West, J. Liebert, “The new magnetic white dwarf PG 1031 + 234—polarization and field structure at more than 500 million Gauss,” Astrophys. J. 309, 218–229 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Ignace, K. H. Nordsieck, J. P. Cassinelli, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. I. Theoretical results for integrated line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 486, 550–570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Ignace, J. P. Cassinelli, K. H. Nordsieck, “The Hanle effect as a diagnostic of magnetic fields in stellar envelopes. II. Some theoretical results for resolved line profiles,” Astrophys. J. 520, 335–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, H. Bushouse, A. L. Kinney, “Quasar Lyman edge regions in polarized light,” Astrophys. J. 450, 501–507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Koratkar, R. R. J. Antonucci, R. W. Goodrich, A. Storrs, “Below the Lyman edge: ultraviolet polarimetry of quasars,” Astrophys. J. 503, 599–606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Clayton, C. M. Anderson, A. M. Magalhaes, A. D. Code, K. H. Nordsieck, M. R. Meade, M. J. Wolff, B. Babler, K. S. Bjorkman, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, M. Taylor, B. A. Whitney, “The first spectropolarimetric study of the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization in the ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. 385, L53–L57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Somerville, R. G. Allen, D. J. Carnochan, L. He, D. McNally, P. G. Martin, D. H. Morgan, K. Nandy, J. R. Walsh, D. C. B. Whittet, R. Wilson, M. J. Wolff, “Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 427, L47–L50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. D

K. Danzmann, J. Fisher, M. Kühne, “A high current hollow cathode as a source of intense line radiation in the VUV,” J. Phys. D 18, 1299–1305 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutami, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Solar Phys.

V. Bommier, S. Sahal Bréchot, “The Hanle effect of the coronal Lα line of hydrogen: theoretical investigation,” Solar Phys. 78, 157–178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev.

S. Sahal-Bréchot, “The Hanle effect applied to magnetic field diagnostics,” Space Sci. Rev. 29, 391–401 (1981).

Other

H. K. Nordsieck, W. M. Harris, “Ultraviolet astronomical polarimetry: some results and prospects,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 124–133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Corti, “Il polarimetro UV di ASCE,” Ph.D. dissertation (Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy, 2001).

C. Chiuderi, M. Landini, G. Noci, G. Corti, E. Pace, M. Romoli, R. Baglioni, S. Di Franco, G. Marcucci, M. Sozzi, “XUVLab: project for an UV laboratory at the University of Firenze,” in A Crossroads for European Solar and Heliospheric Physics, document SP-417 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), pp. 263–266.

G. Corti, M. Romoli, E. Pace, C. Chiuderi, G. Noci, “Instrumentation for vacuum UV polarimetry at the University of Firenze’s XUVLab,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 280–285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fineschi, L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, M. Romoli, E. Pace, G. Corti, G. Noci, “Polarimetry of the UV solar corona with ASCE,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 147–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

L. D. Gardner, J. L. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. L. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. St. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, L. Poletto, “The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE),” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 134–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fleck, Z. S̆vestka, eds., The First Results from SOHO (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Naletto, E. Pace, L. Placentino, G. Tondello, “Fluorescence of metachrome in the far and vacuum ultraviolet spectral region,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds., Proc. SPIE2519, 31–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1992).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of polarization by reflection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular variation of quality factor κ for the five materials selected [gold, quartz, magnesium fluoride (MgF2), lithium fluoride (LiF), and calcium fluoride (CaF2)] in the three H i Lyman series lines of interest: Ly-γ, 97.2 nm; Ly-β, 102.5 nm; Ly-α, 121.6 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2 for the three lines used in laboratory measurements (Kr i, 123.58 nm; Ar i, 104.82 nm; Kr ii, 96.5 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup in the XUVLab for VUV polarization measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Model of the XUVLab polarization analyzer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Best-fitting curve for the polarization experimental data scan of a quartz plate at 70° for the Ar i line (104.82 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results of the polarization measurements for the laboratory wavelengths: Kr ii, 96.5 nm; Ar i, 104.82 nm; Kr i, 123.58 nm. The incidence angles shown are 60° (asterisks) and 70° (open squares) for the three most promising materials. The expected theoretical values for a 70° incidence angle (filled triangles) for the laboratory line wavelengths are also shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Theoretical curves for the quality factor κ (normalized at the quartz value) versus wavelength for the five materials investigated at 70°. The vertical lines represent the three lines used for the laboratory measurements (dotted lines) and the H i Lyman series lines of interest (solid lines). The materials identification is the same as for Fig. 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Quality parameter versus incidence angle for a three-reflection polarizer (dotted curve) compared with a single-reflection polarizer (solid curve). The reflection plate material is CaF2 at the H i Ly-α line wavelength; similar behaviors hold for the H i Ly-β and Ly-γ lines.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 HCL Emission Lines and Corresponding Operational Parameters for the Polarization Measurementsa

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S0=IpiRp+IsiRs,S90=IpiRs+IsiRp,
pm=QmIm=S0-S90S0+S90,
pm=pμ.
Δqm=S0+S90t1/2=Imt.
=Δqmqm2=ImQm2t.
=IQ212μ2R1t.
t=1IQ21κ,
κ=2μ2R
=pmp2ImI
κ=ηmη  ηm;
κiκj=ηmiηmj,

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